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Патент USA US2047907

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July 14, 1936.
Filed May 4, 1953
3 Sheets-Sheet l
I ml
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JQHTIEtiZ Nc-zpz'er
July 14, 1936.
Filed May 4, 1933
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
July 14, 1936.
Filed May 4, 1933
3 Sheets-Sheet 3‘
Kenneth Mpz'er
Patented July 14, 1936
Kenneth Napier, Barberton, Ohio, assignor to
The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Newark,
N. J., a corporation of New Jersey
Application .May 4, 1933, Serial No. 669,285 .
49 Claims.
by the addition of packing material inserted be
This invention relates to furnace wall con
struction used in ?uid heatexchange apparatus. tween. adjacent blocks or between adjacent tubes
One object of the invention is'the provision of oraby- plastic insulation applied to the outside of
blocks which may be used in a continuous series the structure.
In order that the wall blocks may be placed in
'5 to close the spaces between ?uid conducting tubes
the furnace walls or the rows of tubes as indi
Another object is the provision of such blocks
in a form which will permit them to be placed
in position along a furnace wall by insertion
I0‘ between the support members or water tubes
from without the furnace.
cated in Figs. 8, 9.and 10, they are formed as
hereinafter described. The inner‘ end 24- of each
block is of such a dimension. that it may be m- 10"
sertedbetween two adjacent tubes in when the
block. is turned to the position indicated in the
left hand part. of Fig. 8' of the drawings. In this
' A further object is the provision of means for
mounting block units to produce pressure be
tween the parts forming the unit and the tubes
155 in order to hold the block units ?rmly in place,
and yet permit the removal of blocks when it is
desired to» replace them without requiring dis
turbance of the entire wall or even adjacent
units. Other object will appear upon considera
20- tion of the present speci?cation.
In the accompanying drawings:
' Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a portion of a
_ l
furnace wall embodying the invention,
Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the wall illustrated
25 in Fig. 1 viewed from the inside of the furnace.
‘ Fig. 3 is a section on the line III-III of Fig. 2-,
Fig. 4 is a. rear view in elevation of a portion. of
the wall shown in Fig. 2,
Fig. 5 illustrates the invention applied to tubes
' spect to the furnace interior,
Fig. 6 illustrates the invention applied: to» tubes
which are curved in a convex sense with respect
to the furnace interior,
35 > Fig. 7" is a perspective view of one of the wall;
Fig. 8 is a detail view showing successive steps
in the formation of the furnace wall built ac‘
cording to the present invention,
45‘ ' Fig. 9 is a detail elevation showing two ‘wall
block parts in an intermediate position, and-—'
I‘Fi'g'. 10- is a detail front elevation of a wall
position the block is substantially 90° removed
fromits operative position in which it forms a 15
part of the completed furnace wall. After the
inner end of the block is passed beyond the
center line of two‘ adjacent tubes as indicated
in the intermediate part of Fig. 8, the block is
turned tolthe position indicated at the right hand 20‘
partof that ?gure. Further turning of the block
brings it to-the position in. which it is indicated in
Fig. 9 of the drawings.
After two complementary blocks are brought
into position as indicated in Fig. 9. of the draw- 25v
ings, a tension member I6 is passed through cor
responding openings l8< in the heel or outer por
tion. 20 of each element, andla resilient member
2i‘. .Thereafter a nut 22 tightened on the ten
sion member l6 against the member 2i brings the 30
30' which‘ are curved in a concave sense with re
their operative. positions from points exterior of
in- a furnace wall.
The furnace wall as it is shown in the draw
45" ings consists of a row of fluid conducting tubes
HI and interposed wall elements or blocks l2
which are of heat resisting material.‘ In the
present case they are of metal. The blocks are
preferably carried by, the tubes and’ are arranged
50‘ thereon to form a‘ substantially closed furnace
wall’;I When a suitable insulation material or
refractory material covers the blocks a complete
furnace wall will be formed. The interior or
7 fireside of this wall is illustrated in Fig. 2 of
55:‘ the "drawings; The wall may be made airtight
two complementary blocks into wall closing posi
tions with the blocks resiliently held against the
tubes/so that expansion does not decrease the
quality of the heat transfer contact between the
tubes and. the blocks. ‘ The illustrated. blocks thus 35
permit the assembly or repair of the furnace
wall from points without the furnace. A work
man need not go into the furnace to- place the
wall blocks in position. This is an important
advantage especially in the repair of furnace
walls before the furnaces are completely cooled,
or when the structure. is. located in a. position as
for example adjacent boiler tubes so as to make
it inaccessible from the inside of the furnace.
As clearly indicated in Figures 3,_ 7, and 8 of
the drawings each wall-v block has an. inner por
tion or face 24 joined with an outer portion 20
by a narrow intermediate'section' bounded by
curved faces 26 ?tting tightly against the tubes 50
in the completed wall? structure. The face 24
rests against the furnace sides of‘ the tubes and
is presented toward burning fuel in the furnace.
'I‘hisintermedia-te section may be-termed a bout.
It is reinforced by an external ?ange or rib 28 55
extending to a base which forms the stud 30
around the opening l8.
When the wall elements are in their operative
positions, the outer portions 20 'form strong re
inforcing ribs or ?anges as clearly indicated in
such ?gures as Fig. 4. These ribs extend trans
versely of the tubes as shown and operate to’ ma
terially stiffen the entirewall structure and main
tain thetubes .“in. their ,c'spaced relationships, The
2. In a furnace wall, spaced wall cooling tubes,
wall blocks or closure. members insertible be
tween the tubes from the exterior of the furnace
and contacting with the tubes along spiral lines
when in their operative positions; and tension
members exerting their forces in directions par;
allel to the longitudinal axes of the tubes to hold
the blocks against, the tubes so as to have a heat’
transfer relationtherewith.
10 inner portions'or'faces 2'4 formstren'gthening ribs
‘ 3. In a furnace, a row'of 'spaced'fluid con
which extend across the inner sides of the tubes fducting tubes delineating a furnace Wall, coact- V
as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2. The faces 2d 'of‘ ‘ing wall blocks of identical construction having
some of the adjacent blocks orfwallelements may -. partsextending across the inner and outer sides
contact with each other as'lindicated in Fig. 1.,
of the tubes and forming ‘with the tubes a sub-v
When the wall elements are inthe'ir' operative ' ,stantially‘continuous and complete furnace wall,
positions as indicated in Figr‘l ‘of 'théjdrawing‘sf and means engaging the parts of the wall blocks
adjacent elements extend convergently outwardly ' ‘extending across the sides of the tubes remote
' of the Wall so as to form pocketslinv whiéhTe
:from the. interior of the furnace to exert pres
fractory material may be held. Such material,‘
whether in the form of slag deposited from'burne
ing fuel, or in'the form,‘ of- a refractory layer
which; is manually placed .over. the, wall, may
cover the. portions lof..itheqtub,es, which are not
covered by the wall elements themselves-.1 Pref.-.
25 erably, the‘ blocks or wall, elements‘ are,‘ formed
with studs 32 shown as extending iIITdlI‘GCtiOIVIS
normal ,to :the outwardlyconverging faces of the
sure on those parts to bring intermediate por
tions' of the blocks into closely ?tting contact 20'
,with the surfaces, of the tubes extending, from
their furnace ‘sides to'their remote sides. ‘ ,
4.1m‘ ?uid heat‘ exchange apparatus, a row'of
?uidconducting tubes delineating a furnace wall, ,
andywall blocks of identical construction each
blocks. These. studs, however; are not employed
engaging both the forward and rearward sides
of the tubes with their parts engagingwthe rear
ward sides'of the tubes constituting also a part
When'the blocks‘are not covered.
ofthe furnace wall presented toward the interior
. As shown the blocksare; formed :on their inner
sides with ribs 34 which .preferably contact with
eachnotherwhen the blocks. are ‘being brought
into their [operative relations, with the tubes.‘
of the furnace.
5. In a furnace wall, spaced substantially par
allel support members, and a bloclcunit for clos
ing the space between said support members, said
block unit comprising two parts of. identical con
3.5. the two blocks. there shown are'moved _.slight1y , struction each having two substantially _longi_-‘ 35;
towards each other, the ribs34 will contact and tudinal concave surfaces for engagin'g‘the two ad~ ,
Referring again to Fig. 9~ofgthe drawings, after
formin effect a fulcrumabout which the, blocks
are turned as they are;beingstightened-against
the_tubes-by tensionapplied by the members It
V 40;
and the nuts 22 thereon. , The ribs 34 also operate
to, form, with the tubes, and the studs 32 :addi-~
tional pockets in which refractory ,material may
be positioned.
. ;.1,
' The illustrative wallblocks are. of such form
that- they may readily form jalcomplete. furnace
wall, even where the wall is supported byv curved
tubes as indicated in Figs. 5and .6.-of the draw
ings, , They, are,» as adaptable for forming a part
of: thejfurnace wall ,which ‘is. convextowards
50, the interior of, the furnace ,aswell as they are
upon the wall which is concave towards the in:
teriorof. thefurnace-
jacent support members forwardly. and -rear'-_
wardly of their center line, and means for mount
I ing said unit toproduce pressure ‘between the sur» ‘
faces on the parts and the’ support, membersrv ’ 7 ‘i0.
6. In a furnace wall,v spaced substantially par
allel cylindrical support members, and a block >
unit for closing the space between'said support.
members, said block unit comprising’ two parts
of identical construction eachhaving two "sub,
stantiallyjongitudinal concave surfaces for en
gaging the two adjacent suppOrt members?or
wardly and rearwardly ofthe commoncenter
line of the; members, and means. for mounting
said unit to produce pressure between the sur:
faces on the parts and the support, members;
, 17. Ina furnace wall, spaced substantially par
Besides presenting the, advantage of permitting V allel water tubes, and'a block unit for closing the
the wallblocksto beplaced from positionsexf space between said tubes, said block unit com
55, teriorly of the. .furnace,_ the illustrative rembodiel prising two parts of identical construction each
merit, Of the invention presents an additional im
' portant advantage
.thatall. Qfihe Wa11..b1_0ck
elements may be’ ofthe same formation, This
promotes'considerable economies in the-assembly
60. andrepair of furnaces, reducing the varietyof
parts which must" be kept on‘ hand 'for'ffurna'ce
- While the
_, invention
_ . with
reference to the particular‘ embodiment shown in
65 the drawings, it is to 'be understood that the in
having two. substantially longitudinal concave
surfaces, for-engaging the two adjacent tubes
forwardly ‘and rearwardly of theircenterjline,
and means for mounting?saidgunit totgproduce
pressure between the surfaces ‘on theparts and
V_ 8.~ A furnace ‘wall comprising spaced vertical
water tubes, block units insertable between. said
tubes sfromroutside the furnace for. closing'?the
spacesbetween the tubes, each block unit :com-v
vention is not limited: thereto-but is of ‘a scope
commensurate withfthe. scope of the‘ sub-joined
prising two identical parts disposed one above
the other when in position between said‘tubes,
'4 What
1. In aisfurnacewall,
_' claimedis:
' spaced
,. wall'cooling
I -' ' 1' ; 1: '- _tubes,
pressure betweenthe parts and the tubes'. .7 j v f
> .39. A furnace wall comprising spaced parallel
and means lfor mounting said unit to produce
closureimembers mounted _ upon theq-tubes for,
closing the spaces between-‘the: tubes, and tension
members each exerting aforcein a direction para
vertical water tubes; and-a seriesvofblock units
closing the spaces'betweenfsaid tubes; each block
unitvv comprising two-parts each having two longi4
allel-to the ,IOnsitudinaLaXBS. of; the tubes-for. tudinal concave surfaces for contact with the two"
7,5; holding said members in. .ceataet withing tubes-'7 adjacent tubes'forwardly and rearwardly of their
center line; a rearwardly extending: flange, and
nut and bolt means coacting with ther?anges on
each part comprising. a block unit for mounting
saidunit to produce pressure between thesur
faceskonthe parts and the tubes, substantially
as. described.
10. In a furnace construction a rowof spaced
‘ ?uid conducting tubes, furnace wall elements of
similanconstruction contactingwith the tubes
10 and forming therewith a substantially complete
wall or furnace gas boundary, and tension means
positioned on the exterior side of therow and
acting against adjacent parts of two of said ele
ments to cause them to be clamped against the
bars, enacting with thetensionmembers to main
tain 1the "closure, members resiliently pressed
.:; 17. In a furnace wall, spaced wall cooling tubes,
metallic wall blocks or closuremembers of .iden
tical-construction insertible between the tubes
from the exterior .of the furnaceand contacting
with the tubes along spiral lines when in their
operative positions, tension members exerting
their forces along the tubes to hold the blocks 10
against the :tubesso. as to. have agood heat
transfer relation, therewith, and resilient mem
bers "coacting with the tension members and the
closure members to maintain the latter resil
iently pressed against the tubes under all condi
adjacent tubes, each wall, element having a part
which closely ?ts the tubes across their furnace tions of expansion and contraction.
, sides-and another part which closely ?ts the tubes i‘ 18.. A double concave furnace wall block with
across the other sides remote from the interior of ~ itsrconcave sides each bounded by a surface ex
tending along‘a' helical curve and adapted to ?t
the furnace.
20 _ ,11. In a furnace, a plurality of spaced ?uid tightly against a tube when the block is arranged
conducting tubes outliningya wall, wall blocks of obliquely'with reference to the longitudinal axis
similar construction insertible between thetubes
from the exterior of the furnace and having parts
extending along the inner and outer sides of the
25. tubes tocomplete the furnace walls and substan
tially, close the spaces between the tubes, and
tension means ‘acting upon portions of adjacent
wall‘ elements to cause them to tightly grip the
tubes so that they are held in position thereby.
30 ', ,v l2.v In a'furnace wall, spaced wall cooling tubes,
closure members mounted upon the tubes for
closing the spaces between the tubes, tension
members each exerting force in a direction paral-.
lel to the longitudinal axes of the tubes for hold
ing said members in contact with the tubes, and
resilient members coacting with the closure mem
bers to maintain them resiliently pressed against
the tubes.
13. In a furnace wall, spaced wall cooling tubes,
40 wall blocks or closure members insertible between
the tubes from the exterior of the furnace and
contacting with the tubes along spiral lines when
in their operative positions, tension, members
exerting their forces in a direction parallel to the
45 longitudinal axes of the tubes to hold the blocks
against the tubes so as to have a heat transfer
relation therewith, and resilient members coact
ing with vthe tension members and. the closure
members to maintain the latter resiliently pressed
50 against the tubes under all conditions of‘ expan
sion and contraction.
" 14. In a furnace wall, spaced‘wall cooling tubes,
‘closure members mounted upon the tubes for
closing the spaces between the tubes, and tension
55 members each exerting force in a direction paral
' lel to the longitudinal axes of the‘ tubes for hold
ing said members in contact with the tubes,ja1l
of said closure members being of identical con‘
struction and constituting the only wall forming
members in contact with the tubes.
" "15. In a furnace wall, spaced wall cooling tubes,
wall blocks or closure members insertible between
the tubes from the exterior of the furnace, tension
members exerting their forces in a direction
parallel to‘the longitudinal ‘axes of the tubes to
hold the blocks against the tubesrso as to have a
of the, tube.
19. A double concave furnace wall block. with
its curved sides constituting parts of tube ?tting
helices adapted to fit tightly against cylindrical 25
tubes when the 'block is arranged obliquely
20.*'A. metallic double concave furnace wall
block having its opposite sides bounded by tube
?tting surfaces which arepa'rts of helices when
the block is arranged obliquely relative to the
- 21. In combination with furnace wall tubes, a
double concave metallic furnace wall block com
prising, a clamping part, an inner tube engaging 35
part adapted to be disposed transversely of fur—
nace wall tubes along their furnace sides, and a
double concave intermediate part connecting the
above indicated parts and bounded on opposite
sides by, surfaces which are. adapted to ?t tightly 40
against'adjacent' tubes. and constitute parts of
tube enclosing surfacesin the nature of helices.
22. In a furnace wall, wall tubes, pairs of blocks
shaped to ‘?t. the tubes when oblique, to the tubes
with the blocks of each pair diverging, and means 45
acting on the blocks to ‘change their obliquity
and thereby cause the blocks to be clamped
against, the tubes. the blocks completing the fur
nace wall closure when clamped in position.
23. In a furnace, spaced tubes, metallic wall 50
units having inner and outer sections positioned
on opposite sides of the tubes and connected by
sections oblique to the tubes, and means acting
on the outer sections to cause the units to be
bound against the tubes; the units being insert
ible between adjacent tubes from a position ex
teriorly of the furnace.
24. In the furnace art, the method of building
a,‘ furnace wall comprising arranging spaced
tubes ‘in wall'delineating relationship, insert
ing wall, elements between the tubes from po
sitions exteriorly of the-furnace, turning those
elements to interlock them with the tubes,
and pivoting the blocks on_a transverse axis, then
exerting pressure onthe elements to further pivot 65
them, and thereby bind them into good heat ex
heat transfer relation therewith,‘ and resilient
devicesinterposed relative to the tensionimem
change relationship with the tubes.
:25. A_furnace wall ‘structure for closing the
bers and the‘closure devices.‘
1 I
70 I » ‘l6.“In? a furnace wall, spaced wall'cooling tubes,
spaces between adjacent tubes comprising, an
inner portion constructed and arranged to bridge
the space between two wall tubes and to have its
rearward side ?t against the front parts of those
tubes; an outer‘ clamping part constructed and
arranged to' receive pressure to cause the. struc
doubleiconcave closure members obliquely'mount
ed upon and between adjacent tubes for closing
the *spaces- between the tubes, tension members
each exerting aforce along the wall for clamping
75 ..
said 'members‘lonl the tubes, and‘ resilient, mem
ture to pivot and to be clamped against the tube,
a narrow'intermediat'e double concave part: con
necting the’above‘ describedparts and bounded
at its opposite sides by surfaces'which closely ?t
all parallel. to an
ate portion..
axisoblique vto said intermedi
»34."In a‘vmetallic'ifurnace wall block,.a rela
against the sides of two.iadjoining».tubes'when ‘ tively narrow 3 intermediate portion’ connecting
the structure" is obliqueltheretm: and .a fulcrum twotransverse end portions which extend. out
portion intermediate ~the ends. .of .the structure wardly beyond both sides of theintermediate
constructed andarranged to contact with another
similar structure and to'causethe-I?rst structure
to'be pivoted and brought into good heat ex
10' changerelationship with the-tubes upon the ap
plication of ‘pressure-to said'outer part. ‘
'26..Furnaceiwallielements of identical: con
struction constructed’ and arranged'to close the
spaces between wall cooling tubes and consisting
of end portions connected by .double ‘concave
mid-portions having their opposite sides inwardly
and helically curved .to' form parts iof cylindrical
surfaces having their 'axes- oblique to the mid
portions to ?t .tightly'against‘wall tubes when
the elements are positioned obliquely'with ref-,
erence to the longitudinal axes of the tubes,‘ the
mid-portions being narrower than said-end-‘por
27. A furnace'wall block having wall forming
end portions connected. by a. narrow double con
cave mid-portion de?ned at its opposite sides by
concave tube ?tting surfaces adapted to closely
?t againsta tube'when .theblock is arranged
obliquely. thereto, .one. end portion. of the block'
being insertible. within the furnace between .ad
portion," and a fulcrum forming projection.
. v35. Inf‘a metal furnace wall’bloclg-a relatively
narrow intermediate portion, end portions'ex
tending in‘the same plane beyond opposite sides
of the intermediate-portion, and a fulcrum form
ing-portion extending from the intermediate por
tion in a direction at an angle to said plane.
36. In a furnace; vspaced vwall'cooling tubes;
and metallic structural units comprising, trans
verse ‘end portions connected by relatively nar
row "intermediate portions which-are obliquely re—
lated to one end» portion in each unit, and ful
crum forming projections, opposite sides of the
intermediate portions shaving surfaces de?ned by
elements parallel toqaxes oblique to said'intere
mediate portions; the end portions'and' projec-q 1 '
tions» being so- constructed’ and’ arranged that '
whilev said units canbernoved between’the' tubes
to their‘ operative positions'from positions ex
teriorly‘ofthefurnace the units cannot be'moved ~
between successive tubes entirely topositibn's
within the furnace,
37. 'A' furnace wall comprising spaced tubes,’
jac'ent tubes anditheother end portio?havin'g
and blocks arranged between and along succes
tube, the ?ange being oblique. to the mid-pore
blocks presenting furnace‘faces ,both'rea'rwardly
a-?ange against which a clamping force reacts . sive tubes innzigzag formation to close the'spaces
to. pivot the block‘ and bind‘. it-tightly against a between the tubes and” complete the wall, the
28.'In a ?uid. cooled furnace 'wall, a row of
spaced tubes, blocks insertible'between the tubes
from positions exteriorly of the furnace, and
means extending .and acting longitudinally of the
40 tubes and positioned exteriorly. of the row of tubes
and forwardly of the center lines of the tubes.
‘ 738. In ‘a furnace wall, a rowpf spaced tubes,- 9
metallic wall blocks’ of similar construction ar
ranged in pairs of oppositely'angled blocks be
tween successive tubes, the blocks of a pair hav-'
ing extensions converging toward a positiongex
‘for pivoting the blocks toibind them against‘the . teriorlyfof the row of tubes, the blocksalso'hav 40
tubes, the blocks being arranged in pairs with ing'inner. extensions ‘or, portions positioned over
the blocks of each pairlfulcruming on each other _ the sides of the tubes toward the interior of the
as said means is operated'and each block‘ being furnace, and means reacting: against'the blocks to
45 replaceable without the‘ displacement .of any pivot them‘ and cause bothsets of extensions to 45
block' other than the‘ complementary block of .its
29. A furnace wall block formed with two
separate helical and cylindrical tube engaging
50 surfaces each with an axis‘oblique'to the direc
non, in: which the block has its maximumTdimen-i
~ 30.‘ A metallicifurnace Iw‘all- block having a tube
?tting portion and an ‘inner end part forming
furnace faces in: front of "the tube ?tting‘ portion,
said portion also forming a-"furnace face facing
in the same direction as the other furnace-faces.
I 31. A. furnace wall block having tube- ?tting
portions on opposite-(sides of a fulcrum portionv
about which theblock is. pivotable on an axis
transverse to' the axes of adjoining tubes.
- 32.'In a furnace, "spaced tubes, unitary wall
blocks individually bridging'the furnace sides of
adjacent tubes and being'operatively positionable
. be clamped tightly against the tubes.‘ ‘
39. A furnace wall comprising spaced tubes, and
blocks arranged between andalon'gsuccessive
tubesinzigzag formation relativetoi'the plane
of’the' wall to closethe spaces between the tubes
and complete the wall,‘ adjacent blocks having so .i
refractory anchoring projections extending into
wall pockets formed between the blocks and the
40. In combination; spaced furnace wall'tubes,' 55
wall elementsarranged in zigzag formation rela- .
tiver'to the. plane of the wall to. close the spaces
between the tubes, the elements having trans
verseLend portions positionedon opposite sides
of the tubes, and projections transversely re
lated to the end portions and cooperating there-.
with for preventing the elements fromrpassing
entirely throughv the spaces between the tubes 7
while permitting thoseelementsto be ‘placed in
position from points beyond the tubes 65
from positions extejriorlyo'f ‘the'furna'ce, fulq operative
c'rum parts on' the blocks; an'dvmeans, acting on exteriorly of the’ furnace.
the blocks to‘v pivot themion said’ fulcrum parts V _, 41. In a furnace of the typeincludingspaced
wall tubes connected into fluid circulation, blocks
'_ and about; axes '_ transverseto thelongitudinal closing
the spaces between the tubesand'having
axes‘ of the'tube's to cause the blocks to, be tightly - body portions
jwithidouble concave tube contact
clamped against the :tubes. ] ' l" v
V .
ing. surfacesv each generatedby ,astraight line
33. In a metallic'structuralunit, transverse end, element remaininguconstantly parallel to the‘
portions connected, bya relativelynarrow inte'r—j longitudinalaxis
of ‘a rightcylinder while it
mediate portion, and‘ a fulcrum forming projecé. ' moves, in a helical pathsI , - j
- . '
j r
'75. tion,j'opposite_ sides of the; intermediate portion: . ; 42. A blockkforspanninkg the space, between two
having ‘surfaces de?ned‘by ‘straight line nememz‘s . parallel tub‘és‘wmen comprises abody portionthe V
sides of which are of substantial width and shaped
to lie along the tubes and in contact therewith
throughout their width and at an angle between
90° and 180° with respect to the axis of the tubes.
43. Double concave furnace wall blocks having
opposite tube ?tting surfaces each generated by
a straight line element constantly parallel to the
longitudinal axis of a tube and moving in a path
in the nature of a helix.
44. Furnace wall elements of identical con
struction adapted to close the spaces between wall
cooling tubes and consisting of end portions con
nected by double concave mid-portions having op
posite surfaces corresponding to exterior tube
15 surfaces positioned between two substantially
parallel planes obliquely cutting two spaced and
parallel tubes.
45. In combination with furnace wall tubes, a
metallic furnace wall block having a tube ?tting
20 portion presenting furnace faces forwardly and
rearwardly of the center lines of vthe tubes.
46. In a metallic structural unit having trans
verse end portions connected by a relatively nar
row intermediate portion, opposite sides of the
25 intermediate portion having curved surfaces in
the nature of parts of helices de?ned by straight
line elements .all parallel to an axis oblique to
said intermediate portion.
47. In a furnace; spaced wall cooling tubes; and
metallic structural units comprising, transverse
end portions, and relatively narrow intermedi
ate portions connecting the end portions, oppo
site sides of the intermediate portions having
surfaces de?ned by elements parallel to axes ob CH
lique to said intermediate portions; the end por
tions and projections being so constructed and
arranged that while said units can be moved
between the tubes to their operative positions
from positions exteriorly of the furnace the units
cannot be moved between successive tubes en
tirely to positions within the furnace.
48. In a furnace wall, spaced tubes, and wall
closure elements secured to the tubes and ex
tending from positions on the furnace sides of
the tubes to positions on the opposite sides of
the tubes, said elements presenting furnace faces
forwardly and rearwardly of the center lines
of the tubes.
49. A method of building a wall comprising,
arranging spaced supports in wall relationship,
inserting wall closing elements between adja
cent supports from positions exterior of the wall,
turning those elements to inter-lock them with
the supports, pivoting the elements, and then 2
exerting pressure on the elements to bind them
into closely ?tting relationship with the sup~
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