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Патент USA US2029106

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Jan. 28,
J’ KlRGAN
'
2,029,106
REFRIGERATING SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 19, 1934
'
Joli/n
IN VEN TOR.
BY W 2k
HIS A TTORNEY
Patented Jan. 28, 1936
‘2,029,106 .
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
nnrmoaaarmc SYSTEM‘ '
.l‘olm Kirgan, East'on, Pa, assignor to Ingersoll
Rand Company, Jersey City, N. J., a corpora
tion of New Jersey
Application December 19, 1934, Serial No. 758,183
5 ‘Claims. (iUl. 62-152)
This invention relates to improvements in re
of the invention or exceeding the scope and spirit
frigerating apparatus, and particularly to means
for controlling same and avoiding waste of power
in the operation thereof.
‘
In refrigerating systems of the water-vapor
type a liquid refrigerant, such as water, is cooled
by vaporizing a part thereof. The vaporization
is carried out in a vessel called an evaporator and
the vapor is extracted by an evacuator, which
simultaneously compresses the vapor and trans
thereof.
v
On the drawing, Figure 1 shows an outline of
one form of the invention, and
Figure 2 is a top view indicating how the in 5
vention can be employed when the evaporator
contains several chambers; and
Figure 3 is a section of a detail.
at higher pressure is needed to remove a given
On the drawing the numeral i indicates an
evaporator to which a liquid refrigerant, such as 10
water, is supplied by way of a pipe 2. In the
evaporator this ‘pipe is connected to a spray de
vice 3 which delivers the water in the form of
several jets. Some of the water is vaporized at
once, while the remainder settles on the ?oor 15
of the evaporator and is withdrawn through a
conduit 4 which carries the chilled water to a
amount of water-vapor from the evaporator; and
place where the refrigerating eiiect is desired.
fers it to a condenser to liquefy it. If the evacua
tor is a steam jet ejector, both the vapor from
the evaporator and the steam used in the opera
tion of the jet are lique?ed in the condenser.
When the pressure in the condenser is high
15
\ with respect to that in the evaporator, more steam
Here the water absorbs heat and can be returned
by way of the conduit 2 and be used again.
20
At the top of the evaporator is an evacuator in‘
the evaporator is reduced.
An object of the invention is to provide means the form of a steam-jet ejector or thermo-com
whereby the consumption of steam is regulated’ pressor 5 connected to a condenser 6 by way of a
in accordance with pressure conditions in the discharge casing 7 of the usual design. The ejec
evaporator and condenser, the pressure in the tor 5 is supplied with steam through a pipe 8 and 25
one being opposed to the pressure in the other in operation, the steam creates a su?iciently high
and the quantity of steam expended being nicely - vacuum in the evaporator I to start the evapora
controlled by the resultant e?ect thereof, so that tion and transfer the vapor from the evaporator .
to the condenser 6. During operation the neces
waste of power is avoided.
Another object of the invention is to facilitate sary vacuum is maintained by the ejector 5. ,
30
starting of the apparatus without interference
In practice several pounds of steam must be
from any of the controlling devices in the system. used for every pound of water vapor that is ex
tracted from the evaporator l. The quantity of
An additional object of the invention is to pro
vide a member between ‘the condenser and the steam needed varies according to either the re
evaporator subjected to pressure conditions in frigerating load or the temperature of the water 35
both so that an element therein'will be actuated supplied to the condenser to cool the latter. In
to regulate the steam for the ejector as working either case the‘conditions inside the condenser
conditions demand; and to enable the connection undergo a change and theoperation of the steam
jet ejector is ‘a?ected thereby. When the pres
of the evaporator with said member to be inter
rupted when the evacuator is not working. This‘ sure and temperature within the condenser in- 40
crease, more steam is necessary, and if these fac
arrangement is particularly useful when a multi
chamber evaporator is employed to enable the tors rise too high, the operation of the steam-jet
system to operate through a. wide range of load ejector may even be stopped. When used for this
purpose, the steam-jet ejector has a substantially
from full load to part load.
. '
constant
and the quantity of water va- 45
A further object of the invention is to provide per whichcapacity
it will- remove from the evaporator at
means whereby the maintenance of conditions the
low vaporization pressures usually employed
as above outlined for the correct operation of the and deliver to the condenser is approximately the
invention is always assured.
.
,
same, regardless of the amount of steam used, so
_ These and other objects and advantages of the long ‘as the pressure in the evaporator remains 50
invention are set forth in the following descrip
unchanged. Also a steam-jet ejector can not be ‘
tion and the novel features are pointed outin the regulated ordinarily by hand, but must be turned
appended claims. The disclosure, however, is il ‘on full at whatever pressure the'steam is supplied.
less steam at lower pressure is required when the
di?erence in the pressures of the condenser and
25
30
v35
40
4
'50
lustrative only and many changes maybe made
55 in practice without departing from the principle
To regulate such an ejector therefore, requires
means which will permit the ejector to discharge 55
a
2
oi
aoaaioe
just the right quantity of steam and no more, to
produce the maximum vapor-removal e?‘ect rfor
the pressure and temperature prevailing in the
one wall of a casing 3i connected by a pipe 32 to '
evaporator atga given moment.
the steam pipe 24 of the assooiatedechamber be
-
The pressure in the condenser, of course, ep
posesizthe admission of steam and. vapor, andgif
this pressure "exceeds a predetermined amount,
and the ejector ceases to operate no more water
will be cooled?for the time until the evaporation
pressure has greatly increased and the tempera
tends to be closed by spring 28. Each stern has
a head 29 made fast to a. diaphragm 30, forming
tween the evacuator therefor and the hand valve
33 which controls same. Whenevergthe steam jet
of any chamber is working the pressure of the
steam will open the valve 25 in the'vent 25 so as
to connect that chamber to the member 9, but
when any chamber is cut cut the springv 28 will 10
close the valve 26 thereof so that this chamber
ture of the chilled water has risen to a consider
able extent. To obtain regulation in the manner . will not communicate with'the member 9.
required by the above conditions, theiibottom'of
With this construction ifathe apparatus is op
the condenser and the top of :the evaporator are erated with all chambers and all ejectors work
15 connected by a U-shaped trap member 9 which
ing, and the load drops, one or moreof the cham 15
contains a ?oat element I10. This element it is bers can be cut out simply by turning the one or
mounted uponan arm H ?xed to a pivot 52 that more hand valves '{33 in the branch steam pipes
extends outside of the member 9. On its exterior 24, similar ,valves 35 in branches 35 of the return
end the pivot 82 bears a rigid arm 03 joined byea or supply pipe 2 and valves (not shown’) in
link 44 to an arm idiot a rotary valve to in the branches of the discharge pipe d connected to the 2:‘in,
steam pipe 8." The trap member will ?ll with the
various chambers." With '*only the remaining
condensate in the condenser and as the pressure chambers in operation less steam and water va
in the condenser is always higher than in the por are discharged into the condenser, and the
‘evaporator, the liquid in the member a will rise water ?owing through the condenser becomes
25 to a certain height dependingnpon the di?‘erence
copler and the pressure in the condenser iirops.
between the condenser pressure and the evapora ‘Hence the ?oat element operates to out idownx
tor pressure. 1 Then the ?oat will rise or fall to the volume and pressure of the steam which is
open or close’: the valve 86 as the opposed pres
used; in the ejectors of the remaining chambers.
sures in the condenser and evaporator vary. For The reduced load can thus be carried economical
30 example, if the condenser vacuum increases, that lyiand steam is saved. When the load again in 3G
is, itithe pressure in, the condenser diminishes
while5 the pressure in the evaporator remains the
.same'ithe valves will be closed to some extent be
cause; less steam at lower pressure will thenfhe
creases so that more chambers in the evaporator
and more ejectors have to be used again, the
vacuum will become less in the condenser and the
back pressure against the steam arid water vapor
needed to evacuate the evaporator i.‘ The sag-me
will be increased.
result will follow if the vacuum ‘decreases and the
the steam valve i6 to supply more steam athigh
pressure increases in the evaporator while the
pressure in, the condenser remains ?xed, because
er pressure to the ejectors. Thej?oat element
then at higher pressure the amount 03 vapor cre
ated in the evaporator will be smaller. On the
to lmake this valve responsive to'ivariations in
load that are smaller thari the variations which
take place when one or niore chambers are put
into operation or put out, to permit more or less
steam at higher or'iower pressures to ?ow through
other hand, h’ the absolute pressure
the con
denser rises, or in the evaporator it decreases, the
valve is opened further to admit more steam at
higher pressure to the ejector" 5. In other words
more steam at higher pressure will be supplied to
the ejector when the ratio between the condenser
pressure and the evaporator pressure goes up, and
the quantity. and pressure of the steam will be
reduced when this ratio grows less.
50
As illustrated in Figure 1, the member Q is ad
jacent one end of the evaporator and the con
denser and the steanf pipe 8 is bent as required at
. H to reach the ejector 5.
A by-pass 8 can be arranged around the valve
v55 l6 and in
by-pass is a valve is. The lay-pass
is used when'j the apparatus isstarted so that the
supply of steam will be independent of the opera
tion Zof the float it. -When the apparatus is work
ing ivell, theby-pass is closed to enable the ?oat
60 it and valve 56 to function.
The member 9 is united to the condenser byjthe
pipeilt and the drain pipe 26 of the condenser
vrisesiabove the bottom thereof as shown atf?i’
to cause enough condensate to collect on the bot
tom bf the condenser to ?ll the trap a, At itsrtop
the member 9 is joined to the evaporator by the
pipe 22.
_
'_
,
_
L
'
The evaporator may consist of two or more
The ?oat element now opens 35
it can be connected to the main valve ‘l6 so as
the ejectors of the chambers in the evaporators
that are active. ;
45
Another, function of the device is to control
the ‘system if the cooling water supplied to the
condenserjto liquefy' the steam and vapor, changes
in temperature. In that case the pressure inthe
condenser changes and the regulating device
operated by the ?oat ele
patent to vary the amount and pressure of; steam
delivered to the nozzles of the ejectors accprding
to" the pressure di?erence, or pressure‘ ratio be:
tween the outlet and inlet pressures of the ejec-_
toEs. If for any reason the’ condenser pressure
rises while the pressure in the eyaporator does
not change, more steam at higher pressure will
be admitted to the ejectors, and if the condenser
pressure falls, less steam at lower pressure will
be admitted. If on the/other hand‘ the con
denser pressure remains substantially ?xed and
the evaporator pressure lrises as when an in
crease in load takes place, this means a lower 65
pressure ratio and less resistance of the ?ow
into the condenser. The jiralve element now cuts
chambers separated by partitions 23 as shown in
down-the steam as before. If ‘on the other hand
while the condenser pressure does not change,
the evaporator pressure drops, a risein the pres
and i9 and the chambers are all connected in
sure ratio thus occurs and the valve will then‘
parallel by separate vents .2 Hzo the trap member
open to supply more steam as required. With
this construotionz'a great saving in supply of
steam in the operation of ‘the apparatus at light
9. Each of these'vents 25 will contains. valve 26
75 the stem 27 of which projects to the outside and
as
works as :before. ‘
W,El‘he vali’e M is thus
70 Figure 2. In this case the steam pipe 8 will be
provided with branches 24 beyondthe valves i6‘
40'
as
2,029,106
loads or with cold condenser water is accom
plished and the cost of operation is reduced.
3
member connected to regulate the power medium
~for the evacuatonand means for cutting off the
connection of said member to the evaporator
To oiiset any waste of steamln case of. an in
creased vacuum within the evaporator I, such ‘ when the evacuator is not operating.
as will arise if there is a considerable drop in
load, I. employan additional regulating device,
preferably of the thermostatic type, to cut down
the volume and pressure of the steam. This
device comprises a bulb or the like element 36,
10 mounted in the discharge conduit 4, and subject
to the chilled water temperature thereof. It is
connected by a piece of tubing 31 to suitable
mechanism indicated at 38, comprising a movable
rod or member 39 joined to the arm of a valve
15 40 similar to the valve 16, in the steam pipe 8.
The valve I6 is between the valve 40 and the
evaporator. Consequently, whenever the chilled
water temperature drops too much, as when the
load falls greatly and a considerable increase in
the evaporator vacuum ensues, the larger open
ing of the valve l6 willbe balanced by the partial
closing of the valve 40. In the bulb 36 and tube‘
31 will be an expansible ?uid by which the mem
ber 39 will be actuated whenever the chilled water
25. temperature sinks to a predetermined ?gure. A
full description of this thermostatic regulator is
not necessary, as various kinds known to those
skilled in this art will serve the purpose. The
thermostatic regulator may also be designed to
30 respond to thermal changes in a medium other
than ?uid if desired. So long as the system
operates above the minimum chilled water tem
perature selected, the valve 40 will be fully open,
and the system will then be controlled by the
valve i6 as described.
I
In Figure 1, the valves 26, 33, 34 and ID are
omitted for the sake of cleamess. _
I claim.‘
'
1. The combination of an evaporator,
2. The combination of an evaporator, a jet- 5
operated evacuator therefor, a condenser to which
the evacuator delivers, a trap member connected
to the condenser and the evaporator, an element
in the trap member to regulate thepower medium
for the evacuator, and means controlled by the 10
pressure of said medium to cut off communica
tion between said member and said'evaporatore
when the evacuator is not operating.
3. The combination of an evaporator, a jet
operated evacuator for same, a condenser to which 15
said evacuator delivers, a trap member connected
to the evaporator and condenser and subject to
pressure conditions in both, an element in the
member connected to control the power medium
for the evacuator, means for rendering said .ele- 20
ment ineifective at starting, and means actuated
by the power for the evactuator to cut off com
munication between the evaporator and said
member when the evacuator is not working.
4. A refrigerating system comprising an evapo- 25
rator chamber, an evacuator therefor, a con
denser to which the evacuator delivers, means
communicating with the condenser and evapo
rator and containing an element to control the
evacuator and a connection for cutting off said 30
chamber from said means when the chamber is
not working.
5. A refrigerating system comprising an evapo
rator chamber, an evacuator therefor, a condenser
to which the evacuator delivers, means communi- 35
cating with the condenser and evaporator and
containing an element to control the evacuator
and a connection for cutting o? said chamber
an , from said means when the chamber is not work
40 evacuator, therefor, a condenser‘ to which the
evacuator delivers, a member connected to the
evaporator "and condenser, an element in said
ing, said connections being dependent on said 40
evacuator.
JOHN KIRGAN.
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