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Конкурс презентаций Страны изучаемого языка вчера, сегодня, завтра Яковлев Максим о Вильяме Шекспире

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Яковлев Максим Васильевич
Бюджетное профессиональное
образовательное учреждение
Республики Калмыкия
«Элистинский автомобильно-дорожный
колледж»,
отделение: 30115 «Программирование в
компьютерных системах»
курс: 3
руководитель проекта: преподаватель
английского языка Бембинова Наталья
Викторовна
William Shakespeare – the greatest writer in English
literature and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Contents:
•
Some facts of Shakespeare’s biography
•
Shakespeare’s legacy
•
Classification of the plays
•
The first period of Shakespeare’s creative works
•
The second period of Shakespeare’s creative works
•
The third period of Shakespeare’s creative works
•
Shakespeare's influence
•
Shakespeare authorship question
•
Shakespeare’s death
•
Was Shakespeare a fraud?
Some facts of Shakespeare’s biography
The name of William Shakespeare is known all over the world. The last
half of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries are known as the
Golden Age of English Renaissance and sometimes are called “The Age
of Shakespeare”.
People often call Shakespeare “Our National Bard”, “The Immortal
Poet of Nature”. We really know few facts of his life and many of them
doubtful. But some facts are known to us and are proved by documents.
•
The first facts of Shakespeare’s
biography are that he was born on
April 23, 1564 in Stratford-onAvon. His father was a dealer in
corn, meat, and wool. William’s
mother was a daughter of a rich
farmer in the village of Wilmcote.
•
We also know that, being 18 years
old, William married Anne
Hathaway, who was 9 years older
than him. They had a daughter
Susanna and twins – son Humnet
and daughter Judith.
•
In 1567 Shakespeare went to
London, to find a job, where he
began writing plays staged at
the Globe Theatre. By 1592, he
had been an important member
of a popular acting company.
It is known that only in 1611, at
the height of his fame,
Shakespeare
returned
to
Stratford, where in April 23,
1616 he died. He was buried in
a fine old church in Stratford.
Shakespeare’s legacy
•
His works consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long
narrative poems, and other verses, the authorship of some of
which is uncertain. His plays have been translated into many
living language and are performed more often than those of any
other playwright.
•
Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and
1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories. Then he
wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear,
Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in English
language. In his last period, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as
romances, and collaborated with other playwrights.
•
Many of his plays were published
during his lifetime. In 1623, John
Heminges and Henry Condell, two
friends
and fellow
actors
of
Shakespeare, published the First
Folio, a collected edition of his
dramatic works that included all
but
two
of
the
plays
recognized as Shakespeare's.
now
Classification of the plays
•
Shakespeare's works include the 36
plays printed in the First Folio of
1623. Two plays were not included in
the First Folio, The Two Noble
Kinsmen and Pericles, Prince of Tyre,
are now accepted as part of the canon,
with scholars agreed that Shakespeare
made a major contribution to their
composition. No Shakespearean poems
were included in the First Folio.
The first period of Shakespeare’s creative works (1591 – 1601):
•
The first works of Shakespeare were written in the early
1590s during a vogue for historical drama. Shakespeare's
plays are difficult to date, however, and studies of the texts
suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The
Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may
also belong to Shakespeare's earliest period.
The first works of Shakespeare are:
“The Comedy of Errors” (1592 - 1593)
“The Taming of the Shrew” (1593 - 1594)
“The Two Gentlemen of Verona” (1594 - 1595)
“A Midsummer Night's Dream” (1595 - 1596)
“Merchant of Venice” (1596 - 1597)
“Much Ado About Nothing” (1598 - 1599)
“As You Like It”
“Twelfth Night” (1599 - 1600)
“Henry IV”
“Henry V”
“Richard II”
The second period of Shakespeare’s creative works (1601-1608):
•
In
the
early
17th
century,
Shakespeare wrote the so - called
“problem plays”: Measure for
Measure, Troilus and Cressida, and
All's Well That Ends Well and a
number
of
his
best
known
tragedies. Many critics believe that
Shakespeare's greatest tragedies
represent the peak of his art.
•
This period begins and ends with two
tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the
famous romantic tragedy and Julius
Caesar - which introduced a new kind
of
drama.
Shakespearean
According
scholar
to
James
Shapiro, in Julius Caesar "the various
strands
of
inwardness,
politics,
character,
contemporary
events,
even Shakespeare's own reflections on
the act of writing, began to infuse
each other".
The works of this period are:
“Hamlet” (1600 - 1601)
“Othello” (1604 - 1605)
“King Lear”
“Macbeth” (1605 - 1606)
“Antony and Cleopatra” (1606 - 1607)
“Coriolanus”
“Troilus and Cressida” (1601 - 1602)
“All's Well That Ends Well” (1602 - 1603)
“Measure for Measure” (1604 - 1605)
The third period of Shakespeare’s creative works:
•
In his final period, Shakespeare turned to
romance or tragicomedy and completed the
following plays: Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale
and The Tempest, as well as the collaboration,
Pericle, Prince of Tyre. These plays are graver
than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end
with forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.
Shakespeare collaborated on two plays, Henry
VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen, probably
with John Fletcher.
“Pericles, Prince of Tyre” (1608 - 1609)
“Cymbeline” (1609 - 1610)
“The Winter's Tale” (1610 - 1611)
“The Tempest” (1611 - 1612)
“Henry VIII” (1612 - 1613)
Shakespeare's influence
•
Shakespeare's work has made a deep impression on later theatre and
literature. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of
characterisation, plot, language, and genre. Until Romeo and Juliet
romance hadn't been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy. His work
heavily influenced later poetry. The Romantic poets attempted to revive
Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success.
•
Shakespeare influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy, William
Faulkner, and Charles Dickens. Scholars identified 20,000 pieces of
music linked to Shakespeare's works. These include two operas by
Giuseppe Verdi, Othello and Falstaff. Shakespeare has also inspired
many painters, including the Romantics and the Pre-Raphaelites. The
Swiss Romantic artist Henry Fuseli, a friend of William Blake, even
translated Macbeth into German. The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular that of Hamlet, for
his theories of human nature.
Shakespeare authorship question
•
Around 230 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts
were expressed about the authorship of the works
attributed to him. Proposed alternative candidates
include Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, and
Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford. Several
“group theories” have also been proposed. Only a
small minority of academics believe there is a
reason to question the traditional attribution, but
interest in the subject, particularly the Oxfordian
theory of Shakespeare authorship, continues into
the 21st century.
Shakespeare’s death
•
Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616.
Shakespeare was buried in the chancel
of the Holy Trinity Church two days
after his death. The epitaph carved into
the stone slab covering his grave
includes a curse against moving his
bones:
•
Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear,
•
To dig the dust enclosed here.
•
Blessed be the man that spares these
stones,
•
And cursed be he that moves my bones.
•
Shakespeare has been commemorated
in many statues and memorials
around the world, including funeral
monuments in Southwark Cathedral
and Poets' Corner in Westminster
Abbey.
Was Shakespeare a fraud?
•
No
written
description
physical
of
contemporary
Shakespeare's
appearance
survives,
and no evidence suggests that he
ever
had
a
portrait.
Many
scientists doubted: “Did he ever
exist?” Some people don’t believe
that Shakespeare was a great
writer and dramatist. Nowadays
there are a lot of films showing
their versions of this question.
•
In my opinion Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright. But as far
as I know his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th
century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and
the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence. In the 20th
century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new
movements in scholarship and performance. His plays become extremely
popular today and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in
diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.
Используемая литература:
•
1. Кубарьков Г. Л., Тимощук В. А. 1000. Сборник новых тем
современного английского языка. – Ростов-на-Дону: ООО «Удача»,
2008 г.
•
2. Цветкова И. В. и др.
Английский язык для школьников и
поступающих в ВУЗы. Устный экзамен. – М.:ГЛОССА-ПРЕСС, 2004 г.
•
3. «100 человек, которые изменили ход истории» Еженедельное
издание: выпуск № 5, 2008 г.
•
Электронные ресурсы:
•
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare
•
www.william-shakespeare.info
•
www.peoples.ru/art/theatre/dramatist/william_shakespeare
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