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Патент USA US2045053

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June 23, 1936.
'
M, RESEK ‘
‘2,045,053
REFRIGERATING SYSTEM A‘ND METHOD
Original Filed Oct. 20, 1933
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
OYVLM
4%,WMM
ATTORNEYb .
June 23, 1936..
2,045,053
M. RESEK
REFRIGERATING SYSTEM AND METHOD
Original Filed Oct .> 20, 1933
ilig'.’lfl
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
La
\
I
23
a
INVENTOR.
W M
BY
ATTORNEYS.
'
’
2,045,053
‘Patented June 23, ‘1936
UNITED STATES
I
PATENT OFFICE
2,045,053
‘
nrirmeaanrme SYSTEM AND METHOD
Marc Resell, Clevelanddieights, Ohio, assignor
to Perfection Stove Company, Cleveland, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio
Application center 20, 1933, Serial lilo. 694,455 '
Renewed January 25, 1935 -
16 Glaims. , (Cl. 62-4205)
This invention pertains to refrigeration appa
ratus or systems of the intermittent absorption
class comprising, generally, a generator-absorber
section, a condenser, a receiver-evaporator sec
tion, and a conduit for delivering vapors from
~ the generator-absorber section to the condenser,
a conduit for delivering condensate from the
condenser to the receiver-evaporator section, and
a conduit for returning gas from the receiver
to the generator-absorber
section, delivering it to the latter below the min
10 evaporator section
imum liquid level therein for re—absorption, to
gether with means for periodically-administer
ing heat to the generator-absorber section, the
15
intervals between heating periods being known
as cooling periods.
The invention also relates to a novel method
of refrigeration, as will hereinafter appear.
The system is hermetically sealed and contains
20 a quantity of a suitable refrigerant, such as am
uid that remains in the receiver-evaporator sec
tion at the conclusion of the previous cooling
period is being returned to the generator-absorber
section during the prevailing heating period and
which freshly .condensed refrigerant will be lib- 5
erated within the receiver-evaporator section at
the beginning of the ensuing cooling period so
that it may gasify and return to the generator
absorber during such period and in so doing per
form its refrigerating function.
10
Other objects of the invention are the produc
tion of a refrigerating system of the above char
acter that is practically automatic of operation
(excepting for the little attention required in '
setting, in operation, the embodimentlherein se
lected for illustrative purposes, it being obvious
that the same could be made entirely automatic
.by the substitution of, a self-controlled heating
‘means for the one shown)‘; to provide refriger
ation apparatus of the character above described
monia, and a suitable absorbent therefor, such ‘ that is relatively simple of construction yet high
as water, in proper proportions, this mixture be
ly e?icient and thoroughly dependable; the pro
ing known as the refrigerant liquor; and at the vision, in a system of the foregoing character, ' '
beginning of a cycle of operation, all or practi
of means in the nature of a gas lift for retum
cally all of the liquor is present in the generator
absorber section. Upon heat being administered
to such section, the liquor boils and a large per
centage of the refrigerant is distilled over into
the receiver-evaporator section, the vapors read
30 ily liquefying within the condenser under the
ing the residue liquid from the receiver-evapo
rator section to the generator-absorber section
which means, preferably, is motivated by heat
liberated from hot liquid derived from the gener
ator-absorber section of the system.
‘ pressures then prevailing within the system.
others hereinafter appearing, are attained in the
The foregoing objects and advantages, with
Upon the cessation of heat and the consequential - embodiments of the invention ‘diagrammatically
reduction of pressure, the anhydrous refriger
illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 of the accompanying
ant within the receiver-evaporator section gas'i
drawings, the latter view showing. a modi?cation
?es and returns to the generator-absorber sec
of the system illustrated by the former view.
‘ tion to be re-absorbed in the weak liquor in the
latter section. In the foregoing operation, not
withstanding the employment of dehydrators,
recti?ers, or the like, a small amount, at least,
40 of aqueous condensate ?nds its way with the
refrigerant condensate into the receiver-evapo
rator end of the system during practically every
‘Referring to the parts'by reference charac
terss, I designates the generator-absorber; 2 a
.vapor delivery conduit that‘ leads to the con
denser 3 through an upwardly inclined portion
4 that may constitute a dehydrator; 5 a con-r
duit that leads from the condenser to a primary -
cycle of operation, and unless some means is
receiver 6, in the present instance a part of the
latter forming a branch of a transfer conduit
provided for removingthis9 aqueous solution,
which may be termedxresidue liquid, from "the
‘I that communicatively connects the primary re‘
ceiver 6 with a secondary receiver 8, said trans
> receiver-evaporator section at relatively frequent
fer tube being shown as opening into said re
intervals, its presence‘ inalthe receiver-evaporator
ceivers adjacent the bottoms thereof. ‘This is
section will reduce" the ef?ciency of the appa
ratus, the condition becoming gradually worse as
the residue liquid increases in volume.
especially important with respect to the primary ‘
It'is the primary purpose of my present in
vention to overcome the above evil by providi g
8 to the generator-absorber I below the mini
mum liquid level therein, which level is indi
cated by the dotted line up The maximum liquid
level in said vessel is shown by the line b. The
gas return conduit has a. downwardly directed
an arrangement whereby freshly condensed r -
ts
i'rlgerant is segregated and retained undilut 6.
during the heating period while the residue q
receiver 6.
I 0 is a‘gas return conduit that leads
.
from, the upper portion of the secondary receiver 50
2
2,045,058
'the system cools and the pressure therein falls.
Because the pressure in all other parts of the
return conduit l3 that leads from a low part system decreases before it does in the primary
of the evaporator 14 that is situated below the receiver 5, by reason of the fact that the only
outlet from said receiver is liquid sealed, the,an§
plane of and communicates with the bottom por
tion of the secondary receiver 8 so that liquid hydrous refrigerant that practically ?lls said re
or vertical portion ll within which rises a cor
respondingly disposed portion [2 of a liquid
10
from said receiver may gravitate into the evap
ceiver at the conclusion of the heating period is
orator.
drawn over through the transfer conduit 1 into
It will be noted that the portion l2 of
the conduit I3 opens into the portion ll of the
the secondary receiver 8.
conduit Ill.
having been removed from the latter receiver 0
'
Heating means I5 is disposed below, or in op
The residue liquid
and from the evaporator it during the heating .
erative relation to, the generator-absorber I and,
in the present instance, is shown conventionally
period, the fresh charge of anhydrous refrigerant
is deposited within the secondary receiver and
as an oil burning apparatus.
in the evaporator undiluted and in readiness for
This apparatus
includes burners I6, having drums l1, and sup
a cooling period of maximum refrigerating effect.
As the refrigerant evaporates the gas returns
top vessel l9 over which a bottle-like reservoir through the conduit Hi to the generator-ab
20 is inverted, such reservoir being of a capacity sorber to be re-absorbed within the body of liquor
to supply just enough oil to sustain a heating therein.
In the appended claims, where the context so 20
20 period of a cycle of operation so that after the
admits, the term “second receiver” may embrace
‘ reservoir has been placed within the vessel l9
both the secondary receiver and the evaporator.
and the burners lighted, the apparatus will ‘re
It will be noted that, during the heating period,
quire no further attention until the next cycle of
due to the slightly higher pressure existing in the
operation is to be initiated.
‘
When the burners are lighted and heat is thus generator, the liquid tends to rise in tube ll,
administered to the generator-absorber I, the standing in this tube a few inches higher than
liquor therein boils and the resultant vapors’pass the liquid in the generator I. Thus the liquid
plied with oil, through a pipe l8, from an open
through conduit 2 and dehydrator 4 into the con
denser 3 where they are lique?ed and from where
stands at a considerable depth around the tube
l2, aiding in the transfer of heat to this tube
30 they drain through the conduit 5 into the primary
and therefore accelerating the pumping action.
During the cooling period, however, the pres
receiver 6 by way of the adjacent branch of the
transfer conduit 1.
The dehydrator 4 and the condenser 3 are
submerged in a body of cooling liquid, such as
35 water, contained within a tank of receptacle 2|.
This tank may be supported upon the top of an
sure in the evaporator is su?iciently above the
pressure in the generator to clear the liquid out
of tube l I, thus keeping tube l2 entirely out of
contact with the comparatively warm liquid in '
the generator, substituting instead a very cold
insulated cabinet 22 that encloses a refrigeration
vapor returning from the evaporator, which will ‘
compartment 23 within which is situated the
evaporator l4. According to the embodiment il-'
absolutely prevent any boiling in tube l2 during
this period.
lustrated in _Fig. 1, the primary and secondary
receivers, the transfer conduit 1, and much of
the gas return conduit Ill, including the down
wardly directed or vertical portion I l thereof, are
‘shown as insulated within the top of the cabinet
45 22. Under this arrangement, the hot refrigerant
condensate that collects within the primary re
ceiver 6 will have no appreciable effect upon
the temperature of the refrigeration compart
ment 23. Thesame result will be obtained, and
50 with greater assurance that all vapors entering
the primary receiver will be ‘immediately con
densed, by placing the primary receiver in the
tank 2| of cooling liquid, as in the modification
illustrated in Fig. 2.
During the heating period, the liquid from the
generator-absorber that stands in the portion
H of the gas return conduit I0 is hot and as a
consequence thereof the portion I2 of the con
duit I3 is heated, causing bubbles to be formed in
the liquid that is in said portion [2, and these
bubbles, rising, will create a flow of the liquid
upwardly in said conduit portion l2 resulting in
the liquid over?owing the tube l3 and mixing
with the liquor in the generator-absorber; In
other words, ‘a so-called “gas lift” is effected
which pumps the residue liquid from the evap
orator and, if the quantity is su?iclent, from the
bottom portion of the secondary receiver 8, to
the generator~absorber section of the system.
70 This action continues as long as heat is thus
supplied to the portion l2 of the conduit l3 and
residue liquid remains in the receiver-evaporator
section; and the heating period prevails until the
supply of oil is exhausted from the reservoir 20.
.75 When such supply is spent, the burners go out,
Having thus described my invention, what I 40
' '
claim is:
1. A refrigerating system including a genera
tor-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver-7
evaporator section, and means for periodically
heating the generator~absorber section, the in 45' '
tervals between heating periods being known as
cooling periods; the receiver-evaporator section
involving two intercommun-icating receivers, one
of which is arranged to receive freshly condensed
refrigerant directly from the condenser during a 60
heating period, and the second of which is adapt
ed to have said refrigerant transferred to it by
changes of pressure in the system at the begin
ning of the ensuing cooling period and to retain
therein residue liquid after the completion of 55
said cooling period, and a conduit leading from
a low point in the receiver-evaporator section
and having a portion extending upwardly and
communicating with the generator-absorber sec
tion above the maximum liquid level therein, said
upwardly extending portion being subjected to
the temperature of the liquid in the latter sec
tion.
2. A refrigerating system including a genera
tor-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver
evaporator section, and means for periodically
heating the generator-absorber section, the in
tervals between heating periods being known as
cooling periods; the receiver-evaporator section
involving two intercommunicating receivers, one 70
of which is arranged to receive freshly condensed
refrigerant directly from the condenser during
a heating. period, and the second of which is
adapted to have said refrigerant transferred to
it by changes of pressure in the system at the
2,045,053
beginning of the ensuing cooling period and to
3
tor section involving two intercommunicating re
ceivers, onev of “which is arranged to receive fresh
ly condensed refrigerant directly from the con
conveying means leadingfrom a low point in , denser during a heating period, and the second
theireceiver-evaporator section and arranged to of which, is adapted to have said refrigerant
over?ow into the generator-absorber section, a transferred to it by changes of pressure in the
part of said means extending upwardly toward system at the beginning of the ensuing cooling
' its over?ow end and being subjected to heat from period and to retain therein residue liquid after
the completion of said cooling period, and a con-,
the latter section during the heating period.
duit through which said residue liquid is re 10
3. A, refrigerating system including a gen
10
., retain therein residue liquid after the comple
tion of said cooling period, and residue liquid
erator-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver
evaporator section, means for periodically ad
ministering heat to the generator-absorber sec
turned from the second receiver ~to the genera
tor-absorber section, the same having an up
tion. the intervals between heating periods being
known as cooling periods, the receiver-evapora
wardly directed portion arranged to receive heat
from the generator-absorber section.
7,. A refrigerating system including a genera 15
tor section involving two intercommunicating re
ceivers, one of which is arranged to receive fresh
evaporator section, means for periodically ad
denser during a heating period, and the second
tion, the intervals between heating periods be
tor-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver
ly condensed refrigerant directly from the con- ' ministering heat to the generator-absorber sec
20 of which is adapted to have said refrigerant
transferred to it by changes of pressure in the
system at the beginning of the ensuing cooling
. period and to retain therein residue liquid after
the completion of said cooling period, and means
motivated by heat from the generator-absorber
section for returning said residue liquid from the
second receiver to ‘the generator-absorber sec
~ tion during the next heating period.
4. A. refrigerating system including a genera
tor-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver
’ evaporator section, means for periodically ad
ministering heat to the generator-absorber sec
ing known as cooling periods, the receiver-evap 20
orator section involving two intercommunicating
receivers, one of which is arranged to receive
freshly condensed refrigerant directly from the
condenser during a heating period, and the sec
ond of which is adapted to have said refrigerant
transferred to it by changes of pressure in the
system at the beginning of the ensuing cooling
period and to retain therein residue liquid after
the completion of said cooling period, a conduit
through which said residue liquid is ‘returned 30
from the second receiver to the generator-ab
sorber section, the same including an upwardly '
tion, the intervals between heating periods being directed portion, and means for administering
7
known as cooling periods, the ‘receiver-evapora-v heat to said portion.
8. A refrigerating system including a genera 35
tor section involving two intercommunicating
receivers, one of which is arranged to receive tor-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver- '
freshly condensed refrigerant directly from the evaporator section, means for periodically ad
condenser during‘a heating period, and the sec / ministering heat to the generator-absorber sec~
ond of which is adapted to have said refrigerant tion, the intervals between heating periods be
transferred to it by changes of pressure in the ing known as cooling periods, the receiver-evap
40 system at the beginning of the ensuing cooling orator section involving two intercommunicat
period and to retain therein residue liquid after ing receivers, one of which is arranged to receive
the completion of said cooling period, and a gas freshly condensed refrigerant directly from the
condenser during a heating period, and the sec
lift for returning said residue liquid from the sec
ond of which is adapted to have said refrigerant»
ond
receiver
to
the
generator-absorber
section
45
transferred
to it by changes of pressure in the
during the next heating period.
system at the beginning of the ensuing cooling
5. A refrigerating system including a genera
period and, to retain therein residue liquid after
tor-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver
the completion of said cooling period, a conduit _
evaporator section, means for periodically ad
through
which said residue liquid is returned to
ministering heat to the generator-absorber sec’,
50
tion. the intervals between heating‘periods being from the second receiver to the generator-ab
sorber section,.the same having 'an'upwardly di
known" as cooling periods, the receiver-evapora
tor section involving two intercommunicating re
- rected portion arranged to receive heat liberated
from hot liquid in the generator-absorber sec
ceivers, one of which is arranged to receive fresh
55
tion.
>
ly
condensed
refrigerant
directly
from
the
con
55 denser during a heating period, and the second
9. A refrigerating system comprising a gen
of. which is adapted to have said refrigerant erator-abso'rber section, a condenser, a receiver
transferred to it by changes of pressure in the evaporator section, communicative means com—
‘system at the beginning vof the ensuing cooling necting’said elements andi including a conduit 60
period and to retain therein residue liquid after through which gas is returned from the receiver
evaporator section to the generator-absorber sec
the completionof said cooling period, and a con
duit through which said residue liquid is re ~ tion, the same having a portion in which liquid
from the generator-absorber section is present,
turned from the second receiver to the genera
toréabsorber section, said conduit being arranged means for periodically administering heat to 65
the generator-absorber section, the intervals, be
65 to receive heat from the generator-absorber sec
tion during the heating period thereby to create tween heating periods being known as cooling
gas bubbles withinthe conduit and induce a flow periods, the receiver-evaporator ‘section involv
therein'in the direction of the generator-absorber ing two intercommunicating receivers, one of
which is arranged to receive freshly condensed -
section.
‘
6, A- refrigerating system including a genera»
tor-absorber section, ' a condenser, a receiver
refrigerant directly from the condenser during a
heating period, and the second of which is adapt
evaporator section, means for periodically ad- - .ed to have said refrigerant transferred to it by '
ministering heat to the generator-absorber sec
tion, the intervals between heating periods being
known
as cooling periods, the receiver-evapora
75
a change of pressure in the system at the begin
ning of the ensuing cooling period and to retain
residue liquid after the completion of said cool 75
4
9,045,053
ing period, and a conduit through which said
residue liquid is returned from the second re
ceiver to the generator-absorber section, the same
having an upwardly- directed part in heat ex
changing relation to the aforesaid portion of the
gas return conduit.
_.
10. A refrigerating system comprising a gener
ator-absorber section, a condenser, a receiver
evaporator section, communicative means con
10 necting said elements and. including a conduit
of and communicating witlrthe secondary re- 10
through which gas is returned from the receiver
ceiver, a gas return conduit leading from the
evaporator section to the generator-absorber
section, the same having an upwardly extended
portion in which liquid from the generator
absorber section is present, means for period
ically administering heat to the generator-ab
sorber section, the intervals between heating
periods being known as cooling periods, the
receiver-evaporator section involving two receiv
secondary receiver to the generator-absorber and
opening into the latter at a point below the mini
mum liquid level therein, the gas return conduit
having a downwardly extending portion in which 15
liquid from the generator-absorber is present, a
condensed refrigerant directly from the condens
er during a heating period, and the second of
which is- adapted to have said refrigerant trans
conduit leading from a low part of the evapo~
rator and having an upwardly extended portion
arranged within the downwardly extending por
tion of the gas return conduit and opening into 20
the latter above the maximum liquid level there
in, and an insulated cabinet enclosing a refriger
ation compartment within which the evaporator
ferred to its by a. change of pressure in the
is situated, the primary and secondary receivers,
ers, one of which is arranged to receive freshly
25 system at the beginning of the ensuing cooling
period and to retain residue liquid after the com
pletion of said cooling period, and a conduit
‘through which said residue liquid is returned
from the second receiver to the generator-ab
30 sorber section, the same having an upwardly
directed portion disposed within the upwardly
directed portion of the beforementioned gas re
turn conduit. _
'
-
11. A refrigerating system comprising a gen
erator-absorber, a condenser, means for deliver
ing vapor from the generator-absorber to the
condenser, a primary receiver, a secondary re
ceiver, -means through which condensate is
delivered from the condenser to the primary re
40 ceiver, a transfer conduit leading from the pri
mary receiver to the secondary receiver, an
evaporator communicating with the secondary
receiver, a gas return conduit leading from the
secondary receiver to the generator-absorber and
45 opening into the latter at a point below the mini
with the transfer conduit and the part of the 25
gas return conduit including the downwardly di
rected portion, being encased within an insu
lated part of the cabinet.
-
1
14. A refrigerating system comprising a gen
orator-absorber, a condenser, means for deliver 30
ing vapor from the generator-absorber to the
condenser, a primary receiver, a secondary re
ceiver, means through which condensate is de
livered by gravity from the condenser to the
primary receiver, a transfer conduit leading from 35
the bottom portion of the primary receiver to the
secondary receiver, an evaporator below the plane
of and communicating with the secondary re
ceiver, a gas return conduit .leading from the
secondary receiver to the generator-absorber and 40
opening into the latter at a point below the ‘
minimum liquid level therein, the gas return
conduit having a downwardly extending portion
in which liquid from the generator-absorber is
present, and a conduit leading from a low part 45 _
mum liquid level therein, the gas return con
of the evaporator and having an upwardly ex
duit having a downwardly extending portion in
tended portion arranged within the downwardly
which liquid from the generator-absorber is
present, and a conduit leading from a low part
of the evaporator and having an upwardly ex
extending portion of the gas return conduit and
opening into the latter above the maximum liq
uid level therein, an insulated cabinet enclosing 50
a refrigeration- compartment in which the evap
tended portion arranged within the downwardly
extending portion of the gas return conduit and
opening into the latter above the maximum liq
55
13. A refrigerating system comprising a gen
erator-absorber, a condenser, means for deliver
ing vapor from the generator-absorber to the
condenser, a primary receiver, a secondary re
ceiver, means through which condensate is de- 5
livered from the condenser to the primary re
ceiver, a transfer conduit leading from the bot
tom portion of the primary receiver to the sec
ondary receiver, an evaporator below the plane
uid level therein.
12. A refrigerator system comprising a gener
ator-absorber, a condenser, means for delivering
vapor from the generator-absorber to the con
denser, aprlmary receiver, a secondary receiver,
means through which condensate is delivered
from the condenser to the primary receiver, a
transfer conduit leading from the bottom por
tion of the primary receiver to the second re
ceiver, an evaporator below the plane of and
communicating with the secondary receiver, a
65 gas return conduit leading from the secondary
receiver to the generator-absorber and opening
into the latter at a point below the minimum
liquid level therein, the gas return conduit hav
ing a substantially vertical portion in which liq
70 uid from the generator-absorber is present, and
_
a conduit leading from a low part of the evapo
rator and having a substantially vertical portion
arranged within the corresponding portion of the
gas return conduit and opening into the latter
76 above the maximum liquid level therein.
orator is situated, and insulating means 811C105? '
ing the primary and secondary receivers and the
transfer conduit and a part of the gas return
conduit including the downwardly extended por- 55
tion thereof.
'
15. The method of refrigeration which consists
in periodically heating a mixture of refrigerant
and absorbent liquids in the generator-absorber
section of the system to produce vapors there- 60
from; condensing said vapors and withholding
the condensate from the evaporator section of
the system until the conclusion of the heating
period; during said heating period returning any
residue liquid from the evaporator section to the 65
generator-absorber section by a thermal action
induced by heat from the generator-absorber
section, thereafter effecting delivery of the con
densate to the evaporator section, and during the
ensuing cooling period returning the refrigerant 70
in the form of gas from the evaporator section
to the generator-absorber section.
'
c
' ‘
16. The method of refrigeration which con
sists in periodically heating a mixture of refrig
erant and absorbent liquids in the generator-4 75
enemas
absorber section of the system to produce vapors
therefrom; condensing said vapors and by rea
son oi’ the pressure then prevailing in the system
withholding the condensate from the evaporator
section oi the system; during the heating pe
riod returning any residue liquid from the evap
orator section to the generator-absorber section
by a. thermal action induced by the heat of the
‘
mixture in the generator-absorber section, and
duringthe ensuing cooling period returning the ‘
refrigerant in the. form of gas from the evap
orator section to the generator-absorber section
and allowing the condensate to enter the evap
orator section by reason of a, reduced pressure »
in the system.
‘ nnsm.
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