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Патент USA US2019913

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Nov. 5, 1935.
2,019,913 ‘
Filéd‘F'eb. 4, 1932
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG‘- ?
Nov. 5, 1935.
. -
Filed Feb. 4. 19:2
. -
( 6W By
5' Sheets-Sheet 2 4
1 Guy l‘. KOTRBA-I-Y
_ llTTfQjtb-ys
Nov. 5,_ 1935.
'Filed Feb. 4, 1932
21 ‘
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Nov. '5, 1935
_ 2,019,913
Guy F. Kotrbaty, Astoria, N. Y.
Application February 4, ‘1932, Serial No. 590,847
13 Claims. (Cl. 219—38)
This invention relates to improvements in
heating devices, and more particularly to an im
proved convection type heater and heating ele
ment and process for making the same.
5' -
Hitherto, in the manufacture of‘ convection
type heaters'involving the use of heater elements ,
embedded in insulating cements and encased in
metallic tubes or other containers, it has been ,
proposed to apply heat radiating‘ devices such as
sheets of metal perforated or otherwise con
formed to fit the heater unit assembled. Such
installations are costly to manufacture due to the
number of parts required and due further to the
fact that various size heater assemblies require.
15 dl?erent die setups and such assemblies are not
vaned portion ?uted and the heating element
insulated by suitable insulating yam;_
Fig. 3 is a compound vaned heating member
showing the heating element disposed longitu
dinally of the center thereof;
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3. showing a
pair of parallel heating sections;
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 1, showing a rec
tangular heating element sheath;
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 3, showing the 10
application of a rectangular heating element
Fig. 7 is a‘ top plan view ota skelp formed with
heating sections at both edges thereof and partly I
slit diagonally to show the method of formation 15 .
adapted for continuous manufacture but require ' of a pair of separate heating members;
hand assembly operations throughout.
Fig. 8 is an elevation of a heating member
It is an object of this invention to provide an
improved heater element having a selfcontained
20' radiating section as well as an improved process
- for manufacturing same.
Fig. 8;
It is a further object of this invention to pro
Fig. 10 is an elevation of a helical heating mem
vide an improved combination heater element
ber made by twisting the construction shown in
~ and radiating device which is susceptible of man
25 ufacture by automatic machinery in any desired
length and having any desired electrical and
thermal characteristics.
formed from the skelp shown in Fig. '1;
Fig. 9 is an elevation of a section of a heating
member made'up from the material shown in 20
Yet another object of this invention is the pro
vision of an improved convection type radiator
30 unit adaptable for use with electricity, steam or
other type of heating means.
A further object of this invention is the provi
sion of an improved radiating member for heat
ing systems including a section adapted to con
tain a heating substance ,and‘a plurality of suit
Fig. 1 ‘about a mandrel; .
Fig. 11 is a broken vertical section of the struc 25
ture shown in Fig. 10;
Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. '1 showing the
use of'a unilateral vaned heating member with
cut-out portions between the vanes to be ar
ranged‘ in parallel;
Fig. 13 is a modi?cation of the structure shown
generally in Fig. 1 in which the heating element /
sheath portion is provided with a pair of abutted
adapted to receive heat from the first section and
- Fig. 14 is a further modi?cation of. the struc
ture shown in Fig. 13 in which the vanes are
separated and slotted to provide air space there
to serve as radiating members.
ably con?gured- associated integral sections
These and other desirable objects and advan
40 tages of the present invention will be described
in the accompanying specification and illus
trated in- the drawings, certain preferred em
bodiments being disclosed by way of example
Fig. 15 is a compound vaned heating element
composed of a pair of opposed centrally chan
neled members;
Fig. 16 shows a heating member having a cen
tral heating element receiving channel and an
only, for, since the underlying principles may be ' opposed channeled strip co-acting therewith to
' incorporated in other speci?c constructions, it forma housing for the heating member;
_ Fig. 1'7 is a view similar to Fig. 16 showing the
is not intended to be limited to those here shown,
except as such limitations are clearly imposed by
separate channel members crimped in place;
the appended claims.
Fig. 18 shows the heat element sheathing mem
her with unilateral vanes and a vfurther vaned
In the drawings like numerals refer to similar
parts throughout the several views, of which
Fig. 1 is a front elevation partly in section of
an improved vaned heating member, parts being
_ broken away to show the heating element
sulating beads;
member associated therewith;
111-. heating member;
Fig. 2 is a view- similar to Fig. 1 showing the
Fig. 19 shows a heating element of the type
shown in Fig. 1 convoluted to‘ form an enlarged
' Fig.2!) shows a double convoluted heating mem
ber supported in a suitable cabinet;~ '
Fig. 21 is a front elevation of a convoluted heat
and along the sides thereof, the vane may be
ing member having parallel heat radiating sec
curved to form a de?ector, as indicated generally.
tions: and
Fig. 22 shows a heating member of the type
shown in Fig. 19 adapted for the use of ?uid heat
ing agents.
Referring more specifically to the drawings, the
improved heating member of the present inven
tion comprises a heat element supporting or en
gaging section or sheath Ill, together with a lat
at Ila in Fig.1.‘
Where it is desired to provide for the utilisa
tion of a plurality of heats in a given heatingv
member, the construction shownv in Fig. 4 is par
ticularly suited. This comprises a plurality of‘
parallel heat element supporting sheaths 20,
together with associated vane sections 2|‘.
The '
heating elements may comprise resistance ele
eral vaned member ll formed integral with the ‘ ments I! wound with asbestos yarn 22. By pro
sheath section. A resistance element 12 of any viding a plurality of heating elements, these lat
desired sizeand composition ‘may be provided
ter maybe connected through suitable switching
with suitable insulating members ll of porcelain,
mechanisms, either in series to give a low heat,
singly to give medium heat,>and multiple to give
magnesia, mica, or other insulating elements. maximum heat. Any suitable switchingmecha
The wire may be insulated by dipping or passing ‘ nism may be provided to give the desired con
through va suitable insulating composition until nectlons between‘ the elements and the heating
the requisite thickness is secured. Phenol and
20 other like insulating materials may be used, de
In the construction shown in Figs. 5 and 8, the
pending upon‘the operating temperature and di heat element supporting sheath section comprises
electric design of the unit. These insulating a rectangular section II formedv in any suitable
15 steatite, 'sillimanite, lavite, soapstone. Dyrex glass,‘
vmembers II are so configured and arranged as
to permit the resistance member I! to be threaded
therethrough ‘and to support said member uni
formly and evenlyspaced from the walls of the
,section It, thus providing an even heating of the
latter, together with a uniform withdrawal of
the heat therefrom by the radiating vaned sec
tion ll.
manner. The'ribbon resistance element II may
be covered with asbestos yarn, mica or any other
suitable material, designated generally‘ by the
numeral 24.
While a varietyof insulating materials in vari
ous forms have been shown anddescribed as suit
able for the purposes of this invention, it will
also be appreciated that the resistance elements
may be suitably spaced in their respective sheaths
and provided with an insulating cement, any
The heating element may be coated in any con
tinuous or intermittent clipv process ‘with a suit
able insulating material, depending upon the forming or bending of ‘the composite being accom
marimum operative temperature to which it is ‘ plished before the cement is permitted to harden.
Where it is desired to form the improved heat
to be subjected during use. Ordinary cements or '
insulating cements may beliormed into a slurry . ingmember of the present‘invention into hell
and the wire passed repeatedly therethrough until cal or other shapes, whether of round, polygonal
a coating of sufiicient thickness has been' built up. ' or square cross section, the members shown in
Variouslnsuiating varnishes such as a varnish Figs. 7, 8 and 9 are of particular interest.
Referring more particularly to Fig. 'l, the
made from a phenol condensation product and
skelp is shown as formed with a pair of sheath
other resins made from the wide variety of con
densation products now available on the market sections Iii formed on the edges thereof‘, being
may be made use of where the heating elements provided with any suitable heating arrangement,
not shown. The intermediateskelp section is
are to be used at relatively low temperatures. a
For ordinary domestic heating purposes the suitably divided by cutting or forming into. a plu- .
‘maximum temperature to be expected from the rality of vaned sections 15 which are adapted to
unit will rarely exceed 400' 7., which condition ‘ be separated as the material is formed so as to
permits the use of a relatively thin insulating provide two separate and complete heating mem
coating about the heating element proper. The bers having triangular vaned sections formedv
actual thickness of the wall, as may be expected, integrally with the heating element sheath sec- .
tion. These members may be used in any de
will vary according to the electrical character
istics of the current used and the dielectric sired con?guration, and, as shown more partic
ularly inv Fig. 9, they maybe so bent that the
. strength required. for the material.
‘higher temperatures are to be attained the ‘di-‘ edges of the triangles formed by the members I!
55 mensions of the devicewill be‘suitably varied. In may. be abutted to form substantially square.
all cases the relative size of the different parts. vanes centrally of a continuous heating element
'will be governed only by the temperature wanted sheath, which construction may be continued to
and the voltage imposed.
any desired length to provide a plurality of par
While the vaned section II may be plain in allel heating ‘vaned members. This general ef
fect may also be secured by slotting the vanesl
configuration,- its area may be appreciably in
creased by folding or scalloping, or other means. andremoving portions therefrom to provide gaps
1 as indicated generally at It in Fig. 2. ‘In place or spaces 28 ‘between successive vanedsections
of a straight wire resistance member II, a rib
:21, the sheath element It being bent or formed
bon It may be used, as shown in Figs.i5 and 6, so as to align the members 21 in parallel, as
or the resistance member I‘ may be coiled about shown in Fig. 12.
Where a helical type of heating element is de- 7
an asbestos form l'lv and the combination formed
about ‘a suitable ?exible mandrel or arbor |l._
sired, the’ element may be formed‘ so that the
'Where it is desired to increase the heat radiat
vaned portion II is reduced slightly along its pe
' ing surface of the varied sections of the heating riphery in order to provide the additional metal
70 member, the heat element supporting sheath. Ill surface to permitv the desired convolution to be '
may be formed centrally of a skelp so as to pro
made. All of the members heretofore‘ described
vide lateral vanes 2i. This construction ‘ pro-v may be made by rolling in suitable machines,
vides a rapid heat removal.
the constructions being subjected to cold roller‘
Where the heater is to be installed in a con
forming. The heating elements, with their as
75 tinuous conduit or channel, as in- a railroad car, sociated insulated covers and supports, may be '.
introduced into the sheath sections before the
latter are closed in place, and the latter may
thereafter be suitably ?nished, as by crimping,
welding, brazing or soldering, to provide ?uid
‘tight sections, where desired.
In the constructions shown in Figs. 13 to 18,
inclusive, the sheath section ll may be'provided
with a heat radiating vaned section or sections,
and in such cases the skelp may be channeled
10 centrally and folded over so as to provide heat
radiating vanes 30, which are abutted. These
vanes may be secured together, if desired. If
the vanes 30 are spaced apart to form a space II
therebetween the bottom portions of the vanes
may be slotted, as indicated at 32, to provide
for the vflow of air from the exterior of the vanes
inwardly to the space 3|, where it may serve to
the numeral Na and which comprises a closed
box having an open bottom, the front of the
box being provided with a grille-work ii at the
top, which is so designed with respect to the 5
height of the box and the aperture area that the
box provides a suitable stack for the heating ele
ment mounted on the supports N. A de?ector
vane ‘I may be formed inside the cabinet and
at suitable height therein to de?ect the heated 10
air forwardly through the grille. The aperture
area of the grille system should preferably be
.about 70 per cent of the total grille area. The
heating member may be serviced by suitable
means comprising a core ‘I connected to a 15
switch member if of any desired construction,
suitable connections being made to the resist
ance elements.
In the construction shown in Fig. 15, the skelp
may be centrally channeled, as indicated at 35,
and a pair of such members abutted with their
on the .cabinet in any desired manner, as by 20
tral channel 31, which is enclosed or formed by
the opposed-channel sections II. These com
posite members may be secured together in any
suitable manner, by crimping, welding, brazing,
etc.., or, as indicated in Fig. 16, one of the mem
bers may have its vaned sections I! considerably
reduced, as indicated at 36A. and secured to
30 the cooperating member by means of rivets 30,
although the members may be secured together
by spot welding or in accordance with any of
the other methods previously set forth.
As shown in Fig. 17, the varied sections 36
' may be crimped, as indicated at 39, to secure the
sections "A of the cooperating member in place
to form the channel or tube section 31.
In the construction shown in Fig. 18, the sheath
section It of any suitable con?guration, is pro
vided with parallel ?ange portions 40' extending
laterally for a relatively short distance, and a
separate vaned member ll is disposed therebe
tween and secured thereto in a suitable manner
by means of rivets 42, or by spot welding, braz
ing or soldering.
In the construction shown in Fig. 19, the heat
ing element is so con?gured and arranged that
the vane is folded upon itself a number of times.
the fold being indicated generally at II to pro
vide a plurality of parallel heat radiating sec
tions through which air or other ?uid is adapt
ed to freely pass. By ?uting or thus folding or
forming the continuous heating member a maxi
mum of heating surface is enabled to be encom~
passed within a given space so that the heating
member of the present invention, although
adapted to be formed in continuous lengths, may
be tailored to fit any desired condition and to
type radiator cabinets, designated generally by
remove heat from the inner surfaces of the vanes.
vaned sections 36 aligned so as to form a cen
give a desired heat. This may be accomplished
not only by increasing the heat radiating sur
face, but, of course,‘ by suitably choosing the
heating elements so that their characteristics
will meet with the varying voltages and resist
ances required for the particular electrical pur
The supporting member ill may be supported
means of brackets or supported in the end walls
vby bolts and nuts, as shown. By passing the
supports through the vanes II, the latter are
prevented from buckling and forming any un
desirable movement within the case, although 25_
without in any way affecting their emcieney as _
heat radiating elements. -
Referring more particularly to Fig. 21, the
cabinet may be provided with a cover 10 which
is raised up from the body thereof, the said cover 30
being provided with depending ?anges ‘II which
extend down and below the upper edge 12 of the
cabinet walls to provide a space ‘It between the
cover and the said cabinet, the member ‘ll serv
ing to de?ect the heated air downwardly and out- 35
wardly from the cabinet. The covers may be
supported on the frame in any suitable manner,
as by means of brackets ‘I3. By providing a
raised cover having a depending ?ange whose
bottom edge falls below the upper edge of the 40
box. thenecessity of forming a grille in the
cabinet proper is obviated, thus permitting a
very desirable saving in cost of manufacture
without sacrificing any heating e?iciency of the
While the novel improvements of the present '
invention have been described with particular
reference to the use of electrical heaters of the
convection type, it will be understood that the
improved vaned heating element is susceptible 50
of use with heating ?uids generally. As shown
in Fig. 22, the tubular section 80 may be of any
desired size and shape and may be threaded at
its ends, as indicated at II. The heat radiating
vane 82 may be formed integrally, as indicated, 55
the whole having been formed from a piece of
skelp and a suitable seam 83 formed to provide
a ?uid and pressure type joint. The seam may
be made in any suitable manner, but for ?uid
type joints adapted to withstand the desired on
pressure welding or brazing is recommended. A
suitable seam welding machine may be made use
of to form the seam as the section 80 is rolled
during formation.
The size of the section IQ of '
the composite member will, of course, vary ac- o5
Thus it will be seen that to produce the B. t. u. - cording to the material which is to be used as a
radiation requirements for any given service it heating ?uid. Where steam or hot water is to
will be sufficient to figure out the heating vane be used, it will be of fairly large cross section.
surface required for a given available current, Where oil or mercury or other ?uids are to be
used, the cross section will be reduced accord- 7o
or to meet the heating element requirements de
sired, and the improved heating member may
be thereafter configured to any desired shape
or form to fit the design imposed.
The novel elements of the present invention
75 are particularly adapted for use in convection
It will now be appreciated that there has been
provided an improved novel heating member
comprising heat element-enclosing sheath sec
tions and an associated heat radiating member 75
formed integrally from a suitable piece 01' ma
terial such as a .skelp and by any continuous
process, such as rolling, stamping, welding, and
the like. Where the sheath and vane are formed
integrally, the sheath may be made ?uid tight by
closing the seam, as by crimping or seam welding
or brazing or soldering, according to the pres
sure and heat which the construction must with
stand.v The improved heating element may be
out in the annexed claims, it will be understood
that various omissions, substitutions and changes
in the forms and details of the device‘ illustrated
and‘in its operation may be made by those skilled
in the art’ without departing from the spirit of 5
the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An improved heating device comprising a
continuous heating section oi‘ generally tubular
formed in continuous lengths and cut to a de
shape, an insulated heating element in said sec- 10
sired size, either before or after being formed to ' tion and a heat radiating vane formed integral
any desired shape. The heating elements may
be automatically ?tted in place during the form
ing of the sheath and secured thereto during
15 said process. The‘said heating elements are so
designed as to give a desired heat for a given
purpose without involving any danger of over
heating of the device.
Due to- the rigidity imparted to‘ the device by
the tubular sections, the novel heating units may
be made up oi’ relatively thin metal stock with
out in any way impairing the structural eillciency
of the device and at the same time assuring a
desired increase in heat radiating eiliciency due
to the high heat conductivity of the thin metal
sheets. Owing to the high heat conductivity
of sheet metals generally the conduit section
may be relatively small with respect to the over
all surface of the heat radiating section, which
latter will extract the heat rapidly from the heat
supplying section and impart it to the circum
ambient air or other ?uid contacted therewith.
Owing to the fact that the heat radiating sur
face‘ of the vanedv member is coextensive in
35 length with the heating conduit or sheath it will
be appreciated that there will be an even with
drawal of heat from the sheath member through
out its length, thereby insuring uniform heating
of the entire surface of the vaned member for
each‘ quantity of heat handled by the unit. This
construction further prevents the
' building up of excessive quanta of heating values
in isolated portions of the device as often hap~
pens in heat radiating members made of cast
45 metals of relatively lower heat conducting ca
pacity. although of somewhat higher heat stor
ing capacity.
It will thus be appreciated that by providing a
substantially in?nite heat radiating surface with
respect to the area of the heat supplying portion
of the member, optimum and rapid heat removal
is provided and a maximum of contact with the
effective portion of the heating area is provided
for the air or other ?uid used as a heating
The improved device of the present invention.
as intimated, may be made from a wide variety
of sheet metals including aluminum, copper, tin,
brass, bronze, nickel, steel, iron or other metals,
as well as glass, pyrex, porcelain, china and
other vitreous materials. Care should be taken
_to choose the proper metal or other material
according to the heating element or ?uid to be
used and the operating conditions to which it is
to be subjected.
It will now be appreciated that there has been
provided an improved composite heating mem
ber which is adapted for use with electricity,
steam.' hot water, oil or metallic heating ?uids,
70 and which is characterized bya substantially
continuous sheet metal construction adapted to
be formed in automatic machines and to be con
formed to suit any desired purpose.‘
While certain novel features of the invention
have been shown and described and are pointed
with said heating section forming a single unitary
sheath therefor and-coextensive therewith, the
said heating section and associated parts being
adapted to be bent upon itself whereby to form a 15
plurality of heat radiating segments in a single
2. An improved heating element comprising a
heating section of generally tubular shape, an in
sulated heating member in said section and a 20
heat radiating vane formed integral with said
heating section and coextensive therewith, said
vane having alternate cut-out portions and the
heater being so con?gured and arranged as to
form a series of parallel vane sections integral 25
with the heater tube, but disconnected from
each other.
3. An improved heating element comprising a
heating section of generally tubular shape,ran
insulated heating member in said section and a 30
heat radiating vane formed integral with said
heating section and coextensive therewith, said
vane being serrated so as to permit the heater
unit to be bent about the serrations whereby to
form a series of plate-like members surrounded 35
by the continuous heater tube.
4. An improved heating device comprising a
single elongated heating section of generally tu
bular shape, a ?exible heating element in said
section and a .heat radiating vane formed in- 40
tegrai with said heating section forming a single
sheath therefor and coextensive therewith, the
said heating section and associated parts being
adapted to be bent on themselves‘ a plurality of
times to form a series of parallel heat-radiating ‘15
5. An improved heating device comprising a
continuous elongated heating section of generally
tubular shape adapted to be bent upon itself a
plurality of times and formed from a continuous 50
skelp, a ?exible heating element in said section
and av heat radiating vane formed integral with
said heating section forming a single sheath
therefor and coextensive therewith. said ?exible
heating element comprising a resistance element 55
and an insulated cover of asbestos.
6. An improved heating device comprising a
continuous elongated heating section of generally
tubular shape adapted to be bent upon itself a
plurality of times and formed from a continuous 60 '
skeip, a ?exible heating element in said section,
a heat radiating vane formed integral with said
heating section forming a single sheath therefor
and coextensive therewith, said ?exible heating
element comprising a resistance element and a 65
plurality of juxtaposed insulated supports strung
on said element.
7. An improved heating device comprising a
continuous elongated heating section of generally
tubular shape adapted to be bent upon itself a 70
plurality of times and formed from a continuous
skelp, a ?exible heating element in said section.
a heat radiating vane formed integral with said
heating section forming a single sheath therefor
and coextensive therewith, said ?exible heating 75
element comprising a mandrel and a coiled re
slstance element mounted on an insulating ma
terial and wound about said mandrel.
8. An improved heating device comprising a
central skelp portion, heating sections formed on
the edges of said skelp portion and integral there
with, said skeip portion being adapted to be di
- vided to form a plurality of separate heating de
vices, each of said heating devices having a sep
arate heating section, the said skelp portion and
associated heating devices being formed of .uni
tary material and being further adapted to form
unitary single sheaths tor the respective heating
9. An improved heating element comprising a
extensive therewith, said vanes being spaced in
parallel relation and provided vwith slots, adjacent
said heating section.
.12. A composite heating member having a
heating section comprising a pair of opposed 5
channel sections, heat radiating vanes integral
with and extending laterally from said channel
section, said vanes and channel sections being
abutted to form a continuous tubular section with
heat radiating vanes continuous therewith, one 10
of said channels having heat radiating vanes
laterally thereof and coextensive therewith and
the other of said channels having lateral ?anges
adapted to be abutted to the ?rst named vanes
whereby to form a heating channel, said mem- 15
continuous, non-jointed tubular heating portion,
bers being.adapted to be permanently secured
and a heat radiating vane section formed integral
to make a ?uid tight channel.
with said tubular section and laterally thereof,
13. In an electric heater having a radiator cas-,
the said tubular section forming a unitary sheath
ing, and means within the casing for supporting
a heater and causing air to ?ow through the 20
for heating medium disposed therein.
10.~ An improved heating element comprising casing in contact ‘with the, heater, the improve
a continous, non-jointed tubular heating por .ment comprising a continuous heating element
tion, a plurality of heat radiating vanes formed bent upon itselI to form a plurality of heat ra
diating sections, said heating element having at
integral with said tubular section and coexten
sive therewith, the said tubular section forming least one heating section and a heat radiating 25
a unitary sheath for heating medium disposed section integral therewith, and heating means
11. An improved heating member comprising
a heating portion and heat radiating vanes
formed integral with said heating section and co
disposed- in the heating section,~the said heat
radiating section forming a-singie unitary sheath
for the heating means disposed therein.
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