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Патент USA US2042487

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‘June 2, 1936.
Filed Jan. 20, 1934
Patented June 2, 1936
A 2,042,487
Francis P. Sloan, Scarsdale, N.~Y.
Application January 20, 1934, Serial No. 707,478
5 Claims. (Cl. 72-17)
For convenience, the principles of the invention
This invention is a novel concrete wall struc
ture and the method of production thereof; hav
ing particular reference to floor arches, side walls
or other concrete wall structures with indoor
5 exposure, wherein the so?its or other surfaces
are so constituted as to diffuse re?ections and
thereby, substantially to destroy sound waves
impinging thereon, by absorbing or dissipating
the waves, or causing them to be neutralized, so
10 as to prevent objectionable reflection of sound
in the form of echo or reverberation. The con
struction hereof incidentally aids also in the sup
pression of sound transmitted through the struc
ture by preventing its effective delivery into the
15 adjacent air. The invention is useful for struc
tures formed at the place of use, but as to some
features is also of advantage in the production
of preformed slabs, blocks or plates adapted to
be erected as or attached upon ?oor arches, walls
20 or other structures.
The general object of the present invention is
to afford a practical, simple and inexpensive re
flection diffusing or sound deadening concrete
room-wall which will be highly effective for the
purpose, and durable-in use. A further object
is to afford such a structure that will present a
will be described in connection with the disclo
sure illustrated on the drawing, and the draw
ing is ?rst'described as follows.
Figure 1 may be considered a vertical section
through a portion of a building including a por
tion of an arch or ?oor, the under side or so?it
'of which embodies the present invention.
Fig. 2 on a much larger scale than Fig. 1 is'a
sectional diagram of a fragmentary portion of
the so?it of the structure or arch, constituting
the top wall or ceiling of the apartment beneath.
Fig. 3 is afface view of the surface or product
of Figs. 1 and 2, ‘looking from underneath. ,
' Fig. 4 is_ a sectional view of a modi?ed struc 15
Fig. 5 is an elevational view of an implement
adapted to carry out the method hereof in one
of its forms.
Fig. 6, in elevation, shows a different method 20
of carrying out the invention.
Fig. '7 shows a wall structure in perspective
comprising ‘slabs embodying the invention.
In the drawing an upright or room side wall
structure A is ‘shown, and extending from one 25
side-thereof an arch or floor structure B con
stituting a room top wall and containing rein
forcing members or rods C.‘ These illustrations
explained or will be manifest to .those conversant are diagrammatic in nature and intended to be
representative of any ‘forms or types of=oqncrete
30 with the subject.
In using herein the term “wall” withoutquali- _ arches or other walls. The ‘porous’ or cellular
?cation, it is intended to include not only side concrete,‘ whether of the expandedfor'other type,
walls of enclosures, but other boundary struc may be-employed to form the wall-‘or the floor
tures, as top walls or ceilings, or bottom walls arch in:the usual way. The application" of the
invention to the arch will ?rst-be described.~ 35
?oor arches, or interior columns.
substantially uniform and decorativeappearance.
Other objects and advantages will-be hereinafter
In carrying out the present invention the
characteristics of porous or cellular concrete are
taken advantage of, having reference to any type
of porous concrete, such as aerated or expanded
Portland cement concrete, honeycombed with
40 small cells and therefore light of weight while
strong enough for many structural purposes;
and by this invention a porous concrete ?oor
arch, Wall, slab or other structure is produced in
a form with its surface broken up into a condi
45 tion or con?guration practically ideal for the
deadening of impinging sound waves, and diffu
sion of light waves.
While the method and product of this inven
tion may be described in general terms, the draw
50 ing is herewith presented showing, simply as an
illustrative example, a method and a product
embodying the present invention, it being under
stood that the embodiments may be variously
modi?ed without departing from the principles.
On Fig. l in dotted lines'is indicatedthe'tem
porary support member D.:of the farchf'm'old,
which may comprise'a smooth surface of'metal
or other material mounted as usual ‘somewhat
lower than the reinforcements C. Assuming the 40
case of expanded concrete E such concrete will
next be poured in semi-liquid or plastic condi
tion upon the support D. The upper surface of
the support should be clean and free of foreign
matters, and the concrete should be poured to a 45
partial depth, indicated by the line F. The mix
should be uniform and without lumps or foreign
matters, and preferably comprises as usual sand
or other ?ne aggregate mixed with the Portland
cement and water, and the self-expanding agent 50
as aluminum. Thereafter the concrete E is
allowed to expand, for example to the full depth
G, and will then be allowed to set for the usual
time before stripping away the support D. In the
case of slabs ~or wall members these operations 55
may be performed in a mold and the set slab
removed from the mold. The resulting product
in any case is a floor arch, wall, slab or other
skin H but meet resistance, the bristle in that
case yielding. The operation is such as to ‘pre
serve'to the maximum the wallsK between the
structure of which the surface to be subsequently ‘ exposed cells J. more so than with a grinding or
treated is- a practically closed surface or is en
shaving action. The workman can readily by
closed by a substantially smooth skin or surface
wall H, behind which is a multiplicity of closed
empty cells I, that is, containing air or gas but
observation employ the puncturing implement in '
a manner to leave a product having a substan
tially uniform and decorative appearance, or a
no solids. If there are irregularities in the sup
10 porting member D or for other reason the under
surface or soillt of the arch is blemished, this
invention allows the workman to remove and
obliterate the defects and produce a substan
pleasing methodical irregularity of effect.
Another method of exposing the cells adjacent '
tially uniform and decorative appearance.
According to this invention the cells or pores
adjacent to and covered by the skin or surface
wall H are to be opened up and exposed to. the
atmosphere and to sound waves impinging upon
the surface, namely, by treating as by perforating .
20 the skin. By this means the continuity of the
outer surface is thoroughly broken up in a most
advantageous manner for the suppression of re
?ection or reverberation. No plane surfaces re
main and any sound wave that may be reflected is
so diffused as to be substantially destroyed as
sound, and partly neutralized, and to some extent
absorbed within the concrete, echoes being ef
fectively prevented.
Preferably this invention is carried out. by
80 piercing the skin or surface wall H by numerous
to the skin H is indicated in-Fig. 6 wherein is
shown an air blast nozzle N projecting a blast of
coarse sand 0 or other material capable of disin
tegrating the surface H and penetrating into the
cells adjacent thereto. The pressure of the air 15
blast should be regulated to control penetration.
Adhering particles of the sand or other projected
solid are readily removed, as ‘by the use of the
bristles hereinbefore mentioned.
The surface having thus been effectively pre 20v
pared according to this invention, the following
supplemental treatments may be performed.
Dust and loose matter occupying the exposed cells
should be removed and the surface otherwise
cleaned. It is advantageous then to harden the
concrete where it is exposed to the atmosphere
andthis may be effected in any usual manner, as
by spraying the material with a ?uorsilicate or
other hardening agent. Finally, the surface may
advantageously be coated with a protective coat
punctures entering into the adjacent cells, thus
ing, for example a thin paint or lacquer applied
admitting air and sound and light vibrations to
the cells, without destroying the cells or‘ the thin
or sprayed thinly over the concrete surface, thus
rendering it hard and durable. These treat
separating walls or partitions between the cells.
ments leave intact the cellular exposed contour,
The same results of opening the cells to exposure
may be attained in other ways, for example by
giomprising cavities divided by septums or parti
grinding or shaving off the skin, but the employ
ment of a skin piercing action for this-purpose is
found to be superior both in procedure and prod
40 uct. It is observed that generally a few cells may
accidentally be opened to exposure on removing
the support or mold, but not to an extent or uni
formity to serve usefully the purposes of this in
vention, but on the contrary to the detriment of
45 appearance and requiring corrective treatment.
The lowermost cells I are to be widely opened
up, as in‘Figs. 1 to 4, 6 and 7 indicated, thus ex
posing domed cavities of large open diameter,
which occupy a large or even a preponderating
50 portion of the entire surface area.
The step of piercing or otherwise treating the
skin H to expose the adjacent cells may be per
formed shortly after the setting of the cellular
concrete, or substantially later. Figs. 2 and 3
55 show the principles of the invention, the cells J
which have been exposed or pierced being open
to the atmosphere and being separated by thin
partitions or wall portions K of the concrete
which advantageously should be preserved. This
60 step of exposing the cells by piercing the surface
under treatment may. be performed in various
ways, for example by means of wire bristles or
In Fig. 5 is shown a piercing implement L car
65 rying a series of fairly stiff wire bristles M spaced
well apart, roughly corresponding with the size
and spacing of the cells, which implement may be
operated by thrusting or poking it against the
surface, causing the bristles to pierce and punc
ture the skin and enter the-cells. The action may
be repeated at each area to give the wide open
effect seen at the left side of Fig. 2. In some
cases the bristles will pass completely through a
surface, cell and therebeyond into another cell,
75 while in other cases a bristle may perforate the
When the invention is applied to slabs pre
formed for subsequent erection in walls or arches,
the slabs It may be treated as described, and ar
ranged, for example as shown in Fig. '7, in super 40
position to constitute. the sound deadening face
of the wall A. Preferably, however, the slabs will
be erected and then treated to expose the cells;
this giving greater safety and preservation in
handling, also permitting coordinated treatment 45
of a series of slabs embodied in a given wall.
In lieu of mechanical disintegrating or pierc
ing of the skin for exposing the air cells adjacent
to the surface being treated, this result may be
achievedin radically different ways. For exam 50
ple, sugar or similar agent, may be applied to the
top surface of the support D, this agent acting to
destroy the cohesion of- the cement or to prevent
the hardening or completion of the setting there
of, so that when the support is removed the skin 55
will readily become detached or crumble from
the surface, leaving the cells exposed as desired;
after which the surface will preferably be touched
up by the bristle implement or‘ other methods de
Fig. 4 shows a modification wherein the lowest
stratum P of porous ‘concrete is superimposed by
an added stratum Q of a strong load-bearing or
stone concrete, affording a composite arch or
slab having the strength value of stone concrete 65
together with the sound deadening properties of
this invention. '
The present invention may be usefully em
bodied in a cellular concrete structure wherein
the porosity is produced by the known system of 70
expanding the mix before pouring, for example
by introducing bubbles in the form of foam dur
ing the mixing operation; and with any system
of production of a cellular concrete structure the
product may be improved by the mechanical com‘- 7'
pacting or compressing of the opposite or upper
surface, of a ?oor arch, and ‘the incorporating
therein of a layer or sprinkling of added aggre
formed vwith a great number of empty globular
cells divided by concrete septums, and wherein
the lowermost surface of the concrete, facing the
room, is opened up thereby widely exposing the .
adjacent tier of cells as domed cavities between 5
The invention is also applicable to the system
of porous concrete production by the introduc
tion into the mix of pellets of a special solid ma
terial capable of being removed or driven out sub
sequently to setting, by volatilization by heat, or
otherwise; for example by the so-called Bubble
stone system known to the art.
An added advantage, of certain independent
utility, in the present invention is its use to a?ord
a pleasing appearance due todi?’usion of waves
15 of light re?ected from a ceiling or wall. The
workman can produce desirable e?'ects by meth
odically opening up and exposing the cells, in a
manner tosecure both the visual and the acoustic
advantages mentioned.
a large proportion of the total exposed ceiling
3. A load-bearing concrete ?oor arch structure
wherein the lower stratum of the concrete is 10
formed with a great number of empty globular
cells divided by concrete septums, and the upper
stratum is solid, dense and hard, and wherein
the lowermost surface of the concrete, facing the
room, is opened up thereby widely exposing the 15
adjacent tier of cells as domed cavities between
dividing septums, and such open cells occupying
a large porportion of the total exposed ceiling
There have thus been described a sound dead
ening structure and the method of production of
the same embodying the principles of the present
invention. Since many matters of construction,
arrangement, design and procedure may be modi
25 ?ed without departing from the principles the
invention is not intended to limit the invention to
such matters except to the extent set forth in
the appended claims.
What is claimedis:
1. A concrete boundary structure wherein the
concrete is formed with a great number of empty
globular cells divided by concrete septums, and
wherein the outer surface of the concrete, fac
ing the room, is opened up thereby widely expos
35 ing the adjacent tier of cells as domed cavities
between dividing septums, and such open cells
occupying a large proportion of the total exposed
wall area.
dividing‘ septums, and such open cells occupying
4. The method of producing a concrete bound- 20"
ary~ structure comprising laying a cellular con-
crete mix in the form of the structure whereby it
will set into formed concrete containing a great
number of empty globular cells divided by con
crete septums and with an outer skin covering 25
the outer tier of cells, and then, after the struc
ture has substantially set, removing portions of
such outer skin in a manner to expose widely the
adjacent tier of cells as domed cavities between
dividing septums.
, 80
5. The method of producing a cellular concrete
wall structure comprising laying a self-expanding
cement mix in the form of the structure whereby
it will expand and set into a formed concrete
containing a great number of empty globular cells 35
divided by concrete septums and with an outer
skin covering the outer tier of cells, and then
removing portions of such outer skin in a manner
to expose widely the adjacent tier' of cells as
2. A self-supporting, load-bearing concrete
40 ceiling structure containing reinforcement and domed cavities between dividing septums.
wherein the concrete is of the expanded type
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