Патент USA US2026610код для вставки
Jamr?, 1936. A_ J, CAWLEY > TELEVISION APPARATUS ` 2,026,610 ` @riginal Filed May 25, 1930 FZ" .6a. i i . l ~ *I .I ¿6 INVENTOR v ` ` 7' I> f BY ¿ß ATTOR N EY 2,026,§l0 Patented Jan. 7, 1936 «Unirse srnxrss PATENT OFFICE 2,026,610 TELEVISION APPARATUS Aloysius J. Cawley, Pittston, Pa. Application May 23, 1930, Serial No. 455,127 Renewed May 24, 1935 3 Claims. The invention relates generally to the electrical transmission of optical images. More particu larly, it consists in Íforming a light image, and causing electrical fluctuations and modifications > to be made in certain electrical apparatus here inafter described. These electrical iiuctuations are transmitted by wire or other conductor, or by electric waves to the` receiving point where suitable modifications .are made Iin an electrical apparatus associated with optical means, whereby an image of the original objects` ‘showing all oi their movements obtained.` At the trans mitter an element carrying a plurality of photo electric cells is revolved rapidly in an image area. At the receiving station a similar member is re (Cl. 178-6) which like referencìe characters have similar meanings, and in which, Y Figure l is a plan View of a receiver. A fluores cent screen is also shown in this figure which may be used if desired to augment the action of the retina. ~ ’ Figure 2 is an elevational view of a transmitter , and illustrates the arms carrying the radially arranged photocells together with their contact means and revolving mechanism. A means for imparting any desired speed is also illustrated in this figure. > ‘ Figure 3 is an elevational end view of the appa patus for imparting variable speed to the trans mitter or receiver illustrated in Figures 1 or 2. ance with the image current or image modulated Figure 4 shows an arrangement which com bines the receiver and transmitter in a single unit l at both of the stations. This constitutes an effi electric waves which are transmitted thereto cells and neon lamps are mounted upon the same 20 volved which carries a plurality of light sources or glow lamps which are illuminated in accord 'ii-f from the transmitting station. The result is that` the said light ‘sources reproduce the original image. . A rotating contact member is provided which makes contact at the transmitting station with but one photoelectric cell at a time, while a simi-' lar member is provided at the receiving station which makes contact with but one lamp on the rotating arm at a time. Both cells and lamps . describe a series of interrupted, concentric circles. This contact member may berotated at the same speed as the arm‘s, but in a direction oppo site thereto, 4or at a speed which is a multiple of the speed of the arm, as desired. `The apparatus y has therefore, great ñexibility. A very desirable modification is >one which pro cient two-way television apparatus. The photo rotating element. . « Figure 5 shows a detailed arrangement for avoiding simultaneous contact between a ridge on the contact disk with a photo-cell brush and a neon tube contact brush. Figs. 6 and 6a illustrate the arrangement of the contact ridges on the disk 8. . Figure 1 is a plan view of the receiver, and il--` lustrates that portion of the apparatus upon which the picture is to be displayed. A iiuores 30 cent screen in the form of an Octagon is shown at I1. It `may or may not be used, 'as it is not absolutely essential. It acts to retain a record of the flashes of the lamps which occur in the process’of production of a visual image, and as vides both photoelectric cells and light sources sists the eye in executing the function of per- - both the transmitter and receiver cooperating with their corresponding contact‘making or com mutating elements. Thus, one image may be transmitted .while another is reproduced in _the one revolutionV of the arm to another. or glow lamps on the same rotating element at` sistence of vision. It retains the image from O same image ñeld,‘ giving two-way television,v` which differs `from present methods in that the transmitted and received Vim’ages are coexten-> sive .and also that the photoelectriceells and lamps are actuated alternately,` so- that it is im possible for the light of the glow lamp tofbe re ñected from the face of the observer and retrans mittea to the distant station. o ‘ y _ ` This application is a. continuation-in-part of my .application Serial Number 380,202, ñled July -22, 1929, for Television apparatus.> 55 f > I attain the above objects by the apparatus illustrated the accompanying drawing, in In other words, it retains one of the complete pictures .until the next is traced upon it in the form of 40 fluorescent light. The screen is shown placed upright for viewing the picture'. Behind the ~ screen is an arm 3 carrying a row of neon lamps 4. Small incandescent lamps may be used, or any ,other glow lamp besides theV neon; such asV ' helium, etc.` The arm corresponds to the diam eter of the circle through which it rotates. This arm is pivoted and fixed in shaft `.2, and is rotated by it. The jneon lamps are shown disposed as one radius of the circle, that is, they occupy half of the arm. However, they may be placed all of the way across it, i. e., they may be placedral-> _ ternately. Those 'shown are spaced and wher ever there ls a space, 'a lamp may be placed on the opposite side of the arm to illuminate what 2 2,026,610 Vwould be a dark circle, when the arm is rotated. However, in the figure they are shown as being lo ’ cated on one side of the arm. Wire J designates a plurality of wires each of which connects to a lamp, and thus connects the lamp to a series of brushes. Each lamp is connected to a brush l. This is done by means of short connecting wires. The lamps may consist of a single glass tubing containing a number of pairs of electrodes 10 E, or they may consist of a number of separate tubes provided with either internal or external electrodes 6. The row of contact brushes is lo cated under the upper portion of the arm 3. The latter arm is made in two sections, the lower sec tion having the brushes ‘l attached in a stepped in connection with Figure 2. This and other means were described in connection with the above mentioned application. Figure 2 shows a very compact arrangement for transmission. I is the motor, whose shaft 2a carries two long keys n. Upon the shaft is loose ly mounted a disk V, having an opening therein to iit the keyed shaft. The hub Y of this disk is grooved to accommodate the handle h. It will thus be seen that the disk or wheel may be slid 10 relation which is clearly illustrated at the left extremity of arm 3. It will be noted that the along the shaft by means of the handle h. 'I‘his disk is in contact with the face of the wheel 3', and gives motion thereto. It may be shifted to any point on the radius of the wheel 3’ desired, and thus to impart any degree of speed thereto desired. This means is simpler than that usual ly employed wherein the motor is shifted or brushes are >stepped so that only one is shown making contact with conducting ridges z' at any moved bodily. Several methods of operating the apparatus one instant. were described in the above mentioned applica tion. Another means is as follows. Wheel 3’ The lower section of the arm has a stepped contour as shown for this purpose. The row of brushes is intended to be directly un der the lamps as shown in the two other illus trations. Attention is particularly directed to 25 the stepped arrangement of the brushes, as this Vis the'factor that causes but one lamp or photo electric cell to be supplied with electric current at any instant, and is very important. The ridges etc., are simply raised on the» surface of the rapidly rotates the smaller wheel 9’ mounted upon shaft 2', and this in turn rotates the larger member lll of the pair of internal gears. The latter moves the internal wheel Ilia, which is directly attached to disk 8, but which moves freely on shaft 2. Shaft 2 moves arm 3 to which it is firmly attached. Arm 3 carries the photoelectric cells 2l. A cylindrical lens I6 may metal contact disk 8, and may be stamped in, if or may not be used to concentrate the light. - desired. A disk may be cut and stamped in a fraction of a second in manufacture. 'I‘he thick ness of disk 8 and the height of the ridges i need Current passes through wire a to the commuta tor c insulated from shaft 2V by insulation e, through wire d into the hole in the shaft to wire Il, which supplies the current consecutive not'be that shown. A very thin plate is desirable, as it may be rotated at a greater speed than a thick one. However, if desired, a heavy rim may be given to the disk, to give it a speed gov erning, speed uniformity, fly Wheel effect. The arm need not be rotated at a speed greater than’ 40 fifteen revolutions per second, but the disk may be geared to move many times as fast as that. Each multiple of the speed of the arm that the disk attains means greater definition to the im age.` For instance, if the disk moves three times 45 as fast as the arm, there will be two eXtra sets of illuminated radii of the circle shown in Fig ure 1. This will be better understood later. In the operation of the receiver, arm 3 is made to rotate at ar uniform speed, say fifteen revolu 50 tions per second and is in synchronism with a similar arm at the transmitting station. Obvi ously, as theY lamps ¿i are illuminated, a series Vof luminous, interrupted, concentric circles will Ybe described. Each lamp traces a circle consist 55 ing of bright flashes or dots. Each lamp is illu minated when it touches a contact ridge and ex tingushed when not in contact with the ridge, the circle described is therefore more or less in terrupted. ly to the different photoelectric cells 2l, accord ing to which cell has its brush 'l' in contact with the ridge z'. Thus current can only pass through one photoelectrlc cell at any one instant. Cur rent passes from the cell 2l to the connecting wire to brush l, to ridge z' or disk 8, to shaft 2, 40 and thence to collector ring lc, to brush b, to Wire m, to external circuit. -The receiver dif fers from the transmitter in that glow lamps or other light sources are used in place of the photoelectric cells. . If desired, in all of the apparatus illustrated, the connecting wire Il may be eliminated, es pecially in connection with the neon tubes 4 in Figure 4. Neon lamps may be lighted by con necting them with but one terminal of a high frequency current circuit. „ . Figure 3 is an end view of the disk V and its hub Y, showing its manner of sliding on the shaft 2a. Figure 4 illustrates a very compact system of two way television, which may be used in tele phone booths, and the like. It consists of a transmitter and receiver similar to those de The intensity of illumination corre scribed in Figures 1 and 2 and in the above men tioned application, with the distinction that the 60 produced in the luminosity of the circle de photocells and glow lamps are combined on the scribed by any particular lamp. 4The space be- ‘ same rotating member at both the communicat tween contact ridges i, etc., may or may not be ing stations. The two arms 3 and 3a move in covered with insulating material, such as bakelite, synchronism,- although it is to be understood shellac, bitumen, pitch, mica composition, etc.; that they may be many hundreds of miles apart. however, as the ridge isnraised, air insulation Means for rotating shaft .2 with its arm 3 and 'may be used entirely. disk ßwere clearly described and illustrated in It is evident that many different types of con my application Serial Number 380,202, filed July 60 sponding to the image to be produced is of course ` tact configurations may be given to the surface 70 of the disk 8 besides that shown. Contact points ' may be used in various designs. It would be use less to illustrate all of them here, but it is intend ` ed to include them all in the appended specifi y cation and claims. The means for rotating the 75 arm and disk in opposite directions is described 22, 1929. Such means are also described in con nection with Figure 2 of this application. Any 70 rotating means desired is therefore indicated at M and Ma. Therefore arms 3 and 3c as well as disks 8 and 8a rotate in synchronism at both stations. The disks and arms rotate Vin oppo site directions. 75 à vand 'still another arm carrying mercury or fIn >Aonestation or telephone booth, ann `311 lamps heliumlamps at each station, i. e., either at the carries on‘one of its halves a series ofiphoto'f electric cells 2|, and on the other half 'a series .r of neon tubes 4. The lens elements 22 _and '22a form Visual images at each station. Obviously, the `photcelectric elements rotating on the ¿arms right or `left side of Figure 4. Y yThe kabove figure shows that the _ system is adaptable fto wire or to wireless systems. _Figure 5> illustrates the fact that the upper act to both vconvert the visual image into` »imageL varied current, and convert the incoming irn „.a'ge-varied current into an optical image. vA rush 'l in Figure 4, which makes contact for the neon receiving tubes with ridge i, is in contact with this ridge, While the lower brush l (which makes contact for the photcelectric cells) isnot person facing the right side ofthe iigure hashis in contact. VIn other-words, there is an alternate imageirnpressed on photcelectric cells 2I`, which making ‘of “contacts with the glow tubes and the are supplied‘with energy >by power supplying photcelectric cells. There is not a simultaneous means indicated by the square D. Thisenergy » `passes through brush la to disk 8, through ridge îand -brush 1, through connecting wire to cell 2e 2| to _wire Il, through line wire 21a, to the other station (left side of- the figure), to neon tubes 4, through wire to brush 1e, to ridge i on disk 8a, -to brush A'lb and to the other line Wire 2lb. -The visual image of the other operator is `pro duced by the neon tubes f4. `The second opera ‘ ._tOr, while viewing the image of the first, has in turn his image impressed upon the photcelectric ¿cells 2lb on arm 3 by lens elements 22 on his portion ofthe apparatus. Thisimage is illus trated as being transmitted by meansof wire less, in contrast to the wire transmission just described. t indicates the transmitting station, ¿its energy being supplied bythe usual apparatus indicated by the square labelled “Transmitting apparatus”. The current from this passes to :the cells 2lb to wire„to brush 1f, toridge i on disk 8„ to peripheral brush> K'lc ‘making contact with ‘diskv 8, and yback to the power Vsource atthe transmitter. The energy is sent by radio waves from one antennato the other, whence .it is received and amplined by the receiving station 1', supplied to disk 8 by its peripheral brush 'Id „andthence to ridge i, >to brush 1g, to‘wire, to 40 neon tubes 4, to common wire lla and back to the receiving station amplifying circuit. The neon tubes 4 may be of a type which exists on making oi contact. This is very important, as the system _is _positively two-way in character; 'I‘hisprevents the photcelectric cells from receiv inglthe light "of the glow lamps that may be -re fiected back from the faceof the operator. The glow> lamps in an extremely small fraction of a second, flash a portion of the image and are then 20 cutout of circuit. Then the photocell is cut in circuit and receives a part of its image, and so on. Of course, separate contact disks 8 and sep arate circuits may be provided if desired for each radial row of glow tubes and each row of photo electric cells. It will be seen in all ofthe above apparatus; that disk 8 of the receiver is. charged at all times during which a photo cell is` connected at the transmitter to its disk, with the image varied current,man'd is fed to the lights one at `a time t ` in what may be termed “radial strokes”. On arm 3 there is a row of brushes 1 etc., which make contact with ridges i, etc., of disk 8. Those ridges are so designed, as shown at the left of Figure l, 35 that >but one `brush 1 makes contact at any one time br'instant'with ridge i, and this means that> only one photcelectric element such as 4 will pro duce a corresponding intensity of illumination lamp 4, in accordance with'the intensity of 40 .illuminationiin that portion of the image that is in relation with the corresponding photcelectric the transmitter. the market today. They >may be illuminated by Y cell at "su‘dyin‘g the configurations of the disk 8, it simply pressing them against an electrode car will be seen that as arm 3 is> rotated at say fifteen rying a high frequency alternating current. `But times per second, and'r‘ememb'eriii'g that but one one lconnection is necessary to light them. The brush 'l ’can be brought in contact` with ridges i, photcelectric cells 2| are of the cylindrical type etc., at a time, and consequently but ‘one light and are made very small. Head and shoulder pic will be illuminated at a time, there will be a series ytures are now transmitted by television in prac tice, as a 48 line picture is capable of transmite ting nothing more satisfactorily on account of lack of detail. Head and 'shoulder pictures will c ’rre'sponding to the path of a neon lamp on, rrn 3,‘th'e breaks being due to the intervals be . be sufficient to carry on telephone conversation there will be a blending or fusing of more or less accompanied by television. The system herein illustrated also possesses the great advantage that the speaker is shown on the receiving por tion as looking directly at the one spoken to and not away from him, as is necessary in other types of television. Another feature of the apparatus is that it may be used to transmit colored pictures. Each alternate photcelectric cell 2l may be provided with a suitably colored glass, for instance, the first having blue-violet and the second having an orange-red. The corresponding neon tubes will be provided at the receiving station, i. e., the orange-red will be connected toa neon tube, while the blue-violet will be connected with a mercury or helium, or argon, etc., glow tube. In stead of connecting and equipping alternate tubes in the same row as described, a special row on a separate arm or’disk may-be provided. For instance, there will be a radial arm carrying only 75 blue-violetV photcelectric> cells, `another arm for orange-red, another arm carrying neon glow 45 of broken, concentric circles of luminosity, each tween the ridges i. It is also remembered that of the luminous interruptions in the circles. Fig 55 ure 1 at 1, clearly shows that the brushes 1 are staggered or stepped with reference to ridge i, so that at any instant only one photcelectric ele ment will be activated. It is impossible to show them in their exact proportion, as the brushes 60 are very small in comparison to the disk or arm. Disk 8 may be in the form of a sprocket wheel, or as a disk having wires placed radially in lieu of ridges i. ' - It will therefore, be seen that as arm 3 is ro 65 tated at say fifteen times per second, the image will appear 4as a diifused, illuminated electric »image in which there is a radial building up of the diffused, interrupted, _concentric circles. The radi-al illumination will slant somewhat away 70 from a true radius, due to the stepping of the contact brushes as described above. Disk 8 may be designed as stationary and at tached to the frame of the apparatus, as in the form of the invention described and illustrated 4 . v 2,026,610k in connection with sheet i of the drawing. It` at a time, a transmission circuit connected to may also bemade stationary at will by removing said transmitting conductor and to said commu any one of the gear wheels which cause its mo tator and a receiving circuit connected to Said tion. Its rotation is, however, avery important receiving conductor and to said commutator in 5 feature of the apparatus. It is of course rotated order that said photoelectric cells shall be inter- 5 in a direction opposite to that of the arm 3, giv mittently connected to said transmission circuit ing a relative speed of both elements which is and that said lamps shall be alternately con equal to the sum oi their speeds. In the more ' nected to said receiving circuit that images may expensive iorms of the apparatus, disk 8 will be 10 .given a speed of rotation that is many times that ofl arm 3, if desired. If it revolves twenty-one._ times as fast as arm 3, the relative speed is 315 rotations per second,A if the arm moves at 15 R. P. S. This would mean twenty one new sets _ 15 of radial lines added to the image, equalling if Ynot'exceeding the luminous streaks of the pin hole spiral disk. All of the illumination of all of the lamps is more constantly in use in contra distinction toV the inñnitesimally small fraction '20 _used in other methods. A thin metal disk with stamped ridges on its surface is desired, as such are much cheaper than the more elaborate com ' mutators. They can be stamped by the thousands at very small cost. 25 , Instead of the glow lamps of any type, incan descent lamps may be used if desired. Attention is directed to the type of neon tube which is il luminated by being placed in contact with but one electrode carryingra high frequency current. 30 ¿Their cost is Very small. TheV invention, of course, includes any form of lamp or tube. Tubes be transmitted and received in the same image area. V10 2. A two-way television apparatus consisting oi optical means Yfor forming an image, a rotat able element within the plane of said image and substantially coextensive therewith, a group of photo electric cells and a group of light sources 15 borne on said rotatable element and so arranged thereon as to describe a plurality of paths coex tensive with said image plane, said image plane being of the same order of magnitude as said rotatable element, means for consecutively and 20 independently collecting the image varied cur rent produced in said photoelectric cells, means for consecutively and independently supplying a f second image varied current to said light sources in order that an image may be transmitted and 25 received in the same image area. and means for rotating said rotatable element within said image plane. 3. A two-way colored television apparatus con sisting of means for forming an image, a rotatable 30 element within the plane of said image and sub therewith, a group of with a single pair of internal electrodes, or a ' stantially coextensive large/single tube with many pairs of electrodes may be used. v 35.? Y Having described my invention, I claim as new " land desire to secure by Letters Patent: 1. A combined television transmitter and re ceiver consisting of a motor, optical means for forming an image, a rotatable element in the 40-_ plane of said image operatively connected to said ' motor to be rotated thereby,'a group of photo electric cells and a group of glow lamps carried on said rotatable element and being rotatable in said image plane thereby, said image plane be 45- ing ofthe order of magnitude of said rotatable " element, a transmitting conductorfconnected to «one terminal of each of said photoelectric cells, a receiving conductor connected to one terminal of each of said lamps, a plurality of contact 5_0 ¿ brushes connected oneto each of said photoelec tric cells and said lamps, a commutator capable of making contact with but one of said brushes _photoelectric cells and a group of light sources borne on said rotatable element and so arranged> thereon as to describe a plurality of paths coeX- 35 ` tensive with said image plane, said image plane being of the same order of magnitude as said ro tatable element, certain of said photoelectric cells being sensitive to light of a speciiic color and cer tain others of said -cells being sensitive to light 40 of another color, certain of said light sources emitting light of a specific rcolor and certain others of said sources emitting light of another color, means for independently collecting the image varied light produced in said photoelectric 45 cells, means for consecutively supplying a second image varied current to ,said light sources in `order that an image may be transmitted and re ceived in the same image area and means for rotating said rotatable element Within the said 50 image plane. ' ' ALOYSIUS J. CAWLEY.