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Патент USA US2028503

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Jan-1 21# 1936-
w. G. DOHERTY
2,028,503
MEASURING APPARATUS
Filed Nov. 13, 1933
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WALTER' G. DOHERTV
BY
CU’
ATTORNE
Jan. 21, 1936.
_Wl G. DOHERTY
2,@28,5Ü3
MEASURING APPARATUS
Filed Nov. 13, 1953
2 Sheets-Shea?, 2
[email protected] (16%
Gm.
ÁTTOR/VE
Patented Jan. 21, 1936
2,028,503
UÈNÃTED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,028,503
MEASURING APPARATUS
Walter G. Doherty, New York, N. Y.
Application November 13, 1933, Serial No. 697,834
21 Claims. (Cl. 33-147)
This invention relates to an apparatus for
measuring the average length of an object, and
more specifically to an apparatus for measuring
the average length of an object of irregular
faces of the opposed pluralities of lingers when
the latter are retracted from the respective cyl
inder units to the outermost limit of movement
contour.
is' then slidably positioned intermediate the op
`
Heretofore, a number of measuring devices
were conceived for the purpose of determining
a single measurement between oppositely dis
posed faces aving all points of each lying sub
stantially in the same plane. While such de
vices have been satisfactory for performing that
specific function, it has always been desired to
obtain a device that will be capable of deter
miningl in a single operation the average meas
urement between two oppositely positioned and
irregularly shaped faces having the points of
each disposed in several planes.
Accordingly, the present invention contem
plates for one of its objects to provide a caliper
for determining in a single operation the aver
age distance between two oppositely disposed
faces, each being> of irregular contour; namely,
the average distance between the opposite irreg
ular faces of a core of concrete, asphalt, stone,
25 or similar material, drilled from a highway, pave
ment, or sidewalk or the like.
Another object is to provide a caliper of this
type which permits of facile and expeditious
operation whereby an economy of time is effected.
A further object of this invention is to provide
a caliper that is extremely accurate since it auto
matically indicates the measurements thereby
eliminating the errors usually resulting from the
use of a conventional type of measuring device.
In the preferred illustrated embodiment of the
invention, there is contemplated the utilization
of tracks formed with a plurality of measuring
apertures and supporting two opposed cylinder
units in a manner that one o-f the latter is
movable longitudinally with respect to the other
which is fired. Each of the cylinder units is
provided with two immiscible fluids and is adapt
ed with a plurality of piston-like fingers capable
of being displaced in the cylinder units to cause
acement of the lighter fluid therefrom into
communicating indicator tube whose internal
diameter is substantially less than the combined
diameters of the fingers and bears a fixed ratio
thereto whereby a predetermined displacement
50
ie `lingers in the cylinder units effects a
__» .ending displacement of the level of the
‘1e indicator tube.
i
~ operation of the apparatus one of the
measuring apertures is marked “t” to indicate
55 the position of abutment between the end sur
and there is no core in the apparatus.
There
posed cylinder units a core having the opposite
irregular surfaces thereof exposed to the fingers
of the cylinder units, the fingers being retracted
to their outermost limit of movement thereby
causing the level of the fluid in the tube to settle
exactly at the “D” point. A stop member is pre
determinedly positioned in another of the meas
uring apertures of the track thereby limiting a
leftw'ardly movement of the slidable cylinder
unit. 'As the latter is actuated leftwardly, the 15
fingers thereof contact the nearer of the irregu
lar surfaces of the core, and then the cylinder
unit and core are urged leftwardly until th
fingers of the ñXed cylinder unit contact the
irregular surface that is nearer thereto. The
movement of the slidable cylinder unit and core
is continued until the fo-rmer engages the pre
determinedly’positioned stop member thereby
causing the fingers to move into their respective
cylinder units to displace predetermined amounts
of the lighter fluid therefrom into the communi
cating indicator tube to effect a change in the
level of the fluid in the latter equal to the com
bined average displacements of the fingers in
the cylinder units. The change in the level of
the iluid in the tube added to the distance be
tween “0” aperture and the aperture containing
the stop member will be equal to the average
distance between the opposite irregularly shaped
surfaces of the core;
The invention will become more readily ap
parent from the following description considered
with reference to the accompanying drawings,
wherein
Fig. l is an elevational View showing a core 40
testing apparatus embodying the preferred fea
tures of the invention;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken along the lines
2--2 of Fig. l;
'
'
`
"
'
i'
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal View of a piston-like 45
finger;
`
Fig. 4 is a sectional View taken along the lines
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary View taken along the
lines ETS of Fig. 1 showing details of the core 50
support;
'
’
Fig. 6 is an enlarged view partly in elevation
and partly in elevational section showing the 1in
gers in abutmentand completely retracted from
the opposed cylinders.
2
2,028,503
Referring to the drawings in which correspond
ing parts throughout the several views are identi
fied by the same reference numeral, it will be
observed that the apparatus comprises a plural
ity of laterally spaced transverse members Il)
suitably affixed to a level surface and supporting
two laterally spaced tracks lI (Figs. 1, 2, and 5)
upon which there are positioned in opposed rela
tion a ñXed left hand cylinder unit I2 and a slid
able right hand cylinder unit I3. (Fig. 1.) The in
ner surfaces of the tracks are provided preferably
with flanges Ill (Figs. 2 and 5) engaging opposite
ly disposed recesses I8 provided in the lowermost
portion I9 (Figs. l and 2) of the front face 2D of
the slidable cylinder unit I3 whereby a uniform
movement of the latter is effected under actua
tion of a handle 2|. In addition the tracks are
preferably formed with a plurality of predeter
minedly spaced longitudinal apertures 25 for a
20 purpose that will be described more specifically
hereinafter.
Each of the cylinder units is provided with two
immiscible fluids, preferably, with a heavy fluid
in the bottom and a lighter one in the top, and
arranged so that the uppermostv portion of each
communicates with the bottom of a vertically
positioned glass tube 26 through a suitable flexible
conduit 2l which readily permits the movements
of the slidable cylinder unit I3. A conventional
30 scale 28 with graduations in inches thereon is
located adjacent the tube. Mounted on the low
ermost portion of the tube is a coupling 29 pro
vided with a petcock 3€] connecting preferably
through a ñeXible tubing 3I with a well known
’ type of aspirator bottle 32 whereby the level of
the fluid in tube may be readily adjusted. Also
each of the cylinder units is suitably adapted
with vents 33 to facilitate the elimination of any
air pockets that might be formed therein dur
40
ing the initial charging thereof with the fluids.
The front face 20 of the cylinder unit I3 and a
similarly disposed face 35 of the opposing cylinder
unit I2 are provided with a plurality of piston
like fingers 36 (Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 6) disposed sub
stantially in concentric circles (Fig. 2) and ca
pable of moving readily into and out of the re
spective cylinder units through suitable packing
glands 3l (Fig. 6) and connecting apertures 38
provided in the cylinder faces (Fig. 6). It will be
50 understood that the movements of the fingers dis
place predetermined amounts of the lighter fluid
from the cylinder units into the indicator tube
communicating therewith since the internal
diameter of the indicator tube bears a fixed ratio
Ul Ul to the diameters of the fingers. Accordingly, the
preferable relation is that when the lingers are
retracted from the respective cylinder units to
their outermost limit of movement, the level of
the fluid in the tube registers exactly at the Q
60
point, and a combined longitudinal displacement
of I” of the ñngers in both cylinder units pro
duces a proportional displacement in the level
- of the iìuid in the tube with respect to the il point
thereof.
Bolts 39 mounted in the four corners of the
65
cylinder unit I3 (Figs. 1, 2 and 6) iìrmly fasten
render fluid tight the attachment of the face
plates thereto. In addition, the bolts 39 and 41
serve to support plates 5I and 52 associated with
cylinder units I3 and I2 respectively, and suitably
apertured to provide bearings for the piston-like Ui
ñngers. The plates di and 52 are utilized to bear
against the outermost faces of the packing glands
to maintain the latter firmly positioned in the
cylinder faces 26 and 35 respectively under ten
sion of nuts 53 and 5d which abut one end of pipe
sleeves 55 (Fig. 6) positioned intermediate the
nuts 53 and plate 5l and nuts 54 and plate 52 on
the bolts 33 and ¿il respectively. Also the pipe
sleeves 55 provides bearings for rectangular
plates 53 that are provided with suitable aper
tures to accommodate the pipe sleeves and the
free ends of the piston-like fingers in a manner
to form bearings for the latter in their movements
into and out of their Yrespective cylinder units.
The nuts 53 and ärlare predeterminedly posi- _,
tioned on the bolts 39 and ?ll respectively to ñx
the outermost limit of movement of the plates 56
thereby determining the extent of the retraction
of the piston-like fingers from their respective
cylinder units in a manner that will be now de
scribed.
'
A pin 53 (Figs. 1, 3, 4, and 6) is mounted
transversely in an end portion of each piston
like finger to abut the opposed surfaces of the
plates 55 that are preferably connected by a plu 30
rality of bolts 53 suitably disposed on the outer
edges of the former (Figs. 1, 2 and 6). Nuts 60
are predeterminedly positioned cn the opposite
ends of the bolts 59 to engage the inner surfaces
of the plates 5t when the latter are moved by
actuating the cylinder unit I3. Therefore, the
retraction of the fingers from the respective cyl
inder units to their outermost limit of movement
is accomplished by silding the cylinder unit I3
rightwardly to cause the nuts EQ of the bolts
59 to abut the opposite surfaces of the plates 56
to slide the latter along the sleeves 55. inasmuch
as the pins 58 of the fingers abut the opposed
surfaces of. the plates 55, the fingers are caused
to be retracted from their respective cylinder units
until the plates 56 engage the nuts 53 and 54
on the bolts 39 and dl, respectively, whereupon
the actuation of the cylinder unit I3 is arrested
thereby terminating the movements of the plates
56 and the fingers. As previously explained, the
nuts 53 and 54 are predeterminedly positioned to
control the extent of the retraction of the’ fingers
from their respective cylinder units. It is prefer
able therefore, to position the nuts 53 and 5d on
the bolts' 33 and él?, respectively, so that the
fingers are entirely retracted from the cylinder
40
45
50
55
units, in a manner that the inner face of each
finger is exactly aligned with the inner surface of
the front face plates [email protected] and 35 of the units I3
and l2 respectively (Fig. 6). With the fingers 60
in this position, it is readily apparent that there'
is no displacement of fluid from the cylinder units
l2 and i3.
'
A core support 6i positioned intermediate the
opposed cylinder units IE and i3 (Fig. l) com 65
prises a member €522 whose under surface on oppo
the face plate Ztl and an opposite face plate ¿l0 to
a fluid containing cylinder 4I under tension of
nuts d2. Similarly, bolts M disposed in the four
70 corners of the cylinder unit I2 rigidly secure the
face plate 35 and an opposite Vface plate ¿Il tol a
iiuid retaining cylinder ¿i9 under tension of nuts
[email protected] (Fig. 6). It is understood, of course, that the
site end portions is provided with transverse
guides @3 that abut the inner surfaces of the
flanges i6 on the tracks il (Fig. 5). It will be
evident, then, that an even movement is im 70
parted to the core support as it is urged along
_ fluid holding cylinders ¿ll and 49 are adapted
75 preferably with conventional types of gaskets to
,upper surface of the member 62 is a pair of oppo
the tracks in a manner to> be described more spe
ciñcally hereinafter. Mounted centrally on the
sitely disposed angles 6d provided with transverse 75
3
2,028,503
slots ,65 to accommodate bolts 66 that are utilized
to fasten the angles rigidly Vto the member 62.
It will be understood that the slots 65 provide
an adjustment whereby the angles can be readily
Ul
positioned to accommodate various sizes of cores
in ,order that substantially the entire area of
its opposite surfaces can be readily exposed to
tures is predeterminedly fixed at 2”. Accord
ingly the fingers of both units are retracted to
their outermost limit of movement in the usual
manner
the
tube thereby
to rest atcausing
the 0 point.
the level
The
of pin
the ‘I5
ñuid
is in
serted into the selected aperture and the unit i3
is actuated leftwardly to engage the pin 'I5 in the
contact with the fingers of the opposed cylinder
manner as previously explained. It will be un
units.
The operation or" the apparatus is as follows:
Suppose, -for example, it is desired to measure the
average length of a concrete core 'I0 (Fig. l);
that is, the average distance between the ir
derstood that in this movement of unit I3, the
fingers thereof Contact the fingers of unit i2, and
with the continued movement of unit I3 the
fingers of both units are caused to be displaced
in their respective cylinder units until the por
regularly shaped faces 1I and 12.
tion I9 of unit I3 engages the portion 'I5 of the
However, before positioning a core in the ap
pin 'I5 whereupon the displacements of all fingers
paratus, it is usually desirable to ascertain
whether the level of the fluid in the indicator
tube is exactly at the ll point when the fingers
of both cylinder units are retracted to their
outermost limit of movement so that the end faces
are arrested. Obviously, then, the finger move
ments cause the displacement _of the lighter fluid
in the cylinder units thereby affecting the level
of the fluid inthe tube. In vView of the prede
termined ratio >between. the internal diameter 20
of the fingers of one unit are in abutment with
of the tube and the diameters of the fingers, a
end faces of the opposing unit thereby causing
_combined displacement of, I” or fraction thereof
of the fingers -results in a proportional displace
ment of the level of the fluid in the tube. Since
the selected '2” aperture is fixed at 2" to the left 25
of Q", it is `obvious that the units I3 is moved ‘2”
to the left of yIl” aperture and, further that if the
fingers of unit I2 were fixed in the position deter
mined in the IJ point test, then each of the lingers
of unit 13 wouldbe displaced 2” therein. As the 30
no displacement of fluid in the `cylinder units
(Fig. v6) . The particular aperture of the plurality
is, Ul of apertures Y25 (Fig. _1) that would arrest a left
wardly movement of the cylinder unit |13 in a
manner to be described hereinafter to cause the
fingers of both units to occupy this position, is
identified Vas 0" aperture. Accordingly, then, the
distance between any aperture 25 and its adjacent
aperture is predeterminedly fixed at l". It will
be understood therefore that the distance be
tween 0” aperture `and the first aperture to the
fingers of both cylinder units slide with equal
facility, however, it is apparent, then, that the
right or vleft thereof is I" so each of these is
combined displacement of 2’ ’ for both units there
fingers of, each unit would be'displaced I", or a
of movement in the manner as hereinbefore de
by displacing the level of the fluid in the tube
exactly 2” (proportionally) above the Q point.
A third preliminary test may be made to de
termine whether a corresponding distance inter
venes between the outermost faces of the opposed
fingers when the pin 'I5 is positioned in any one
of the several apertures to the right of 8” aper
ture. Suppose, for example, ,3” aperture to the
right of Ii” were selected, it being understood
that the distance between these apertures is ex
actly 3". Therefore the fingers of both units are
retracted to their >outermost linut of movement
in the usual manner thusly causing the level of the
fiuid in the tube to rest at the D point. The pin
1,5 is inserted into the selected aperture and the
unit I3 vactuated leftwardly to engage the pin "5'"
scribed, and, then, inserting a pin 'l5 into 0” aper
movement
in the manner
of”. unit
as previously
I3 is arrested
described.
by the As
pin i»
c: Ll identified as I” apertures. Likewise the distance
between 0” aperture and the second aperture to
the right or left thereof is 2” so each of these
is identified as 2” apertures. Similarly, there
fore, for the addition of each aperture to the
di) right or left of G” aperture the distance between
that particular aperture and D" is augmented I”,
hence the apertures are identified with numerals
that indicate the number of inches each is spaced
from il”. Consequently the apertures to the
right and left of 0” are identified by numerals
I", 2”, 3", etc. (Figs. l and 6).
Accordingly the said 0 point test is accom
plished by retracting the fingers from their re
spective cylinder units to their outermost limit
ture of the tracks so that a portion 16 of the
fermer projects into the space intermediate the
tracks (Figs. l and 2). The cylinder unit I3 is
now actuated leftwardly until the lowermost por
tion I9 of the front face 20 thereof (Fig. 2) en
gages the portion 16 of the pin 15. With the cyl
inder units I2 and I3 in this relative position,
there is no distance between the outermost faces
GO of the opposed fingers and obviously the faces of
the opposed fingers »lie in exact abutment. In
asmuch as there is no displacement of the fingers
and fluid from the cylinder units it is evident that
the level of the fluid in tube should be register
ing exactly at the 0 point. However if the level
varies from the »il point, it can be readily adjusted
to the 0 point by the aspirator bottle 32.
A second preliminary test may be made to
check whether the level of the fluid in the tube
with respect to its G point corresponds with the
distance on the track between D" aperture and
any aperture to the left thereof. Suppose, for
example, 2" aperture to the >left of 0” were se
lected, it being understood from the previous ex
planation that the distance between these aper
35
40
4,5
50
C.,
(.51(D
positioned
is apparentvinthat
Vaperture
the ,fingers
3" to the
of unit
rightI3ofdoIl"not
Vcontact the fingers of unit I2 which now lie in the 55
position occupied in the G point test hence there
is no displacement of `the fiuid in the tube.
Therefere the distance between the end faces of
the fingers of the opposed cylinder units should
correspond exactly with the distance between S” 60
and 3" apertures of the tracks-which distance
is precisely 3". This distance may be readiiy
verified by the use of a conventional rule.
Obviously, then, preliminary tests with respect
to the remaining apertures 25 of the tracks may 65
be accomplished with facility by either of the
aforedescribed methods.
'
Having completed the above preliminary tests
the apparatus is now ready to measure the aver
age length ofthe concrete core ‘I0 (Fig. l) having 70
opposite faces -II and ‘I2 of irregular contour.
For purposes of this description the distance has
been visually estimated to lie between 5” and 5”.
Accordingly thecylinder unit I3 is actuated right
wardly in the usual manner vto retract all of the 75
4
2,028,503
ñngers of the respective units to their outermost
limit of movement. As it has been seen hereto
fore, this position of the fingers causes the level
of the fluid in the indicator tube to rest precisely
at the Il point. The core l0, is then positioned
centrally of the support by the adjustment of
the oppositely disposed angles so that substan
tially the entire areas of the opposite faces 'II and
l2 are exposed to engagement with the fingers
10 of the respective cylinder units. The pin 'I5 is
inserted into the 3” aperture of the track to
the right of Il” with the end portion ‘I6 of the
415
pin ‘I5 projecting into the space intermediate the
tracks. The'cylinder unit I3 is now actuated
leftwardly by the handle until the fingers of this
unit contact the surface 'II of the core.
As the
fingers initially contact the surface 1I, the sub
stantially frictionless core support is also urged
leftwardly until the opposite surface 'l2 of the
20 core contacts the ñngers of the fixed cylinder
unit I2. A continued movement of the unit I3
and the core support causes the ñngers of both
cylinder units to project into the respective units
to displace therefrom a portion ofthe lighter of
25 the two immiscible fluids until the lowermost
portion I9 of the front face 2G of the cylinder
unit i3 engages the portion 'I6 of the stop l5.
It is evident, therefore, that during the move
ment of the cylinder unit I3 the ñngers of both
30 units will engage various points of elevation on
the irregularlyshaped faces lI and 'I2 thereby
causing the fingers to project into their respec
tive units unequal distances that correspond to
elevations of the several points on the core sur
35 faces. Also, it is seen that the fluid displaced
difference between 3" and 5%”, or an'average
amount of 1%". In view of the predetermined
ratio between the internal diameter of the tube
and the diameter of the fingers, a displacement
of the fingers in each unit to an average distance
of 1%" will cause a displacement o‘f the lighter
fluid from both units to an amount that will ef
fect a change in level of the fluid in the tube
equal to the combined displacements of the 1in
gers of both units. Inasmuch as the average dis 10
placement of the fingers in each unit was 1%",
the level of the fluid in the tube will be caused to
rise 2%” proportionately above the Il point. Ob
viously the change in level of the fluid in the tube
can be readily determined by the scale positioned
adjacent the tube. Therefore, the 3" distance on
the track plus the 2%" change of level of the
fluid in the tube totals 5%”, the length assumed
for purposes of clarification.
Since in the sample under test, the distance 20
between the faces 'II and 12 is arbitrarily assumed
to lie between 5" and 6" it will be seen that
ñngers of each unit are caused to be displaced in
their respective units average amounts equal sub
stantially to % the difference between 3" and the 25
ultimate average distance which lies somewhere
between 5" and 6". It has been seen that the
combined average displacements of the lingers of
both cylinder units effects a change in the level
of the iluid of the tube proportional thereto, con 30
sequently the 3’l distance on the track plus the
change in level of the fluid in the tube occasioned
by the combined average displacements of the
fingers in their respective cylinder units repre
sents the exact average distance between the ir 35
from the cylinder units is conducted to the indi
cator tube whereby a displacement of the level regular faces 1I and 'I2 of the core 70.
Suppose, it is desired to measure the exact av
of. the fluid therein is effected. In View of the
erage length of an irregular core that is arbi
predetermined relation between the internal di
trarily assumed to be approximately 9%”. The
210 ameter Vof the tube and the diameters of the iin-Y ñngers
of both units are entirely retracted and 40
gers, the amount of the displacement of the level
the core is positioned on the support in the usual
of the fluid in the tube occasioned by the dis
manner. The pin 'I5 is inserted into the 5" aper
placement of fluid in the cylinder units Will de
pend upon the extent of the displacement of the. ture_to» the right of 0" (Figs. 1 and 6) andthe
unit I3 is actuated leftwardly to engage the pin
45 fingers in the latter.
As hereinbefore described the positioning of the l5. Accordingly, it will be understood, that the 45
pin 15 in 3” aperture of the track to the right average displacement of the lingers of each unit
of ü” contemplates that if there were no core on
will be equal to % the difference between 9%"
the support and the unit I3 were moved left
wardly to engage the pin ‘I5 in the usual manner,
and 5", or 2%”. Since the change in level of the
iluid in the tube is effected by the combined
there would be exactly 3” intervening between
the outermost surfaces of the fingers of` the
opposed units and the level o'f the fluid in the
tube would remain at the D point. However,
units, it will be understood that the fluid in the
tube is raised 4%” (proportionally) above the 0
point. The 5" distance of the tracks plus the
55 with a core of a length approximately between
5” and 6” on the support intermediate the
opposed units, a leftwardly movement o'f the
unit I3 to engage the pin ‘I5 in the manner de
scribed above Will cause the ñngers to' be dis
60 placed in their respective units average amounts,
each of which will be substantially equal to one
half of the difference between 3" and the ulti
mate average length of the core.
More specifically, then, suppose that the aver
age length between the irregular faces 'II and
‘I2 were actually V51/2" and the pin ‘I5 were posi
tioned in the 3” aperture to' the right of Il". It
^ will be understood from the previous explanation
_that the position occupied by the pin ‘I5 instant
70 ly obviates the necessity of the fingers of each
unit to' project into their respective units aver;age amounts equal to % of 3” or 1%", and there
remains only the necessity of projecting the
fingers of each unit into their respective units an
average amount equal substantially to % the
average displacements of the fingers of bdth ~
proportional 4%" displacement in the level of
the tube equals 9%", the average length of this 55
particular core.
‘
Y
It is evident that the apparatus may be modi
fied so that the fixed cylinder unit I2 can be
movably positioned on the track in a manner
similar to cylinder unit I3. In this event pins ‘l5 60
will» be positioned in predetermined apertures
25 of the tracks to the right and left of Il" aper
ture thereby arresting the movements of both
cylinder units. Obviously then, the sum of the
distances between 0” aperture and the selected 65
apertures to the right and left thereof plus the
displacement of the fluid in the indicator tube
will total the average length of the sample under
test.
It will be understood from the aforegoing de
scription of the apparatus that the invention isY
particularly adapted for the determination of the
average distance between the opposite irregularly
shaped surfaces of a core of concrete, asphalt,
etc. However, the invention is obviously capable
5
2,028,503
of vario'us applications and is to be limited only
by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. In a measuring apparatus, a track having a
plurality of apertures, a member provided with a
plurality of substantially concentric apertures
and movably mounted on the track, a plurality
of members mounted in the apertures of the iirst
mentioned member and capable of displacement
10 therein, and a stop positioned in one of the aper
tures of the track to engage the first mentioned
member for controlling the displacement of the
second mentionedv members.
2. In a measuring apparatus, a track having
15 a plurality of ' apertures, opposed members
mounted on the track in a manner that one is
fixed and the other movable, each of the members
being arranged with a plurality of substantially
concentric apertures, a plurality of members
20 mounted in the apertures of the ñrst mentioned
members and capable of displacement therein,
and a stop positioned in one of the apertures of
the track to engage the movable member for con
trolling the displacement of the second mentioned
25 members.
3. In a measuring apparatus, opposed cylinders
for positioning therebetween an object to be
measured, a member slidably mounted in a wall
of each of the cylinders for engagement with the
object and capable of variable displacement into
the cylinder, and means communicating with the
cylinders for indicating the combined displace
ments of the members.
'
4. In a measuring apparatus, opposed mem
35 bers for positioning therebetween an object to be
measured, a plurality of members slidably mount
ed in a Wall of each of the lirst mentioned mem
bers and capable of variable displacement into the
ñrst mentioned member by contact with the ob
"40 ject to be measured, and means communicating
With the first mentioned members for indicating
the combined average displacements of the sec
ond mentioned members.
5. In a measuring apparatus, opposed cylinders
for positioning therebetween an object to be
measured, means for supporting the cylinders, a
plurality of members slidably mounted in a wall
of each of the cylinders and capable cf variable
displacement into the cylinder by Contact with
the object to be measured, and means communi
cating with the cylinders for indicating the com
bined average displacements of the members.
6( In a measuring apparatus, opposed cylinders
for positioning therebetween an object to be
measured, means adapted to support the cylinders
in a manner that one is fixed and the other mov
able, a member slidably mounted in a wall of
each of the cylinders and capable of displace
ment into the cylinder by contact with the object
to be measured, and means communicating with
the cylinders for indicating the combined dis
placement of the members.
'1. In a measuring apparatus, opposed cylinders
for positioning therebetween an object to be
measured, means adapted to support the cylinders
movably mounted on the member, a portion of
the cylinder projecting adjacent the member, a
member slidably mounted in a wall of each cyl
inder and capable of -variable displacement into
the cylinder by contact with the object to be meas
ured, a stop predeterminedly positioned in one of
the apertures of the ñrst mentioned. member to
engage the portion for controlling the extent of
the displacement of the second mentioned mem
ber, and fluid means communicating with the
cylinder for indicating the amount oi the dis
placement of the second mentioned member.
9. In a measuring apparatus, a member pro
vided with a plurality of apertures, a cylinder
movably mounted on the member, a portion of 15
the cylinder projecting adjacent the member, a
plurality of members slidably mounted in a wall
of each cylinder and capable of variable displace
ment into the cylinder by contact with the ob
ject to be measured, a stop predeterminedly po 20
sitioned in one of the apertures of the first men
tioned member to engage the portion for con
trolling the extent of the displacements of the
second mentioned members, and fluid means ccm
municating with the cylinder for indicating the 25
combined average displacements of the second
mentioned members.
.
l0. In an apparatus for measuring the length
of an object, opposed cylinders for positioning
therebetween an object to be measured, spaced 30
members adapted to support the cylinders in a
manner that one is fixed and the other movable,
one of the members being provided with a plural
ity of predeterminedly spaced apertures, a por
tion formed integral with the movable cylinder 35
and projecting adjacent the member, a piston
slidably mounted in a wall of each of the cylinders
to engage the object, means associated with the
cylinders for retracting the pistons from the cyl
inders, means associated with the cylinders for 40
predeterminedly fixing the outermost extent of
the retractive movement of the pistons, one of
the apertures of the member being predetermin
edly selected to indicate the position when the
pistons are in abutment in the outermost ex
45
tent, a stop predeterminedly positioned in another
of the apertures of the member to engage the por
tion for controlling the extent of the displacement
of the pistons in the cylinders when engaging
the object, and iluîd means communicating with 50
the cylinders for indicating the combined piston
displacements which when added to the distance
between the second mentioned aperture and the
aperture containing the stop totals the length of
the object.
55
11. In an apparatus for measuring the length
of an object, opposed cylinders for positioning
therebetween an object to be measured, spaced
members adapted to support the cylinders in a
manner that one is iixed and the other movable, 60
one of the members being provided with a plu
rality of predeterminedly spaced apertures, a por
tion formed integral with the movable cylinder
and projecting adjacent the member, a plurality
in a manner that one is fixed and the other mov
of members slidably mounted in a wall of each 65
of the cylinders, each of the second mentioned
able, a plurality of members slidably mounted in
a wall of each of the cylinders, each of the mem
members capable of variable displacement in the
cylinders by contact with the object to be meas
bers capable'oi variable displacement into the
cylinder by Contact with the object to be meas
ured, and means communicating with the cyl
ured, means affixed to an end of each or the
second mentioned members, means associated 70
with the cylinders for engaging the ñrst men
tioned means to retract the second mentioned
inders for indicating the combined average dis
placements of the members.
8. In a measuring apparatus, a member pro
vided with a plurality of apertures, a cylinder
, members from the cylinders, means associated
with the cylinder for fixing the outermost limit
of the retractive movement of the second men
6
io
~15
25
30
40
tioned members, one of the apertures of the ñrst
mentioned member being predeterminedly se
lected to indicate the position when the second
mentioned members are in abutment in the outer
most retractive limit, a stop predeterminedlypo
sitioned in another of the apertures of the first
mentioned members to engage the portion for
controlling the extent of the displacements of the
second mentioned members when engaging the
object, and ñuid means communicating with the
cylinders for indicating the combined average dis
placements of the second mentioned members
which when added to the distance between the
secondrmentioned aperture and the aperture con
taining the stop, totals the average length of
the object.
12. In a measuring apparatus, members for
Y
v55
60
65
75
with the reservoirs for indicating’ by its length‘I
the averageV displacements of the members when
engaging the object.
'
18. In a measuring apparatus, opposed ñuid
reservoirs for positioning therebetweenl an object
to be measured, members engageable with the
object and arranged movably for variable dis
placement into the reservoirs, means for sup
porting the reservoirs in a manner that one is
fixed and the other is movable to effect the en
10
gagement between the members and the object,
the supporting means being arranged with a plu
rality of predeterminedly spaced apertures, a
portion of the movable reservoir projecting ad
jacent the supporting means, one of the aper
15
tures being predeterminedly identified as “ü”
to indicate the position of abutment of the mem
engaging therebetween an object to be measured, bers when fully retracted from the reservoirs
iluid reservoirs into which the members movably without the object therebetween, an element posi
and variably project, and a fluid column commu
tioned in another of the apertures to engage the 20
nicating with the reservoirs for indicating by its portion for arresting the displacements of the
length the average projections of theV members members when engaging the object, and a fluid
when engaging the object.
column communicating with the reservoirs for
173. In a measuring apparatus, opposed fluid indicating by its length the combined average
reservoirs for positioning therebetween an object displacements of the members when engaging 25
to be measured, a member engageable with theV the object; the average of the displacements and
object and arranged movably for variable pro
the sum of the spaces between “0” aperture and
jection’into each of the reservoirs to displace the the aperture in which the element is positioned
fluid therefrom, and a ñuid column responsive totaling the average length of the object.
to the displaced fluid for indicating by its length
19. In a measuring apparatus, opposed ñuid 30
the averagerprojections of the members.
reservoirs for positioning therebetween an object
14. In a measuring app-aratus, opposed fluid to be measured, members engageable with the
reservoirs for positioning therebetween an ob
object and arranged slidably for Variable dis
ject to be measured, a plurality of movable mem
placement into the reservoirs, means for> sup
bers'engageable with the object on its opposite porting the reservoirs in a manner that one is 35
surfaces and arranged movably for- variable ñxed and the other is movable to effect the en
projection into the reservoirs to displace the fluid gagement between the members and the object,
therefrom, and a iiuid columnl responsive to the the supporting means being arranged with a plu
displaced fluid for indicating by its length the rality of predeterminedly spaced apertures, one
combined average projections of the members of theY apertures being predeterminedly identiiied
when engaging the object;
as “Il” to indicate the position of abutment of
15. In a measuring apparatus, movable mem
the members when fully retracted from the
bers for engaging therebetween an object to be reservoirs without the object therebetween, an
measured, ñuid reservoirs into which the mem
element positioned in another of the apertures to
bers movably and variably project to effect a dis
engage the movable reservoir for arresting the 45
placement of the ñuid, and means responsive to displacements of the members when engaging the
the displaced fluid for indicating the average object, and a fluid column communicating with
projections of the members when engaging the the reservoirs for indicating by its length the
average displacements o‘f the members when en
16. In a measuring apparatus, opposed iluid gaging the object; the average of the displace 50
reservoirs for positioning therebetween a'n object ments and the sum of the spaces between “D”
to be measured, members engageable with the aperture and the aperture in which the element
object and arranged movably forv variable dis
is positioned totaling the average length of the
placement into the reservoirs, means for sup
core.
'
porting the reservoirs in a manner that one is
20. In a measuring apparatus, Vopposed ele 55
fixed and other is movable to effect the engage
ments for positioning therebetween an object to
ment between the members and the object, and a be measured, members engageable with the object
fluid column communicating'with the reservoirs and arranged for displacement into the ele
for indicating by its length the average displace
ments, means for supporting the elements in a
ments ofthe members when engaging the object. manner that one is ñxed and the other is mov 60
17. In a measuring apparatus, opposed fluid able, the supporting means being provided with
reservoirs for positioning therebetween an object a plurality of predeterminedly spaced apertures,
to be measured, members engageable with the one of the apertures being predeterminedly
object and arranged movably for variable dis
identified as “il” aperture to indicate the posi
placement into the reservoirs, means for sup
tion of abutment of the members when fully 65
porting the reservoirs 'in a manner that one is retracted from the elements without the object
fixed and the other is movable to effect the en
therebetween, and a stop positioned in another
gagement between the members and object, the of the apertures to arrest the movable element;
supporting means being arranged with a plurality the sum of the spaces between “D” aperture and
of apertures, a portion of the movable'reservoir the aperture containing the stop being equal to 70
projecting adjacent the supporting means, an the distance between the fully retracted mem
element positioned in one oi.’ the apertures to bers for the movement of the movable element.
engage the portion for arresting the movable
21. In a measuring apparatus, opposed ele
reservoir for limiting the displacements of the ments for positioning therebetween an object to
members, and a iiuid column communicating be measured, a plurality of members engageable
object.
50
abastece
'
'
2,028,503
with the object and arranged for displacement
into each of the elements, means for supporting
the elements in a manner that one is ñXed and
the other is movable, the supporting means being
arranged with a plurality of predeterminedly
spaced apertures, a portion of the movable ele
ment projecting adjacent the supporting means,
one of the apertures being predeterminedly
identified as “D” to indicate the position of abut
7
ment of the members Where fully retracted from
the elements, and a stop positioned in another of
the apertures to engage the portion for arresting
the movable element; the sum of the spaces be
tween “0” aperture and the aperture containing
the stop being equal to the distance between the
fully retracted members for the movement of the
movable member.
WALTER G. DOHERTY.
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