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April 28, 1936.
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I 2,038,580 I,
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING STEAM -
Filed Jan. '7, 1927
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING STEAM
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING STEAM
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Patented Apr. 28, 1936
2,038,580
UNITED STATES
2,038,580
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR~ .
GENERATING STEAM
,Walter Douglas La Mont, Larchmont, N. "2., as
signor to La Mont Corporation, New York, N. .Y.,
a corporation of New York
'
Application January 7, 1927, Serial No. 159,572
30 Claims. (01. 122-1)
This invention relates to methods of generating
steam and other vapors and to generators there
for.
‘
'
-
In the past it has been proposed to ‘increase
5 the e?iciency of steam generators by auxiliary
erator.
I do not claim in this application posi
tively circulated auxiliary‘circuits in which no
table amounts of vapor are generated at a pres
sure materially higher or lower than that obtain
apparatus which serves to heat up the feed water
ing in the steam generator or generators, this 5
forming part of the subject matter of my co
and which .may be placed‘in the stack of I the
pending application, Serial No. 115,169, ?led June
generator furnace or any other suitable point.
11, 1926.
,
’ While in its broader aspects the present inven
10 distinct improvement in generator e?iciency but tion is not concerned with any particular type 10
they are ,open'to a number of disadvantages. . vof positively circulated auxiliary heating circuit,
Thus; for example, the circulation of water or in its preferred and more speci?c embodiments
other liquid through the ‘tubes is relatively slow, the present invention includes auxiliary econo
as only the water actually transformed into steam m'zer circuits in which the water is circulated
15 in the steam generator has to be made up by the through the heating elements ‘in the form of a 15
?lm and in some of. the modi?cations preferably
introduction .. of fresh amounts of feed water.
This relatively sluggish ?ow renders the econo
in the form of a ?lm on the inside of tubular
mizer e‘ements liable to the formation of scale heating elements which for brevity will be termed
and when the steam demands on the generator “La Mo-nt ?lm tubes” and which may advanta
20 are'very variable it sometimes happens that a geously embody some or most of. the structural 20
temporary cessation in steam demand with a cor
features of the La Mont ?lm tube steam genera‘
responding cessation of flow of Water through the tors such as are described in my prior patent, No.
Economizers of the common type represent a
economizer is not accompanied by a corresponding '
reduction in the amount of heat applied to the
25 generators and correspondingly the amount of
waste heat available to heat the economizer. As
a result there is danger of steam locking the
economizer‘ elements unless they are placed in a
temperature zone so low as to be inef?cient.
30
The present invention has for its object the
' combination of a liquid heating means perform- -
ing the function of an economizer with primary
vapor generators which combination avoids~in
part or in who-1e the disadvantages inherent in
‘35 economizers hitherto used. A further object of
‘the present invention consists in an improvement
of the circulation of primary vapor generators
whereby the combination increases the e?iciency
of. the generator, not only by an economizer ac
‘19 tion but by an actual increase of generator e?l
‘ ciency within the generator itself. Other and
1,545,668, and my co-pending application, Serial
No. 32,064, ?led May 22, 1925. '
'
Film tube economizers with the extraordinarily 25
high heat transfer which the ?lm principle makes
possible, particularly when associated with a suit~
able arrangement of tubes so as to achieve ad
vantageous gas velocities and hydraulic mean
depths, are particularly important in economizer 30
circuits and present in these circuits even greater
increases in e?‘iciency than in steam generators,
since economizers are commonly operated by
means of heat sources at a relatively much lower
initial temperature than is the case with steam 35
generators. Accordingly the high e?iciency of
La Mont ?lm tube economizer circuits permits a
very great increase in over-all e?iciency since the
temperature of stack gases, where the economizer
is placed in the stack of a generator, or of other 40
waste heat gases may be reduced to a very low
further advantages and objects of the invention
?gure.
will be apparent from the following more detailed
In the ordinary economizer in which the
Water is circulated directly in series through the
economizer into the generator the object is not 45
to generate steam in the economizer and any
steam which may be generated in minor
amounts is introduced into the main steam gen
erator. In fact, if a conventional economizer is
permitted to generate relatively considerable 50
quantities of steam there is‘ a serious tendency
. description taken in conjunction with the draw
45 ings which illustrate some typical modi?cations of
the present invention. I
'
,
f
‘Essentially the present invention consists of
one or more primary steam generators and an
associated auxiliary heating circuit provided with
0‘a positive independent‘ circulation from which
circulation water is fed to the steam generators
in accordance with their demands.» In the pre
,
for-‘the tubes to steam lock which may either
cause burning out of the‘tubes or even if this
pressure in the auxiliary circuit iswsubstantially ' does not occur reduces the- heat transfer ef
terred embodiments of the present invention the
the same or slightly more than in the steam gen
?ciency of the elements.
It'is therefore the 55
2
2,038,580
practice in common types of economizers to pre
vent the formation of any considerable amounts
of steam.
The positively circulated auxiliary economizer
circuits of the present invention may be run on
this same general principle, that is, with the ob
ject of generating as little‘ steam as possible.
With a positively circulated economizer circuit
it is, however, possible to separate out steam
10 easily and readily and to unite the steam with
that of the main generator or to use it sep
arately.
Such a circuit which performs the
function of an economizer and an auxiliary gen
erator and which at times may perform solely
15 the one function or solely the other or a combi
nation of both will hereafter be referred to as
an “economizer generator circuit” and it is an
advantage of some of the more speci?c embodi
ments of the‘ present invention that valuable
20 economies can be effected by utilizing econo
mizer generator circuits. This is particularly
true when ?lm tube ‘circuits of the La Mont type
are used for the reason that with high stack
temperatures such as are frequently encountered
with common types of mass boiling generators
when they are forced to very high ratings, the
amount ‘of heat available in the stack gases and
which may be absorbed by suitable ?lmitubes is
greatly in excess of the amount of heat neces
30 sary to heat up the feed water for the steam
generator. In such cases, ‘steam may be gen
erated in smaller or larger quantities in a ?lm
tube economizer generator circuit and a maxi
mum. utilization of the heat of the gases may
35 thereby be realized. Moreover the system is ex
which must be determined for each individual
case in accordance with the operating condi
tions encountered in the particular installation.
When full tube economizer circuits or econo
mizer generator circuits are utilized they will in
general maintain a pressure substantially the
same as that in the main generator or rather
slightly in excess so as to effect feeding. When,
however, ?lm economizer circuits are used it is
usually not practical to- maintain a pressure in 10
the economizerelements themselves which is
equal to that of the steam generator unless the
economizer is also a generator of considerable
amounts of steam. Accordingly, in the ordinary
?lm tube economizer circuit of the present in 15
vention suitable valves must be provided in con
junction with the circulating pump or other de
vice, so that while the pressure in the econo
mizer elements themselves and in many cases
throughout the connections between the ele 20
ments and the suction of the pump, is much
lower than that obtaining in the steam gen
erator and may in fact-be but little, if any, above
atmospheric pressure, the pressure in the por-'
tion of the circuit from the'discharge of the 25
pump to the ?lm elements is equal to or usually
slightly in excess‘ of that of the steam generator.
This can be effected by suitable throttle valves
in the circulating connections and in some ex
treme cases may be maintained by the drop in 30
pressure through the ?lm element injection
nozzles or ori?ces, although, for most purposes,
this drop in pressure is insu?icient and is diiii~
cult to regulate.
'
The maintenance of the proper pressure and 35
the amounts of water fed from the economizer
circuit into the steam generator or in the case of
care of by ~an economizer generator circuit of a plurality of generators into the different gen
moderate size. The constant circulation of water . erators, can be effected by manual control or by
40 prevents the burning out of tubes and aids .in automatic control or by a combination of the two. 40
I prefer, in most cases, to provide suitable water
maintaining freedom from scale, and wide ?uc
levels in the ?lm economizer elements or their
N ‘ tuationsin stack gas heat content and volume
can be taken care of by generating more 0E less connections and in the steam generator and oper
ate their valves controlling the amount of water
.steam in'the economizer generator circuit.
The amount of water circulated through the fed from the economizer circuit into the generator 45
45
and the pressure in the pump discharge circuit
economizer circuits or economizer generator cir
cuits of the present invention may vary within from these various levels. It will be clear to the
wide limits. The amount of circulation is in skilled‘ engineer that a very large number of pos
sible control modi?cations can be used to bring
most cases a compromise. For maximum ther
50 mal ‘e?icien‘cy the circulationshould be practi— about this effect. Some arrangements which I 50'
cally no greater than the amount of feed water have found to be desirable in certain cases are
illustrated in the drawings but it should be
introduced, so that the water entering the cool
est portion of the economizer elements is at, a clearly understood that the invention ‘is in no
minimum temperature and is thereby capable of sense limited to these particular control arrange
abstracting a maximum of heat from the stack ments and, on the contrary, any suitable control
gases, particularly where ‘the latter flow over the may be used andthe proper control or combina
economizer elements counter to the flow of tions of controls will be determined by the skilled '
water in'contact therewith, the most efficient engineer in each particular instance, taking into
and preferred arrangement. It is, however, not consideration the operating conditions which ob
60
60 possible to take care of considerable fluctuations
of feed water demands of a steam generator
Film economizer circuits, according to the pres
with a circulation which is so small and if full ent invention, in which the pressure existing in
tubes are utilized the water velocity through the ?lm elements and in the connections be
the tubes may be insu?icient to assure the pre
tween the ?lm elements and the suction of the
65 vention of steam locking, and to provide for a' pump is considerably lower than that obtaining 65
desirable scouring action to maintain the tubes in the steam generator, present a'very important
" free from scale. When ?lm tube economizer ele
advantage. In the ?rst place, the suction of the
tremely flexible and wide variations in stack gas
temperature or, volume or both may be taken
tain.
, ments are used the circulation can be very great
1y reduced because the travel of the film re
70 quires a very much smaller volume of water than
is necessary with full tubes. In all cases, how
ever, the circulation must be determined in order
to achieve a maximum of safety and thermal ef
?ciency and this invention is not essentially con
cerned with any de?nite circulation amounts
I
'
circulating pump is not under great pressure and '
the problem of suitable stufling boxes to prevent 70
leakage is greatly simpli?ed and where the pres¢
sure is not greater than that of the atmosphere,
practically nonexistent.
'
The same lower pressure permits the introduc-,
tion in this portion of the circuit of relatively 75
3
2,038,580
large drums or other vessels without excessively
heavy construction. While it is an advantage to
keep the actual circulation through the ?lm ele
ments at a very low amount when compared to the
amount of feed water introduced there is a dis
tinct advantage in providing a satisfactorily large
reserve volume in the circuit to take care of sud
den ?uctuations in demand.
This can be done
simply in ?lm economizer circuits by means of
10 relatively thin walled drums or other storage res
ervoirs which can be inserted in the low pressure
portion of the circuit. The large volumes of water
which may thus be retained in the circuit without
decreasing its thermal e?‘iciency also renders it a
15
simple and easy matter to separate the impurities
from the feed water by well known puri?cation
processes. It is an added advantage therefore of
?lm tube economizer circuits that simple and re
‘ liable means for removing solids from the feed
20 water can be incorporated in them without the
necessity of expensive structure.
_
The advantages of low pressure in a portion of
the economizer circuit are particularly simply
and easily obtained with ?lm economizer circuits.
25 It should be understood, however, that a similar
advantage can be obtained in full element
economizer circuits although not as readily. The
invention therefore includes circuits having zones
of low pressure, irrespective of whether the cir
30 cuits utilize ?lm elements or full elements.
In the general description which has been given
above ?lm elements and full elements have been
’ discussed as two sharply divided and qualitatively
di?erent systems. As a matter of fact, however,
35 there is no absolutely sharp line since, if the‘
amount of water introduced into the top of an
element is gradually increased the ?lm which
Figure 3 illustrates a ?lm tube generator and
separately heated economizer;
_
Figure 4 illustrates a vertical water tube boiler
with an economizer in the stack;
Figure 5 illustrates an inclined water tube boiler
with an economizer in the stack;
Figure 6 illustrates a combination of a positive—
ly circulated water tube generator and a common
type of water tube generator having convection
circulation;
.
Figure 7 illustrates the combination of two sep
arate water tube boilers associated with a single
economizer circuit;
'
Figure 8 illustrates the combination of a wa
ter wall, a common type of water tube generator 15
and a ?re tube economizer;
Figure 9 illustrates the application of an econ
omizer circuit of the present invention to a com
mon type of water tube generator and feed wa
ter heater; and
,
.
20
Figure 10 is an enlarged sectional detail of a
header and a portion of a tube showing the injec
tion ori?ces.
In the constructions shown in Figure l, a con
ventional type of ?lm tube. generator is shown
having upper- headers l,»lower headers 2, tubes
3, a pot 9 and a pump 4. The circulation is from
the pump 4 through the pipe 5 into the upper
headers I which are provided with. ori?ces as
shown in Figure 10 whence the water ?ows in the 30
form of ?lm down through the tubes 3 into the
lower headers 2 and into the pot 9 where steam is
separatedand taken off through the pipe 6 pro
vided with a control valve 1 and excess water is
returned to the pump through the‘ pipe 8.
The economizer which is located in the stack '
above the ?lm tube generator consists in upper
I ?rst forms will increase in thickness until the
headers I I, lower headers l2, tubes l3, pot l9,
element approaches a condition in_which it is
40 di?icult to determine whether it is a full element
pump l4 and circulating pipes l5 and I8 connect
ing the pump'with the upper headers II and pot
l9 respectively. A steam take-off from the pot I9
is effected through the pipe l6 provided with a
control valve ll, the pipe joining the main steam
pipe 6,. The water circuits of the economizer and
or whether a true ?lm exists for the full length
of the‘ tube element.
Thus, for example, as the
amount of water introduced into a tube is gradu
ally increased, the tube may be _full for a short
45 distance from the top and ‘the water may then
gradually form a ?lm. The present invention is
therefore not limited to two de?nitely demarcated
types of economizer circuits and includes any
positively circulated economizer circuit whether
50 ?lm or full element or some intermediate condi
tion.
.
'
the generator are connected through the 131128 2| 45
which leads from the pipe 15 to the pipe 8 and is
provided with a control valve 22. Feed water for
both, systems is introduced into the pipe I5
through the pipe 23 provided with a control valve
24. The pots 9 and I9 are provided respectively -'
with water level controls In and 20 which in
‘The combinations which are possible particu ' turn actuate the valves 22 and 24.
larlyvwith economizer generator circuits render
In operation water is circulated through the
the present invention extremely ?exible in its ap
generator circuit by means of the pump 4. steam
plication, particularly to installations operated by
being generated and passing off through the pipe ' ‘
a plurality of heat sources which [may be in
6. At the same time water is being circulated
through the economizer circuit‘ by means of the
termittent or ?uctuating and also ‘installations
in which a very variable steam demand is present. . pump l4, the pressure of the two circuits being
Such combinations automatically adjust them
selves to varying demands and maintain a high
.thermal ef?ciency throughout. Economizer cir
cuits of the present invention may be associated
with any known types of steam generator,
65 whether ?lm tube, water tube, ?re tube or ?ash,
and this wide range of applicability is one of the
advantages of the invention.
The invention will be described in greater de
tail in connection with the drawings, in which
Figure 1 is .a diagrammatic section through a
?lm tube generator and economizer generator
situated in the same stack;
7
‘
'
Figure 2 is a similar section of a modi?ed type
of ?lm tube generator and ?lm tube economizer
75 having series gas ?ow;
substantially. the same. Obviously, of course, the
pressure in pipe 5.is slightly higher than in the 60
pipe 8 to compensate for the pressure drop
through the ori?ces in the upper headers l and
correspondingly the pressure in the pipe I 5 is
slightly in excess of that in the pipe l8. As the
water level falls in the pot 9 and connecting pipe
8, the water level control I0 operates to open the
valve 22, permitting water from the pipe l5 to
?ow into the pipe 8 and therefore into the circu
lation of the generator circuit. This results in a
lowering of the water level in the pot I!) of the
economizer and the associated pipe l8 and causes
thewater level control 20 to operate the valve
24 introducing feed water into the pipe I5, whence
it is circulated through the headers ll . and‘ tubes
l3 and is heated by the gases passing up the stack. 75
4
" 2,038,580
The economizer circuit may be run either as a
that in the main generator and accordingly a
suitable throttle valve 26 is provided in the pipe
straight economizer or as an economizer gener
ator by opening or closing the valve II. If the ' I IS in order to reduce the pressure to a suitable
circuit is‘ run with the tubes’ l3 full of water it
is possible to run the circuit either as a straight
point.
economizer or as an economizer generator. If,
however, the headers II are provided with in
jection ori?ces as shown in Figure 10 and the cir:
cuit is operated as a ?lm tube circuit the valve
I‘! is preferably permitted to remain open and the
circuit then operates as an economizer gener
' ator, any steam generated being separated in
the pot l9 and passing through the pipe I6 into
the pipe 6, where it mixes with the steam from
the main generator.
.
.
This construction presents numerous advan
tages. In the ?rst place it is possible to provide
a large settling tank 25 of relatively cheap con
struction since it is under a comparatively‘low
pressure and may even be at atmospheric pres
sure or below. A relatively light and inexpensive 10
construction’ is thereby made possible; In the
same manner, the problem of keeping the stuf?ng
box of the pump tight is practically eliminated
due to the low pressure. A further advantage
lies in the fact that since the pressure in the ele
The pressure maintained in the pipe l5 by the ments I3 is very much lower than in the main
pump I4 is such that all of the feed water has generator, the water temperature is correspond
to pass through the tubes '13 before it enters the ingly low throughout‘the full length of the tubes
main generator circuit and is therefore warmed ' and therefore the stack gases can be reduced to 20
up, abstracting a corresponding amount of heat an exceedingly low temperature and in general to
from the gases passing over the tubes ‘l3. The a considerably lower temperature than is possible
when economizer generators! are run at the same
temperature of the water entering the headers l l
_ is kept "at a minimum as it is cooled by the in
coming .feed water for both circuits and.‘ it is
25. therefore possible to reduce the temperature of
"the stack gases to a very low point with corre
spondingly high over-all e?iciency. Wide ?uctu
ations in ?ring and in the rating under which the
main generator operates are easily taken care of,
30 as even if the rating is increased to the point
“where .thestack gases are very hot, the econo
mizer generator "can‘readily take care of the extra
heat by the evolution of an increased amount‘
of. steam which is added to that of the main gen
35
erator and utilized.
'
_
It should be ,understood that‘ Figure 1 and the
-: other drawings in this application are purely dia
grammatic and many structural features and ac
'
pressure as the main generator as illustrated in
Figure 1.
‘
i
A modi?ed feed control is'shown, the water
level ‘I0 not only controlling the valve 22 but also
the feed valve 24 which introduces feed water
into both systems. Obviously, of course, a sepa
rate water level can be provided on the tank 25,‘
for controlling the ~valve 24, as is shown in Fig 30
ure ‘1. In fact, either method’ of control canbe
used in connection with either system and any
other suitable control method may be substituted
therefor. In this respect the drawings are not
intended to limit the invention but merely illus 35'
trate a number of suitable modi?cations.
In Figure 3 a separately heated economizer
circuit is shown, the type illustrated being con
n'ected to a source of intermittent waste heat such
cessories which are unnecessary to show the novel
40
40 methddsgof operation of the present invention as, for example, a water gas plant, a suitable
valve
26
being
provided
to
control
the
heating
have been omitted for the sake of simplicity. Of ~
course, in actual installation such suitable struc
tural features and accessories, such as safety
valves, blow-offs and the like .will be included. Inv
45 general, the'?lm tube generators and'economizer generator circuits shown in Figure ,1 may be pro
,
vided with any of the structural features or ac- -
cessories which are described and illustrated in
50
my prior patent and application above referred to.
As the temperature of the heating gases de
creases they shrink in volume and it is- desirable
in many cases to reduce the gas passage corre
spondingly in order to maintain high velocity
which is desirable in effecting efficient heat
55 transfer.
In the drawings this effect has been
achieved bydecreasing the spacing of the tubes
l3 inthe direction of gas flow. ‘Obviously, of
course, a similar arrangement can be utilized in
connection with the tubes 3 and in general such
60 modi?cations of the structure and arrangement
' of the generators as may prove desirable are in
cluded in the present invention.
‘
»
In Figure 2 a ?lm tube‘ generator and associ
ated ?lm tube economizer isshown, but no pro
vision is made for generating and separating any
considerable volumes of steam in the economizer >
_ circuit. Similar elements bear the same numer
als as in Figure 1_. Instead of_ providing a steam
gas ?ow. The economizer generator circuit is
connected to the main generator circuit in the‘
same manner as in Figure 1 andthe same parts
are designated by the same numerals. A very 45.
efficient utilization of waste heat is made possible
by the fact that whenever the waste heat gases
flow through the economizer generator their‘ heat
is absorbed and efficiently. utilized either in the
form of sensible heat‘of the water introduced into 50
the main steam generating circuit or in the form
of steam when the amount of waste heat is suf
?cient to raise steam. Wide ?uctuations in
amount and duration of waste heat are easily
taken care of by the arrangement shown which
is very ?exible and is applicable to a number of
different types of installation.
-
Instead of waste heat a separately ?red econo
mizer may be used and in certain cases is ad
vantageous. Thus, for example, a cheap fuel,
such as, for example, low grade coal slack or
breeze can be used, requiring a steady even ?ring
and the main steam generator may be ?red by
powdered coal or oil or some other source of heat
which can be varied rapidly. The relatively low
temperature which is produced by ?ring the low
grade fuel is effectively utilized as the economizer
generator circuit may be efficiently operated at
very low vratings.
’
outlet from the pot is of the economizer both
A single separately heated economizer-gener 70
70 the water and any steam which may be formed
ator
circuit may be associated with a. single main
pass through the pipe l8 connecting pot [9 with '
the pump I4. In this pipe 18 is the large tank
' 25 where impurities introduced by the feed water
may be separated. The ‘pressure
the econo
mizer tubes themselves is very much” lower than
generator or a‘ plurality of economizer circuits
maybe associated with a single generator or a
single economizer circuit with a plurality of gen
erators. The most satisfactory and e?icient ar 75
,
5
2,038,580
rangement will be determined in any case by the
‘ It should be noted that. the invention is not .
skilled engineer and the present invention is not
in any sense limited ‘to the particular arrange
limited to the particular arrangement of controls
and other devices which are illustrated in the‘
drawings. Thus, for example, in Figure 1 a man
ually operated valve I1 is used to control the
steam output from the economizer generator cir
cuit, whereas in Figure 4 a check valve 34 per
ment shown.
-
Figure 4 illustrates a combination of a positively
circulated economizer generator with a vertical
water tube boiler of the Wickes type. The Wickes
boiler, which is of conventional design, consists
in an upper drum 21, lower drum 28, front water
10 tubes 29, rear water tubes 30 and a ba?le 3!.
The circulation in the Wickes boiler is the usual
convecltion circulation and is ordinarily down
ward in the tubes 30 and upward- in the tubes 29.
Steam is separated in the drum .21 passing out
15 through the pipe 32 controlled by the valve 33.
The economizer which is placed in the stack
is of similar design to that shown in Figure 1,‘
consisting in‘ upper headers H, lower headers l2,
pot l9 and tubes l3. The steam space of the pot
20 I9 is connected to the steam space of the drum
2‘! by means of the pipe 16 provided with a check
valve 34. Water from the pot l9 passes through
the pipe l8 into the pump l4, whence it is circu
lated back to the upper headers H through the
pipe ISL - Feed is introduced into the-pipe I5 near
the upper headers I I by means of the pipe 23 con
trolled by the valve 24, which'is in turn actuated
by the water level control 20 operating on the
water level in the pipe I8 and pot I9. A valve
35a is also provided in the pipe I5 when it is de
sired to run the economizer as a ?lm tube econo
mizer without generating steam. The circula
tion in the economizer circuit is precisely the samev
as that described in Figure l and any steam gen
erated mixes with the steam in the Wickes boiler.
The check valve 34, however, takes the place of
the manually adjustable valve H in Figure 1, and
prevents back ?ow of steam from the Wickes
boiler to the economizer circuit, should the latter
40 at any time be at a lower pressure.
Feed is introduced into the Wickes boiler from
the pipe l5'through the pipe 36, controlled by the
valve 31, which is in turn actuated by the water
level control 38 operating on the upper drum 21.
Preferably, the pipe 36 is carried into the drum
28 and discharges directly into the bottom of the '
tubes 29 in order to effect a maximum improve
ment of circulation in the. Wickes boiler. In
many cases it is desirable to provide the pipe with
nozzies which actually project into the tubes 29.
In operation, water is circulated through the
economizer circuit either in a full tube or ?lm
tube condition and any steam which is generated
passes off through the pipe l6 and check valve
34 into the drum 21. When the economizer cir
forms a similar function.
Obviously, of course, a
check'valve can be used in the modi?cation shown
in Figure 1 and a manually operated valve in the 10
modi?cation shown in Figure 4, or a combination
of manually operated and check valves may be
used in either case. Other methods of control
may also be utilized such as automatic control
15
of valve 3541.
=' _
The arrangement shown in Figure 4 is an un- ‘
usually e?‘lcient arrangement since it renders
practical operation of the Wickes type of boiler
at relatively high ratings which would otherwise
be very wasteful owing to the fact that the Wickes 20
type of boiler cannot ordinarily be forced to high
ratings without very serious stack losses. The
highly e?icient arrangement of economizer ele
ments serves to absorb the heatof the stack gases,
even when unusually high ratings are necessary.’ 25
A serious disadvantage of the Wickes type of
boiler is thus overcome and the present invention
makes it possible‘ to utilize Wickes boilers for pur
poses for which they were but poorly suited. A
further advantage of the modi?cation shown is 30
that it can be embodied in existing installations
with a minimum of rebuilding, thus making ‘possi
ble the economic utilization of the old installa
tions which had outgrown their usefulness and
also makes it possible to carry peak loads eco 35
nomically with boilers which had been designed
for much smaller loads. Gas velocity is main
tained throughout the whole economizer by pro
gressive decrease in size of the gas passages to
40
make up for shrinkage due to cooling.
In the modi?cation illustrated a single econo
mizer is associated with a single generator but
obviously, of course, one economizer may be used
to take care of a number of generators.
Figure 5 illustrates an economizer circuit asso d5
ciated with inclined tube water tube boiler of con
ventional design. The boiler consists in a drum
31, front headers 38, rear headers 39 and tubes
40, pipes 4| and. 42 connecting the drum to' the
headers 38 and 39 respectively. Steam is taken 60
off through the pipe 43 controlled by the throttle
valve 44. The circulation is of the usual convec
tion type.
The economizer circuit is similar to that shown
in Figure 2 and the corresponding parts bear the
cuit is operated as a ?lm tube economizer gener
same numerals.
ator, the operation is the same. When, however,
troduced through the pipe 23 controlled by the
valve 24 which is actuated by the water level con
trol 20 and is circulated by means of the pump 14
it is operated as a ?lm tube economizer without
generaiion of steam the pressure normally in'the
60 'tubes l3 will be lower than that which obtains in
the Wickes boiler and accordingly it is necessary
to introduce a pressure transformer between the
junction of the pipes l5. and 36 and the upper
headers I l in order to permit the maintenance of
u in a higher pressure in the pipe 36 than that which
obtains in the tubes l3. A simple throttle valve
35a can be used as pressure transformer or any
other suitable device may be substituted.
The feed into theWickes boiler is controlled
by the water level control 33 which determines
the amount of water fed from the pipe l5, where
as the feed into the economizer circuit is con
trolled by the water level ‘control 26, the control
arrangement being similar to that shown in Fig
ure 1.
In operation, feed water is in
through the tubes l3, the pressure being reduced
00'
by the pressure transformer 26 which is situated
in the pipe [5.‘ The ?lm tubes or elements l3
therefore operate at a very low pressure which
may be but little, if any, above atmospheric pres
sure. It is thus possible to reduce the tempera 65
ture of the stack gases to an exceedingly low ?g
ure and a relatively large settling tank and water
reservoir 25 can be provided without entailing ex
pensive construction. The low pressure also ren
ders the problem of tight stu?ing boxes in the 70
pump ‘l4 relatively simple.
Water for the water tube generator is fed
through the vpipe 45 which connects the pipe IS
with the pipes 42. A suitable control valve 46 is
provided in the pipe 45 and is actuated by a water 75
6
2,038,580
level control 41 operating on the drum. The ad
vantages of a low pressure in the heating ele
ments of the economizer circuit shown in Figure
5 are, of course, the same as those described in
pump 53 through the'pipe 8| into the space 19a
of the lower drum. A control valve v82 is pro
vided in the pipe 8I and is actuated by a'water ‘ -
level control 83 operating on the upper drum ‘I2.
The circulation in the Ladd generator is the
circuit arrangements are possible with othef'com- " usual convection circulation in the tube bundles
mon types of boilers‘ and only one or two typical ‘I4 and ‘I5. Feed water passes up through the
boilers are shown in the drawings, the invention . bundle ‘I6 into the upper drum aiding this circu
not being limited thereto nor to the particular - lation.
The combination of a single economizer gener 10
10 combination shown. Thus, for example, in Fig
ure 4, an economizer generator circuit isshown ator circuit with two common types of water boil
associated with a Wickes type boiler, whereas in er is shown in Figure '7. The two boilers illus
Figure 5 a straight ?lm economizer circuit is trated are a bent tube boiler of the Stirling type
shown in connection with an inclinedjtube water consisting in upper drums 84, 85, and 86 and a
lower drum 8‘! which is‘ connected to the upper 15
15 tube boiler. Obviously, of course, a lower pres
sure economizer circuit can be associated with a drums bylthe tube bundles 88, 89 and 90 respec
Wickes type boiler or an economizer generator tively. Steam and water spaces of drums 85, and
circuit with an inclined water tube boiler such as 86, are connected by pipes 9| and 92 respectively.
The second generator is a conventional type of
that shown in Figure 5;. In general, the particu
20 lar type of economizer or economizer generator cross drum inclined tube water tube boiler con 20
circuit to be used in any particular installation sisting in a steam drunY 93, tube headers 94 and
connection with Figure 2. Similar‘ economizer
95, collector drum 96, generating tubes 91 and
will be determined by the skilled steam engineer
in accordance with the operating conditions and
return tubes 98, the drums 93 and 96 being con
structural features of the installation.
nected with the‘headers 95 and 94 by the pipes
'
99 and I00, respectively. Steam is taken off_ in 25
In theforegoing ?gures special forms of econo
the usual manner from the drums 86 and 93 by
mizer circuits resembling La Mont ?lm tube gen
erators in their general arrangement have been steam pipes not shown. The gas circulation
shown. For many, if not most purposes, this through the generators is indicated by the arrows
general type of economizer circuit or economizer and induced draft is produced by two stack fans
IN and I02 respectively, which discharge into 50
30 generator circuit is the most suitable and con
stitutes the preferred form. ‘ Other types of posi— ducts I 03 and I 04 provided respectively with con
trol dampers I 05 and I06. The two ducts join
tively circulated economizer circuits may, how
25
into a single stack I01 in which a ?lm tube econo
ever, be used and in some cases present advan
tages. Such an arrangement is shown in Figure . mizer generator is located. The generator con
6, where a single pass Edgemoor boiler is shown sists in an upper collector header I08, upper 85
redesigned to give a positive circulation and act
ing as an economizer generator in association
with a Ladd type water tube boiler.
‘
headers I09, lower headers “0, tubes III and a
pot or collector II2. Circulation is downwardly
from the lowest point of the pot I I2 through the
The Edgemoor boiler consists in an upper steam pipe II3 to the pumpv II4, whence the water
drum 48, lower drum 49, generating tubes 50, rear passes up through the pipe II5 into the upper
drum 5|, return circulation tubes 52 and pump‘ collector header I08.- Feed is introduced into
53. The tubes 52 unite in a header 54 which is the pipe II5 from the pipe II6 controlled by the
connected to the suction of the pump 53 by the valve II] which is in turn actuated by a water
pipe 55. From the discharge of the pump 53 the
pipe
56 connects to the drum 49. The circuit is
45
completed by the pipes 51 and 58 which join the
steam and water spaces respectively of the drums
48 and 5 I. The pipe 56 is provided with a control
valve 59 actuated bya water level 60 which oper
ates on the drum 48. A conventional design of
50,
level control II8 operating on the pipe II3. Any
steam generated is separated in the pot H2 and
passes oif through a. steam pipe I I9 controlled by
a valve I20.
-
Feed water for the two water tube generators is
taken‘ from the pipe II5 through the T I2I and
pipes I22 and I23 provided respectively with con
trol valves I24 and I25 which are in turn actuated
by the water level controls I26 and I2‘! operating
superheater and feed .water preheater or econo
mizer is shown associated with the Edgemoor
I
boiler. This preheater consists of pipes 6| which on the drums 85 and 93 respectively. _ _
In operation each of the water tube generators
join headers 62 and 63, feed water being intro
vcan- be separately ?red and operated independ 55
65 duced through the pipe 64 into the latter header
and. the heated water, together with any'steam ently, the amount of feed waterv introduced being
formed passing into the drum 5| through the constantly controlled by the respective water
pipes 65.- Saturated steam from the drum 5| level controls. The waste heat lnvthe stack gases
may either be taken off directly through the pipe from the two generators is e?iciently utilized in
the economizer generator circuit which generates
60 66 controlled by the valve 6‘! or in usual operation steam at substantially the same'pressure as the 60.
is passed through the pipe 68 into the header 69
two generators, which steam may be, if desired,
of the superheater and thence through the super
heater tubes _'I0 and out into the superheating mixed with the steam from the two main gen-1'
erators. At the same time, feed water for all
steam pipe ‘II.
A conventional Ladd type water tube boiler is three systems is introduced into the pipe I I5 and 65
shown consisting in upper drum ‘I2, lower drum thence into the top of the elements I I I. As a re
‘I3 and three sets or bundles of tubes ‘I4, 15, and sultthe temperature of the water-e tering the
16 with associated bailles TI and ‘I8. As is usual in top of the tubes or elements I I I is ve low owing
v ' the Ladd type construction the lower drum ‘I3 is
70 divided into a large chamber 19 and a small
chamber 190. by the baffle 80, the tube bundles ‘I4
and ‘I5 connecting the upper drum 12 with the
space 13, whereas the rear tube bundle 16 con
nect-s thespace 19a with the upper drum. Feed
water is introduced from the discharge of the
75
to the relatively large proportion of feed water
to water circulated from the pump II4. A very 70
efficient utilization of the stack heat is thereby 1
assured.
The draft through the water tube generators‘
is controlled by the dampers I05 and I06 and in
fact the whole operation of the water tube gen
7
2,088,580
erators is substantially independent although if ' ber of the economizer. The water in this upper
desired the generators may be ?red together. chamber then trickles down through the annular
Two different types of water tube generators have
been shown arranged in a battery but ,obviously
the generators may be of the same'type and a
ori?ces forming a ?lm on the outside of the ?re ~ ~
tubes and the advantages of high heat absorption
which are provided by the ?lm, are obtained. Any
much larger number may be associated together‘ steam generated passes oif through the pipe -I6I with a‘ single economizer generator circuit. In either into the main steam pipe I41 or into a sep
fact, the present invention ?nds one of its most
arate pipe I62, the former being provided with a
important ?elds of utility in conjunction with
valve I63 and the latter with a valve I64, while a
many cases are provided with a common stack.
third valve I65 is placed in the pipe I6I between 10
the two outlet pipes. It is therefore possible to
The preferred form of economizer generator cir
pass the steam from the economizer either out
10 batteries of common type generators which in
through the pipe I62 or into the pipe I41 or part
through one pipe and part through the other, as
may be required by the particular operatingcon
as the long narrow tubes can be easily and readily ditions.
placed in the stacks which provide draftv for the '
Feed water for the water tube boiler is taken
batteries and it is an advantage that in the case ‘from the pipe I60 throughthe pipe I66 into the
lower drum I29, a branch pipe I61 carrying water
of old installations the economizer generator cir
to the pipe I44 in the water wall system. This 20
20 cuits of the present invention can be installed
latter pipe may advantageously be provided with
without radical rebuilding.
cuit which resembles in many of its structural
features the La Mont type of ?lm tube generator,
is particularly suited for such types of installation
Figure 8 illustrates a combination of an econo
mizer circuit using a ?re tube economizer with a
water tube steam generator and with a water wall
~ generator associated therewith.
The water wall
a valve I68 controlled by a water level control I69
operating on any of the lower headers of the
water wall, and shown for example, in the draw
ings as operating on the lower header I39.
A
generator is of the positively circulated type as similar. control of feed can be used in connection
described in my copending application Serial No. , with the water tube boiler.
In operation, feed water for all three systems
32,064, ?led May 22, 1925, and is not claimed in
the present application apart from its combina' is taken into the economizer circuit through the
pipe I56, is heated in the economizer with or
tion with aneconomizer circuit.
The generator consists in an upper drum I28, without the generation of steam, puri?ed by the
lower drum I29 and tubes I39. A second steam settlingv or treating tank I58 and then forced
drum I3I is connected to the lower drum through by the pump I59 through the economizer circuit
the return pipes I32. A circulation pipe I33 con- . and also into the circuits of the water tube boiler
nects the steam space of the drum I28 with the and the water wall system. The economizer cir
cult may be run at the same pressure as exists
steam space of the drum I3I, and serves to per
mit the circulation both of steam and water. in the water Wall boilers and in the wafer tube
The design of the generator is similar to that of boiler or a lower pressure may exist in the actual
the well known Edgemoor single pass generator. heating elements of the economizer circuit. This
The furnace walls are protected by water walls can be e?ected by partially closing the thro'tle
40
consisting in upper headers I34, I35 and I36, lower " valve I16 which is situated in the pipe I69.
headers-I31, I38 and I39 and tubes I40, MI and When, of course, the pressure in the economizer
I 42.‘ The furnace is provided with four water is lower_ than in the other two generators any
steam generated must be permitted to pass off
walls, only three of which are shown in the draw
45 ings. Water is circulated through the tubes by through the separate pipe I62, which can be‘
means of the pump I43 which takes water from
the various lower headers through thepipe I44 and
distributes water to the upper headers through
the branched pipe ‘I45. Steam and water dis
charged from the lower ends of the water wall
' tubes are separated inthe lower headers i31, I38
and I39, and the steam passes o? through the
branched pipe I46 which connects with the steam
pipe I41 from the drum I3I. The pipe is provided
with a suitable valve I48.
.
In the stack of the furnace a ?re tube econo
mizer is placed, consisting of a shell I49, upper
head I50,- lower head I5I and ?re tubes I52. A
perforated plate I53 is mounted a short. distance
60 below the upper head I56 and ?ts loosely around
the ?re tubes, so that substantially annular ori
?ces are formed between the tubes and the plate.
The economizer is thereby divided into a small
upper water chamber between the head I59 and
the plate I 53 and a larger main chamber between
the plate I53 and the lower head |5I. In this
lower chamber a water level is maintained by
means of the water level control I54 operating
on the valve I55 in the feed water line I56. If
desired, the water level may be maintained in
tank I56 instead of in the main chamber. Water
is circulated from the water. space of the econ
omizér through the pipe I51 into a slow point or
treatment tank I58 and thence by the pump I579
through the pipe I60 into the upper water cham
30
35
40
45
effected by a suitable operation of the valves "
I64 and I65. Operating the economizer at a lower
pressure than that obtaining in the generators
is frequently highly advantageous since it is thus
possible to‘ use a much lighter construction of 50
economizer and treating tank than would be pos
sible if high pressures were used and at the same
time, the lower pressure with corresponding lower
temperature in the economizer permits the re
duction of the stack gases to a temperature which
is considerably lower than that possible when the
economizer is run at the same pressure as the
main generator.
This effects a notable saving
in heat, particularly when the main generator
and the water walls are run at very high ratings 60
which would normally result in- a considerable
heat loss due to high stack gas temperatures.
Figure 9 illustrates a simple applicalion of an
economizer circuit of the present invention .to
an inclined water tube ‘boiler of common type
provided with a feed water heater. The boiler
consists in a drum I1I,- front tubeh aders I12,
rear tube headers I13 and tubes I1 . Suitable
ba?les I15 are placed to bring about an even gas
velocity, the‘passage cross-section‘ decreasing in 70
the direction of the gas flow to compensate for
the shrinkage in heating gas volume.
a
An economizer generator comprising upper‘
headers I16, lower headers I11 and tubes I18
is placed in the stack and the heating chamber 75
8
2,088,580
is progressively decreased in cross-section in the
direction of gas flow in order to maintain uni
form velocity in the steadily shrinking gas
stream.
.
'
which are already in use and which may be pro
vided with feed water heaters. A minimum of
rebuilding or redesigning is necessary. Where
new installations are made, it is usually unneces
Water and steam from the lower headers I11
are discharged into the tank I18 through the
sary to provide a feed water heater as the econo
mizer due to its higher e?iciency is usually suf- '
pipe I19. From the bottom of this tank, water
is fed into the rear header I13 of the generator
through the pipe I80, pump I8I and pipe I82.
heating. , Wherever desired, however, a feed water
10 The pump is driven by an electric motor or steam
turbine I83 controlled from the vwater level I84
on the drum I1I. Steam which is separated in
the tank I18 passes out through, the valved pipe
I85 provided with a check valve I86. The econ
omizer circuit may be operated at the same pres
sure as the generator in which case the steam
from the pipe I85 may be passed into the boiler
lead I81 through the pipe I88, the combined
output passing through the main steam pipe I89
20 controlled by the throttle I90 and ?nally enter
ing the high pressure stage of a turbine I9I.
A feed water heater- I92 provided with the
usual trap~ I93'and ?ltering layer I94 is arranged
so that it takes the over?ow from the tank I18
through.the valved pipe I95. Feed water isin
troduced through the valved pipe I96 and intro
?cient to supply the adequate amount of pre
heater may be associated with economizers of
10
the present invention.
In Figs. 1 to 8, the control of feed into the main
generator is usually shown as effected by the
opening and closing of a valve in the piping from
the economizer circuit to the generator. In Fig.
9, however, the control is shown as effected by va-' 15
riation of the speed of the pump feeding the gen- '
erator and a similar method may be utilized in
connection with the other modi?cations shown
in the other ?gures of the drawings. The draw
ings are intended to illustrate a number of pos
20
siblecontrol modi?cations, but, of course, they
cannot exhaust the ?eld of practical combina
tions, and it should be clearly understood that
the invention is not limited to the precise details»
and arrangements set forth in, the various-.?gures._ 25
In the ?gures, regulation of feed has been by
opening and closing valves or by varying the
duction is controlled by a water level I91 op
erating on the feed water heater. Steam is bled . speed of a pump. Control may also be eifected
from the intermediate pressure section of the by intermittent operation of the circulating pump
30 turbine through the pipe I98 into the feed water
heater where it heats up the incoming water.
The water from the lower portion of the feed
water heater is forced by' the pump feed 200
through the pipe I99 into the upper header I16
' of the economizer circuit.'
Under normal operation, the feed pump 209
runs at constant speed and continuously circu
lates water through the pipe I99 into the econ
ornizer which may be of the full tube, ?lm tube,
40 01' any intermediate type. The suction of the
pump 298 is constantly provided with a water
head by the water level control I91 which de
termines the amount of feed water input. The
water passing through the economizer tubes I18
is heated and may generate steam at apressure
equal to that of the generator or at a lower
pressure. When operating at the same pressure,
with the steam pipe I85 connected through the
pipe I88 to the steam line of the main generator,
50 the check valve I86 prevents back-?ow of steam
and insures even operation. The water separated
from the steam in the tank ‘I18 is fed in vary
ing amounts into the main generator, the rate
.being varied by the speed of operation of the
pump IBI, which is, in turn, controlled by the
water level in the drum I1I. Normally, the pump
290 is set to deliver sufficient water to take care
of the maximum feeding rate of the pump I8I,
although this is not essential. Whenever the
I30 feeding rate of the pump I8I drops below the
rate at which water flows into the tank'I18,
the water level in the latter rises and over?ows
into the feed water heater where the water may
be further heated together with the cold incom
ing feed by means of the steam bled from the
turbine. Thence, the partially heated water is
again circulated through the economizer. The
amount of steam bled from theturbine may be
‘ controlled by the valve 2M which may advan
of the economizer circuit, that is to say, when the 30
feed demand ceases, the pump can be caused
to stop and when demand again rises, the pump
starts up again. Combinations of pump speed
control and valve opening may, of course, also be
used and are covered in the invention._
The invention has been illustrated in connec
tion with a number of common types of boilers
which are only a few illustrations of a num
ber of possible combinations. The invention
is in no sense limited in its utility to combinations 40
with the generators shown. Thus, for example,
insteadof the water tube or ?lm tube generators
which have been illustrated, the economizer or
economizer generator circuits of the present in
vention may be associated with many types of 45
?re tube‘ boilers and such combinations present
marked advantages for certain uses.
The preferred type of economizer circuit in
which the water is circulated through the heat
ing elements in the form of a ?lm at a pressure 50
which is relatively low and which permits the pro
vision of settling and purifying tanks of economi
cal construction is not limited in its usefulness
to generators of the water, ?lm or ?re ‘tube type.
On the contrary, the possibility of far reaching 55
puri?cation by physical or chemical means ren
ders this type of economizer advantageous for use
in connection with ?ash boilers where the scaling
problem is sometimes also serious. A vfurther
advantage of the‘preferred modi?cation lies in 60
the fact that the relatively'large treatment tanks
which are possible when the pressure is low per
mit the support of considerable volumes of water.
This is of importance where the feed into the
generator is intermittent as'the economizer can
continue to run and abstract heat from the gases,
the heat being stored in the volume of water con
tained in the economizer circuit. Where, the
economizer circuit also generates steam, the
controlled by .the water level control I91 or by
the pressure in the feed water heater or. by
steam automatically constitutes ‘a heat storage.
It is an advantage of the preferred modi?cation
of the present invention that heat is abstracted
thermostatic means.
f
The installation illustrated in Fig. 9 represents
the feed into the generator may vary in amount
tageously be an automatic valve and may be
' a very simple means of utilizing installations
from the stack ‘gases continuously even though
or may be intermittent.
75,
l
i~t is claimed as new is—
-
-
9
2,038,580
omizer elements, means for limiting the quantity
.
ii. Apparatus for the generation of steam com
prising in combination, a ‘steam. generator, an
of water introduced into said elements to
amounts insuiiicient to completely fill them and ~
auxiliary circuit, said auxiliary circuit containing
means for feeding water from said circuit to‘
heating, elements,. means for circulating ' water
the
positively and continuously through said ele- -~
ments in amounts insuf?cient to completely ?ll
said elements but greater than the amount which
can be evaporated in said elements under maxi
10 mum heating conditions, means for feeding water
generator.
.
-
_
-
.
'7. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit, said circuit including heating elements,
means for positively and continuously circulat
ing water therethrough, means for maintaining a 10
irorn said auxiliary circuit into the generator", 'high pressure in at least a portion of the aux- ;
and means for'introducing feed water into the iliary circuit betweenthe circulating means and
auxiliary circuit.
4
'
the heating elements, means for maintaining a
2. Steam generating apparatus comprising in relatively low pressure in the heating elements
15 combination a steam generator, a positively cir-'-‘
culated auxiliary circuit, means for feeding water
from said auxiliary circuit to the generator, means
for introducing feed water into said auxiliary
circuit, a water level in said generator, a water
20 level in said auxiliary circuit, means operated by
the generator water level for controlling the feed
of water from the auxiliary circuit into the gen
erator, and means operated by the water level
of the auxiliary circuit for controlling the intro
.. 25 duction of feed water in the auxiliary circuit.
3. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit, said circuit including heating elements,
means for positively and continuously circulating
30 water therethrough in amounts insu?icient to ?ll
the elements but greater than the amount, of
water which can be evaporated by passage there:
through- under maximum heating conditions,
and in the connections from the elements to the 15
circulating means, water treating means located
in said low pressure portion of the circuit, means
for feeding w ‘ er from said high pressure portion
of the circuiti to the steam generator, and means
for introducing feed water into the auxiliary cir 20
cuit.
'
\
.
8. A vapor generator heated by heating gases,
economizer elements arranged in the path of
said, heating gases, means for introducing feed
into one end of each element in amount normally
25'
insui?cient to ?ll the elements, and means for
introducing unevaporated liquid from the other
ends of the elements into. the generator, said
means including a pressure transformer whereby
the economizer elements may be operated at a 30
pressure different from that obtaining in the '
vapor generator.
9. Steam ‘generating apparatus comprising in
means for maintaining a high pressure in at least -_ combination a steam generator, a positively’ cir
.35 a portion of the auxiliary circuit between the cire oulated auxiliary circuit including economizer 35
culating means and the heating‘elements, means elements, means for supplying water to said ele
for maintaining a relatively low pressure in the
heating elements and in the connections from
the elements to the circulating means, water
ments and for insuring positive distribution
thereof to each individual element and means
for, feeding water from said auxiliary circuit, to
said generator.
40 treating means located in said low pressure por
10. Steam generating
tion of the circuit, means for feeding water from ‘
said high pressure portion of the circuit into the
steam generator, and means for introducingfeed '
water into the auxiliary circuit.
45
4. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary
heating circuit, comprising heating elements,
means ~for positively and continuously circulat
ing water through tlie heating elements, means
50 for separating any steam generated in said ele
ments; means for feeding water from said aux
iliary circuit to the water circuit of the steam
generator,‘ connecting means from the steam
space of the steam separator in ‘the auxiliary
55 circuit to the steam space in the steam generator,
means for permitting steam to ?ow from the aux
iliary circuit to the steam generator but pre
venting counter-flow, means "for maintaining a
lower pressure in the heating elements of the
60 auxiliary circuit than that which obtains at the
discharge of the circulating means, and means
for introducing feed water into the auxiliary cir
cuit.
,
,
5. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
65 combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit in which are included economizer elements, a
pump for circulating water through said circuit,
means for insuring positive distribution of the
water to each element and a connection ‘from
said auxiliary circuit to the generator whereby
water is delivered thereto under action of said
pump.
-
6. Apparatus for the generation of steam com
prising in combination a steam generator, a posi
tively, circulated auxiliary circuit including econ
'
40
apparatus comprisingin
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit, said circuit including heating elements,
means for positively circulating water there’,
through, means for maintaining a high pressure
in at least a portion of the auxiliary circuit be
tween the circulating means and the heating ele
ments, means for maintaining a relatively low
4.5
pressure in the heating elements, and means for '
feeding water from said high pressure portion 50,
of the circuit into the steam generator.
11. Steam generating apparatus comprising
combination a steam generator, an‘ auxiliary cir
cuit connected therewith, said circuit including
heating elements, headers supplying said ele 55
ments and havingjet ori?ces whereby the waterv
is circulated through the elements in amounts
insui?cient to ?ll them but greater than that
which can be evaporated in passing. through the
elements under minimum heating conditions, said
jet ori?ces also maintaining a high pressure in at
least a portion of the auxiliary circuit between
the circulating means and the receiving ends of
the heating elements, and means for maintain
ing a relatively low pressure in the heating ele 65
ments.
'
,
12. Steam generating ‘ apparatus in luding a
steam generator and an'auxiliary cir it includ
ing economizer elements, means to ‘feed water to
the circuit and from the circuit to the steam 70
generator, and means for insuring the positive
distribution of the water to each of the econo- _
mizer elements and its passage therethrough
priorto its introduction into the generator.
13. Steam‘ generating apparatus according to 75
2,038,580
10
claim 12 in which a pump circulates water
through said auxiliary circuit and elements in
one direction and in which the feed water is in
troduced into the circuit between the pump and
the elements and beyond the point in the circuit
where water is fed therefrom to the generator.
14. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit in which are included heating elements sub
10 Jected-to the heat of a lower heat zone than
that of the steam generator, means for circulat
be vaporized in quantity in excess of that which
can be evaporated in its passage through the
elements, means for insuring the distribution or
the water to each element in an amount in
suf?cient to ?ll the available cross-sectional area
of said element, and means for delivering to the
vapor generator the unevaporated liquid dis—
charged from the elements.
20. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit connected thereto in which are included
heating elements, means for maintaining a cir
ing water through said elements in amounts in
su?lcient completely to ?ll said elements ‘but
greater than the amounts which can be evapo
15 rated therein in passage of the water there
culation producing pressure in the circuit, and
means at the water inlet to the elements pro
viding a pressure drop in the water entering 15
through, and means for delivering to the steam . the elements, whereby different degrees of pres
sure are maintained in the different parts or
generator water from said auxiliary circuit.
15. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
the
ing water to the generator from said high pres
sure portion of the circuit.
culation of water in the circuit, auxiliary heat- ,
means.
>
22. Steam generating apparatus according to
claim 21 in which also is included in the circuit
means for separating from the water discharged
from the heating elements any steam discharged
_ therewith, and means for delivering said sepa
35 combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir'
. cuit in which are included heating elements sub
jected to the heat of a lower heat zone than
that of the steam generator, means for circulating
water through said elements in amounts insu?i
40 cient to fill the elements but greater than the
amounts which can be evaporated therein in pas
sage of the water therethrough, means for main
taining at least in'the heating elements of the
auxiliary circuit a pressure relatively low with
45 respect to the pressure in the steam generator,
and means for delivering water to the steam
,
1'7. A vapor generating apparatus comprising
a vapor generator, an auxiliary heating element,
50 means independent of the'vapor generator for
introducing from a source outside the vapor gen
erator into one end of the element the liquid to
be vaporized, means for limiting the water as
it enters the element to an amount insu?icient
55 to 1111 the cross-sectional area available for flow
through the element, and means for delivering to
the vapor generator unevaporated liquid from the
other end of said element.
, 18. A vapor generating apparatus comprising
60 a vapor generator, an auxiliary heating element,
means independent of the vapor generator for
introducing into one end of the element the liquid
to be vaporized in an amount insumcient to ?ll
the element but greater than can be evaporated
therein in passage therethrough, means connect
ed to the other end of the element for separating
from the liquid any vapor formed in the pas
sage of the liquid through the element, and means
for delivering to the vapor generator the un—
70 evaporated liquid.
4
ing means also in said circuit for heating with
steam the water in circulation, and means for 25
introducing steam ‘into said auxiliary heating
16. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
generator from said circuit.
-
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir 20
cuit connected thereto in which are included
heating elements, means for maintaining a cir
water through said elements in amounts insu?i
cient to ?ll the elements but greater than the
amounts which can be evaporated therein in pas
sage of the water therethrough, means for main
taining a relatively high pressure in at least a
portion of the auxiliary circuit between the cir
culating means and the heating elements, means
30 for maintaining at least in the heating elements
a relatively low pressure, and means for deliver
circuit.
21. Steam generating apparatus vcomprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
20 cuit in which are included heating elements sub
jected to the heat of a lower heat zone than that
of the steam generator, means for circulating
_
19. A vapor generating apparatus comprising
a vapor generator, a plurality of auxiliary heat
ing elements, means independent of the vapor
‘ generator for introducing in parallel into the ele
ments at one end of each thereof the liquid to
rated water to said auxiliary heating means.
23. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit connected thereto in which are included heat
ing elements, means for circulating water through
the circuit, means for variably delivering water
from said circuit to the generator, auxiliary water
heating means connected to the circuit, and
means for delivering to said auxiliary water heat
ing means the excess water ?owing in the circuit
and not delivered to the generator.
24. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit in which are included heating elements,
means for circulating water through said circuit,
means for feeding water from said circuit to the
steam generator, and means operated in accord
ance with variations in the amount of water
present in the circuit to control the amount of
water circulated through the elements.
25. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an auxiliary cir
cuit in which are included heating elements,
means for circulating water through said circuit,
means for introducing water into said circuit,
means for feeding water from said circuit to the
steam generator, and means arranged to control
cooperatively the introduction of the water into
the circuit and the feeding of the water to the
steam generator.
26. Steam generating apparatus comprising in
combination a steam generator, an economizer,
means for feeding to the economizer at one end
thereof the water to be evaporated and causing it
to ?ow in the economizer uni~directionally in in
dividual paths, means for positively distributing
water to each of said individual paths, means for
delivering to the steam generator the water heat- ,
ed in the economizer, and means for returning to
the water inlet end of the economizer water dis
charged from the economizer in excess of that de
livered to the steam generator.
27. The method of heating feed water for de
11
2,038,580
livery to a steam generator, which comprises de
livering the feed water into heat exchanging re
causing liquid from a source independent of the
vapor generator to ?ow in heat exchanging rela
lation to heating gases, positively distributing
tion to a source of heat through a positively de
the water to a plurality of individual paths and
causing it to ?ow while in said heat exchanging
relation uni-directionally in said paths so as to
be progressively heated therein, delivering water
to the steam generator after passage thereof out
of said heat exchanging relation to replace that
?ned path of liquid ?ow, limiting the amount of
liquid ?owing through said path with respect to
the cross-sectional area available for flow in said
path so that said liquid flow does not fill said
cross-sectional area, and delivering to the vapor
generator the heated liquid after discharge from
?ow through said positively de?ned path in said
10 evaporated in the steam generator, and return
ing for redelivery into said heat exchanging re ’_ heat exchanging relation.
lation and for distribution and unidirectional
30.,The method of preheating a liquid for de
?ow in said individual paths any water in excess livery to a vapor generator, which comprises
of that delivered to the steam generator.
causing liquid from a source independent of the
28. The method of preheating a liquid for de
vapor generator to ?ow in heat exchanging rela 15
16
livery to a vapor generator, which comprises tion to a source of heat through a positively de
causing the liquid to flow in heat exchanging re
?ned path of liquid flow, limiting the amount of
lation to-a source of heat while ?owing in a cir— liquid ?owing through said path with respect to
cuit auxiliary to the vapor generator, causing liq
the cross-sectional area available for flow in said
20 uid to be delivered from said circuit to the vapor path so that said liquid ?owing in amount greater 20
generator to replace the liquid evaporated in said
generator, and effecting a positive distribution of
the liquid to a plurality of individual paths for
flow of the liquid therein while in said heat ex
26 changing relation with said source of heat.
29. The method of preheating a liquid for de
livery to a vapor generator, which comprises
than in the'evaporation thereof during its flow
in said heat exchanging relation does not ?ll
said crossasectional area, and delivering to the
vapor generator the heated liquid in excess of \ any
evaporated while ?owing in said path.
WALTER DOUGLAS LA MONT.
25
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