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Патент USA US2026610

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Jamr?, 1936.
@riginal Filed May 25, 1930
` 7'
Patented Jan. 7, 1936
«Unirse srnxrss
Aloysius J. Cawley, Pittston, Pa.
Application May 23, 1930, Serial No. 455,127
Renewed May 24, 1935
3 Claims.
The invention relates generally to the electrical
transmission of optical images. More particu
larly, it consists in Íforming a light image, and
causing electrical fluctuations and modifications
> to be made in certain electrical apparatus here
inafter described. These electrical iiuctuations
are transmitted by wire or other conductor, or
by electric waves to the` receiving point where
suitable modifications .are made Iin an electrical
apparatus associated with optical means, whereby
an image of the original objects` ‘showing all oi
their movements
obtained.` At the trans
mitter an element carrying a plurality of photo
electric cells is revolved rapidly in an image area.
At the receiving station a similar member is re
(Cl. 178-6)
which like referencìe characters have similar
meanings, and in which,
Figure l is a plan View of a receiver. A fluores
cent screen is also shown in this figure which
may be used if desired to augment the action of
the retina.
Figure 2 is an elevational view of a transmitter ,
and illustrates the arms carrying the radially
arranged photocells together with their contact
means and revolving mechanism.
A means for
imparting any desired speed is also illustrated in
this figure.
Figure 3 is an elevational end view of the appa
patus for imparting variable speed to the trans
mitter or receiver illustrated in Figures 1 or 2.
ance with the image current or image modulated
Figure 4 shows an arrangement which com
bines the receiver and transmitter in a single unit l
at both of the stations. This constitutes an effi
electric waves which are transmitted thereto
cells and neon lamps are mounted upon the same 20
volved which carries a plurality of light sources
or glow lamps which are illuminated in accord
'ii-f from the transmitting station. The result is that`
the said light ‘sources reproduce the original
A rotating contact member is provided which
makes contact at the transmitting station with
but one photoelectric cell at a time, while a simi-'
lar member is provided at the receiving station
which makes contact with but one lamp on the
rotating arm at a time. Both cells and lamps
. describe a series of interrupted, concentric circles.
This contact member may berotated at the
same speed as the arm‘s, but in a direction oppo
site thereto, 4or at a speed which is a multiple of
the speed of the arm, as desired. `The apparatus y
has therefore, great ñexibility.
A very desirable modification is >one which pro
cient two-way television apparatus. The photo
rotating element. .
Figure 5 shows a detailed arrangement for
avoiding simultaneous contact between a ridge
on the contact disk with a photo-cell brush and
a neon tube contact brush.
Figs. 6 and 6a illustrate the arrangement of the
contact ridges on the disk 8.
Figure 1 is a plan view of the receiver, and il--`
lustrates that portion of the apparatus upon
which the picture is to be displayed. A iiuores 30
cent screen in the form of an Octagon is shown
at I1. It `may or may not be used, 'as it is not
absolutely essential. It acts to retain a record
of the flashes of the lamps which occur in the
process’of production of a visual image, and as
vides both photoelectric cells and light sources
sists the eye in executing the function of per- -
both the transmitter and receiver cooperating
with their corresponding contact‘making or com
mutating elements. Thus, one image may be
transmitted .while another is reproduced in _the
one revolutionV of the arm to another.
or glow lamps on the same rotating element at` sistence of vision. It retains the image from
same image ñeld,‘ giving two-way television,v`
which differs `from present methods in that the
transmitted and received Vim’ages are coexten->
sive .and also that the photoelectriceells and
lamps are actuated alternately,` so- that it is im
possible for the light of the glow lamp tofbe re
ñected from the face of the observer and retrans
mittea to the distant station. o
This application is a. continuation-in-part of
my .application Serial Number 380,202, ñled July
-22, 1929, for Television apparatus.>
f >
I attain the above objects by the apparatus
the accompanying drawing, in
In other
words, it retains one of the complete pictures
.until the next is traced upon it in the form of 40
fluorescent light. The screen is shown placed
upright for viewing the picture'.
Behind the ~
screen is an arm 3 carrying a row of neon lamps
Small incandescent lamps may be used, or
any ,other glow lamp besides theV neon; such asV '
helium, etc.` The arm corresponds to the diam
eter of the circle through which it rotates. This
arm is pivoted and fixed in shaft `.2, and is rotated
by it. The jneon lamps are shown disposed as
one radius of the circle, that is, they occupy half
of the arm. However, they may be placed all of
the way across it, i. e., they may be placedral->
_ ternately.
Those 'shown are spaced and wher
ever there ls a space, 'a lamp may be placed on
the opposite side of the arm to illuminate what
Vwould be a dark circle, when the arm is rotated.
However, in the figure they are shown as being lo
’ cated on one side of the arm.
Wire J designates
a plurality of wires each of which connects to
a lamp, and thus connects the lamp to a series
of brushes. Each lamp is connected to a brush
l. This is done by means of short connecting
wires. The lamps may consist of a single glass
tubing containing a number of pairs of electrodes
10 E, or they may consist of a number of separate
tubes provided with either internal or external
electrodes 6. The row of contact brushes is lo
cated under the upper portion of the arm 3. The
latter arm is made in two sections, the lower sec
tion having the brushes ‘l attached in a stepped
in connection with Figure 2.
This and other
means were described in connection with the
above mentioned application.
Figure 2 shows a very compact arrangement for
transmission. I is the motor, whose shaft 2a
carries two long keys n. Upon the shaft is loose
ly mounted a disk V, having an opening therein
to iit the keyed shaft. The hub Y of this disk is
grooved to accommodate the handle h. It will
thus be seen that the disk or wheel may be slid 10
relation which is clearly illustrated at the left
extremity of arm 3. It will be noted that the
along the shaft by means of the handle h. 'I‘his
disk is in contact with the face of the wheel 3',
and gives motion thereto. It may be shifted to
any point on the radius of the wheel 3’ desired,
and thus to impart any degree of speed thereto
desired. This means is simpler than that usual
ly employed wherein the motor is shifted or
brushes are >stepped so that only one is shown
making contact with conducting ridges z' at any
moved bodily.
Several methods of operating the apparatus
one instant.
were described in the above mentioned applica
tion. Another means is as follows. Wheel 3’
The lower section of the arm has
a stepped contour as shown for this purpose.
The row of brushes is intended to be directly un
der the lamps as shown in the two other illus
trations. Attention is particularly directed to
25 the stepped arrangement of the brushes, as this
Vis the'factor that causes but one lamp or photo
electric cell to be supplied with electric current
at any instant, and is very important. The ridges
etc., are simply raised on the» surface of the
rapidly rotates the smaller wheel 9’ mounted
upon shaft 2', and this in turn rotates the
larger member lll of the pair of internal gears.
The latter moves the internal wheel Ilia, which
is directly attached to disk 8, but which moves
freely on shaft 2.
Shaft 2 moves arm 3 to
which it is firmly attached. Arm 3 carries the
photoelectric cells 2l. A cylindrical lens I6 may
metal contact disk 8, and may be stamped in, if
or may not be used to concentrate the light. -
desired. A disk may be cut and stamped in a
fraction of a second in manufacture. 'I‘he thick
ness of disk 8 and the height of the ridges i need
Current passes through wire a to the commuta
tor c insulated from shaft 2V by insulation e,
through wire d into the hole in the shaft to
wire Il, which supplies the current consecutive
not'be that shown. A very thin plate is desirable,
as it may be rotated at a greater speed than
a thick one. However, if desired, a heavy rim
may be given to the disk, to give it a speed gov
erning, speed uniformity, fly Wheel effect. The
arm need not be rotated at a speed greater than’
40 fifteen revolutions per second, but the disk may
be geared to move many times as fast as that.
Each multiple of the speed of the arm that the
disk attains means greater definition to the im
age.` For instance, if the disk moves three times
45 as fast as the arm, there will be two eXtra sets
of illuminated radii of the circle shown in Fig
ure 1. This will be better understood later.
In the operation of the receiver, arm 3 is made
to rotate at ar uniform speed, say fifteen revolu
50 tions per second and is in synchronism with a
similar arm at the transmitting station. Obvi
ously, as theY lamps ¿i are illuminated, a series
Vof luminous, interrupted, concentric circles will
Ybe described. Each lamp traces a circle consist
55 ing of bright flashes or dots. Each lamp is illu
minated when it touches a contact ridge and ex
tingushed when not in contact with the ridge,
the circle described is therefore more or less in
ly to the different photoelectric cells 2l, accord
ing to which cell has its brush 'l' in contact with
the ridge z'. Thus current can only pass through
one photoelectrlc cell at any one instant.
rent passes from the cell 2l to the connecting
wire to brush l, to ridge z' or disk 8, to shaft 2, 40
and thence to collector ring lc, to brush b, to
Wire m, to external circuit. -The receiver dif
fers from the transmitter in that glow lamps
or other light sources are used in place of the
photoelectric cells.
If desired, in all of the apparatus illustrated,
the connecting wire Il may be eliminated, es
pecially in connection with the neon tubes 4 in
Figure 4. Neon lamps may be lighted by con
necting them with but one terminal of a high
frequency current circuit.
. Figure 3 is an end view of the disk V and its
hub Y, showing its manner of sliding on the
shaft 2a.
Figure 4 illustrates a very compact system of
two way television, which may be used in tele
phone booths, and the like. It consists of a
transmitter and receiver similar to those de
The intensity of illumination corre
scribed in Figures 1 and 2 and in the above men
tioned application, with the distinction that the 60
produced in the luminosity of the circle de
photocells and glow lamps are combined on the
scribed by any particular lamp. 4The space be- ‘ same rotating member at both the communicat
tween contact ridges i, etc., may or may not be ing stations. The two arms 3 and 3a move in
covered with insulating material, such as bakelite, synchronism,- although it is to be understood
shellac, bitumen, pitch, mica composition, etc.; that they may be many hundreds of miles apart.
however, as the ridge isnraised, air insulation Means for rotating shaft .2 with its arm 3 and
'may be used entirely.
disk ßwere clearly described and illustrated in
It is evident that many different types of con
my application Serial Number 380,202, filed July
60 sponding to the image to be produced is of course
` tact configurations may be given to the surface
70 of the disk 8 besides that shown. Contact points
' may be used in various designs. It would be use
less to illustrate all of them here, but it is intend
` ed to include them all in the appended specifi
y cation and claims.
The means for rotating the
75 arm and disk in opposite directions is described
22, 1929. Such means are also described in con
nection with Figure 2 of this application. Any 70
rotating means desired is therefore indicated at
M and Ma. Therefore arms 3 and 3c as well
as disks 8 and 8a rotate in synchronism at both
stations. The disks and arms rotate Vin oppo
site directions.
vand 'still another arm carrying mercury or
fIn >Aonestation or telephone booth, ann `311 lamps
heliumlamps at each station, i. e., either at the
carries on‘one of its halves a series ofiphoto'f
electric cells 2|, and on the other half 'a series
.r of neon tubes 4. The lens elements 22 _and '22a
form Visual images at each station. Obviously,
the `photcelectric elements rotating on the ¿arms
right or `left side of Figure 4.
yThe kabove figure shows that the _ system is
adaptable fto wire or to wireless systems.
_Figure 5> illustrates the fact that the upper
act to both vconvert the visual image into` »imageL
varied current, and convert the incoming irn
„.a'ge-varied current into an optical image. vA
rush 'l in Figure 4, which makes contact for the
neon receiving tubes with ridge i, is in contact
with this ridge, While the lower brush l (which
makes contact for the photcelectric cells) isnot
person facing the right side ofthe iigure hashis in
contact. VIn other-words, there is an alternate
imageirnpressed on photcelectric cells 2I`, which making
‘of “contacts with the glow tubes and the
are supplied‘with energy >by power supplying photcelectric
cells. There is not a simultaneous
means indicated by the square D. Thisenergy
» `passes through brush la to disk 8, through ridge
îand -brush 1, through connecting wire to cell
2| to _wire Il, through line wire 21a, to the other
station (left side of- the figure), to neon tubes
4, through wire to brush 1e, to ridge i on disk 8a,
-to brush A'lb and to the other line Wire 2lb.
-The visual image of the other operator is `pro
duced by the neon tubes f4. `The second opera
‘ ._tOr, while viewing the image of the first, has in
turn his image impressed upon the photcelectric
¿cells 2lb on arm 3 by lens elements 22 on his
portion ofthe apparatus. Thisimage is illus
trated as being transmitted by meansof wire
less, in contrast to the wire transmission just
described. t indicates the transmitting station,
¿its energy being supplied bythe usual apparatus
indicated by the square labelled “Transmitting
apparatus”. The current from this passes to :the
cells 2lb to wire„to brush 1f, toridge i on disk
8„ to peripheral brush> K'lc ‘making contact with
‘diskv 8, and yback to the power Vsource atthe
transmitter. The energy is sent by radio waves
from one antennato the other, whence .it is
received and amplined by the receiving station
1', supplied to disk 8 by its peripheral brush 'Id
„andthence to ridge i, >to brush 1g, to‘wire, to
neon tubes 4, to common wire lla and back
to the receiving station amplifying circuit. The
neon tubes 4 may be of a type which exists on
making oi contact. This is very important, as
the system _is _positively two-way in character;
'I‘hisprevents the photcelectric cells from receiv
inglthe light "of the glow lamps that may be -re
fiected back from the faceof the operator. The
glow> lamps in an extremely small fraction of a
second, flash a portion of the image and are then 20
cutout of circuit. Then the photocell is cut in
circuit and receives a part of its image, and so
on. Of course, separate contact disks 8 and sep
arate circuits may be provided if desired for each
radial row of glow tubes and each row of photo
It will be seen in all ofthe above apparatus;
that disk 8 of the receiver is. charged at all times
during which a photo cell is` connected at the
transmitter to its disk, with the image varied
current,man'd is fed to the lights one at
`a time t
in what may be termed “radial strokes”. On arm
3 there is a row of brushes 1 etc., which make
contact with ridges i, etc., of disk 8. Those ridges
are so designed, as shown at the left of Figure l, 35
that >but one `brush 1 makes contact at any one
time br'instant'with ridge i, and this means that>
only one photcelectric element such as 4 will pro
duce a corresponding intensity of illumination
lamp 4, in accordance with'the intensity of
.illuminationiin that portion of the image that is
in relation with the corresponding photcelectric
the transmitter.
the market today. They >may be illuminated by Y cell at
"su‘dyin‘g the configurations of the disk 8, it
simply pressing them against an electrode car
will be seen that as arm 3 is> rotated at say fifteen
rying a high frequency alternating current. `But times per second, and'r‘ememb'eriii'g that but one
one lconnection is necessary to light them. The brush 'l ’can be brought in contact` with ridges i,
photcelectric cells 2| are of the cylindrical type etc., at a time, and consequently but ‘one light
and are made very small. Head and shoulder pic
will be illuminated at a time, there will be a series
ytures are now transmitted by television in prac
tice, as a 48 line picture is capable of transmite
ting nothing more satisfactorily on account of
lack of detail. Head and 'shoulder pictures will
c ’rre'sponding to the path of a neon lamp on,
rrn 3,‘th'e breaks being due to the intervals be
. be sufficient to carry on telephone conversation
there will be a blending or fusing of more or less
accompanied by television. The system herein
illustrated also possesses the great advantage
that the speaker is shown on the receiving por
tion as looking directly at the one spoken to and
not away from him, as is necessary in other
types of television.
Another feature of the apparatus is that it
may be used to transmit colored pictures. Each
alternate photcelectric cell 2l may be provided
with a suitably colored glass, for instance, the
first having blue-violet and the second having
an orange-red. The corresponding neon tubes
will be provided at the receiving station, i. e.,
the orange-red will be connected toa neon tube,
while the blue-violet will be connected with a
mercury or helium, or argon, etc., glow tube. In
stead of connecting and equipping alternate
tubes in the same row as described, a special row
on a separate arm or’disk may-be provided. For
instance, there will be a radial arm carrying only
blue-violetV photcelectric> cells, `another arm for
orange-red, another arm carrying neon glow
of broken, concentric circles of luminosity, each
tween the ridges i. It is also remembered that
of the luminous interruptions in the circles. Fig 55
ure 1 at 1, clearly shows that the brushes 1 are
staggered or stepped with reference to ridge i, so
that at any instant only one photcelectric ele
ment will be activated. It is impossible to show
them in their exact proportion, as the brushes 60
are very small in comparison to the disk or arm.
Disk 8 may be in the form of a sprocket wheel,
or as a disk having wires placed radially in lieu
of ridges i.
It will therefore, be seen that as arm 3 is ro
tated at say fifteen times per second, the image
will appear 4as a diifused, illuminated electric
»image in which there is a radial building up of
the diffused, interrupted, _concentric circles. The
radi-al illumination will slant somewhat away 70
from a true radius, due to the stepping of the
contact brushes as described above.
Disk 8 may be designed as stationary and at
tached to the frame of the apparatus, as in the
form of the invention described and illustrated
in connection with sheet i of the drawing. It` at a time, a transmission circuit connected to
may also bemade stationary at will by removing said transmitting conductor and to said commu
any one of the gear wheels which cause its mo
tator and a receiving circuit connected to Said
tion. Its rotation is, however, avery important receiving conductor and to said commutator in
5 feature of the apparatus. It is of course rotated order that said photoelectric cells shall be inter- 5
in a direction opposite to that of the arm 3, giv
mittently connected to said transmission circuit
ing a relative speed of both elements which is and that said lamps shall be alternately con
equal to the sum oi their speeds. In the more ' nected to said receiving circuit that images may
expensive iorms of the apparatus, disk 8 will be
10 .given a speed of rotation that is many times that
ofl arm 3, if desired. If it revolves twenty-one._
times as fast as arm 3, the relative speed is 315
rotations per second,A if the arm moves at 15
R. P. S. This would mean twenty one new sets _
15 of radial lines added to the image, equalling if
Ynot'exceeding the luminous streaks of the pin
hole spiral disk. All of the illumination of all
of the lamps is more constantly in use in contra
distinction toV the inñnitesimally small fraction
'20 _used in other methods. A thin metal disk with
stamped ridges on its surface is desired, as such
are much cheaper than the more elaborate com
' mutators. They can be stamped by the thousands
at very small cost.
25 , Instead of the glow lamps of any type, incan
descent lamps may be used if desired. Attention
is directed to the type of neon tube which is il
luminated by being placed in contact with but
one electrode carryingra high frequency current.
30 ¿Their cost is Very small. TheV invention, of
course, includes any form of lamp or tube. Tubes
be transmitted and received in the same image
2. A two-way television apparatus consisting
oi optical means Yfor forming an image, a rotat
able element within the plane of said image and
substantially coextensive therewith, a group of
photo electric cells and a group of light sources 15
borne on said rotatable element and so arranged
thereon as to describe a plurality of paths coex
tensive with said image plane, said image plane
being of the same order of magnitude as said
rotatable element, means for consecutively and 20
independently collecting the image varied cur
rent produced in said photoelectric cells, means
for consecutively and independently supplying a f
second image varied current to said light sources
in order that an image may be transmitted and 25
received in the same image area. and means for
rotating said rotatable element within said image
3. A two-way colored television apparatus con
sisting of means for forming an image, a rotatable 30
element within the plane of said image and sub
therewith, a group of
with a single pair of internal electrodes, or a ' stantially coextensive
large/single tube with many pairs of electrodes
may be used.
35.? Y Having described my invention, I claim as new
" land desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. A combined television transmitter and re
ceiver consisting of a motor, optical means for
forming an image, a rotatable element in the
40-_ plane of said image operatively connected to said
' motor to be rotated thereby,'a group of photo
electric cells and a group of glow lamps carried
on said rotatable element and being rotatable in
said image plane thereby, said image plane be
45- ing ofthe order of magnitude of said rotatable
" element, a transmitting conductorfconnected to
«one terminal of each of said photoelectric cells,
a receiving conductor connected to one terminal
of each of said lamps, a plurality of contact
5_0 ¿ brushes connected oneto each of said photoelec
tric cells and said lamps, a commutator capable
of making contact with but one of said brushes
_photoelectric cells and a group of light sources
borne on said rotatable element and so arranged>
thereon as to describe a plurality of paths coeX- 35 `
tensive with said image plane, said image plane
being of the same order of magnitude as said ro
tatable element, certain of said photoelectric cells
being sensitive to light of a speciiic color and cer
tain others of said -cells being sensitive to light 40
of another color, certain of said light sources
emitting light of a specific rcolor and certain
others of said sources emitting light of another
color, means for independently collecting the
image varied light produced in said photoelectric 45
cells, means for consecutively supplying a second
image varied current to ,said light sources in
`order that an image may be transmitted and re
ceived in the same image area and means for
rotating said rotatable element Within the said 50
image plane.
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