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Патент USA US2048030

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July 21, 1936. I
1, REFFEL
'
2,048,030
PROCESS OF TREATING FUR~
Filed June 5, 1935
PREPARING FOR PLUCKING
SOFTENING THE FUR
Soaking
Drying
POWDER/N6
PLUCKING
PREPARING FOR SHAV/NG
DRESSING
TANNING and "E66 YOLK"TREATMENT
SOAKING
'
DRYING
SAWDUST DRUMMING
SHAVINQ AND STRETCH/N6
PREPARATION FOR SECOND 'SHAVING
GREASING THE LEATHER
CLEANING THE LEATHER
SECOND SHAVING
PREPARING
FOR UNHA/R/NG'
CLEAN/N6
BEAT/N6
UNHAIRING
SHEAR/N6
PREPARING FOR RESHEAR/NG
ST/FFENING FURS
By drumming wifh sawdusf' and rice s/vrch
GLAZING
RESHEARING
INVENTOR
vISADDRE RE/FFEL
ATTORN EY
Patented July 21,‘ 1936‘
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE
rnocnss oi‘uz?almc run
Isadore Bei?el, Mount Vernon, N. Y.
> Application June 5, 1935, Serial No. 24,99?
6 Claims. (01. 149-28)
This invention relates to‘ a process of treating
fur, being particularly applicable to,._beaver and‘
volving cage to remove the saw-dust. The beav
ers are then folded up and hung in a dry room
nutria for ‘making such skins more presentable, so that the hair will dry, but the leather remain
lighter and less expensive.
' partially moist. when they are removed from
' _5
It is known in the fur industry that there is the dry room, the hair is powdered with chalk or
relatively little demand for beaver as an appurte
whiting, placing the pelts in condition for’ the
nance to wearing apparel due to certain proper
plucking operation.
ties that are inherently characteristic of that fur.
The step of plucking is accomplished by plac
Garments made ‘therefrom are known to be large, . ing the‘skin on a beam and operatively applying
1o heavy and bulky, and not as attractive in appear-. to the fur thereof a heavy dull-edged curved knife, 10
ance as the more expensive furs. Particularly
when it becomes wet does it lose whatever attrac
tive properties it may possess due to the fact that
the long fur hair is subject to a curling tendency
is under such conditions. Furthermore, beaver and
nutria contain certain long coarse guard hair in
terspersed between the fine fur hair resulting in
a surface bespecked with many shiny spots. It is
hence for the purpose of eliminating these dis
20 advantages characteristic of such sln'ns that I
have conceived this invention, which is for a
process of treating or dressing such furs to reduce
their weight for convenient wearing purposes, to
prevent curling of‘ the fur‘and thereby avoid the
'25 resulting shabby appearance thereof when wet;
and to further beautify such pelts by eliminating
the unsightly guard hair, exposing to view the
lighter colors near the underwool of a beaver skin
to produce a striped effect, giving a higher gloss
30 to the fur surface and imparting a velvet-like
texture thereto,—a1l of which constitute some
of ‘the objects of my invention. Other objects,
features and advantages will appear from the de
scription of the process hereinafter given.
85
Although this invention contains steps spe
ci?cally directed to accomplish the above-men
tioned objects, they maybe combined with other
commonly known steps employed in the ordinary
dresing of fur; and hence in the description
40 hereinafter given certain steps not entirely neces
'
sary are referred to merely to clarify the nature
‘ .
5°
.
‘5
thereby pulling out most of the relatively stiff,
accessible guard hair from the fur. Although
this is the preferred method of performing the
?rst plucking operation, other methods can be
employed within the scope of this invention. It 15
should be noted that this operation is consider
ably facilitated by the previous step of powder‘
ing, inasmuch as the chalk or whiting increases
the effective frictional grip of the plucking tool
upon the‘ hair which, if uncoated, might be too 20
smooth for operative emcacy.
>
The fur is then put through a dressing process
including the steps of removing the chalk, soak
ing the skins until soft, wringing out the solution
in an extractor, cutting away surface fat, meat, 25
etc., and if necessary, again soaking the skin and
extracting the solution as heretofore until it is al
most dry. Thereafter in accordance with one
form of practicing my invention, the combined
tanning operation and “egg yolk” treatment is 30
performed, which includes the step of placing the
skin into a water-tight revolving drum contain
ing tanning chemicals to which is added a small .
quantity,'generally 1%, of what I call an “egg
yolk” solution, comprising 80% salt free egg yolk, 35
10% glycerin and 10% castorroil,—these per
centages being by volume, the proportions being
approximate and subject to variation in accord
ance with conditions. This solution is added for
the purpose of giving beaver or nutria a high 40
gloss, and for the further purpose of preparing
of the entire process and help in the description the leather for the shaving operation which will
thereof.
hereinafter be described as another step in my
The drawing forming a part of this application‘ process to produce a paper-like thinness thereof
constitutes a ?ow .sheet showing the essential without injuring the fur. To further prepare the 45
steps of the process of my invention‘.
skin for the shaving operation, it is wrung out in
As applied to beaver, the ?rst objective of my an extractor, dried, run in saw-dust drums until
invention is to remove the coarse guard hairs,
it becomes pliable, and then the saw-dust is re
this being accomplished by plucking or pullingv moved by rotatirig the skin in a revolving cage.
them out by the roots. To properly prepare the It should be noted that in the tanning process, 50.
for for this step. the raw'pelts are soaked until hereinabove mentioned, various agents may be
soft and then put into a centrifugal extractor to employed,—a suitable formula comprising salt,
wring out the solution. Thereafter they are alum, sal ammoniac and sal. soda in various pro
drummed with saw-dust until about three
portions depending upon conditions.
fourths dry, after which they are run in a re
' When the fur is thus prepared, it is ready for 55
7
_
aosaoso
the combined leather shaving and stretching 'op- ' part by weight-of starch to eight parts of saw
eration. By using preferably a machine consist-' dust,--the rice starch having the effect of stiffen
ing of cylindrically mounted ‘blades, as long as ing the tops of the fur hairs so as to render
the width of the skin, the leather is shaved down .them more susceptible to the action of the cut
to a predetermined thickness,--the previous pre
ting tool in the next shearing step, it being under
paring operation enabling an extremely light
stood that other hair sti?ening means may be
‘ - weight pelt to be obtained. as the leather is employed within the contemplation of my inven
being thus shaved, the skin is being simultane
ously stretched, thereby not only helping the
shaving operation but producing a larger-and
tion.
‘
'
>
Thereafter the beavers are glazed or electri
?ed,—a process which is effected by applying a 10
heated iron and brushes alternately to the fur,
the heat adding to the lustre thereof and the
shaving operation, by greasing the leather with brushing straightening out the hairs to disclose
mineral oils and animal fats, mechanically any omissions or irregularities in the above
15 pounding these oils and fats into the leather, _ mentioned unhairing and shearing steps.
revolving the skins in saw-dust drums until the a
The last important step in the process is the
surface grease is absorbed but permitting the reshearing operation, similar to the shearing step
grease in the leather to be retained therein. The above described,‘ but repeated for removing any
saw-dust is then removed and the solution of high spots disclosed by the glazing operation,
lighter skin.
_
‘
The skins are thereafterprepared for a second
so"
soap and water applied to the leather side of the ’ and making the fur more uniform, to produce 20
skin, after w'hieh‘the pelt is‘in condition for the
second shaving operation.
The completion of the last preparing opera
tion now permits the second shaving step to be
performed to cut the leather down to an exceed
ingly ?ne thickness,—the operation being pref
erably though vnot necessarily performed on a
circular shaving machine. Although I prefer a
circular ‘machine for this step, any‘other leather
30; slicing method may be employed within the scope
of this invention.
.
After further driunmings of the fur and the
removal of the dust therefrom if it is considered
necessary to further clean same and render the
leather more soft and pliable, the skins are pre
pared for a subsequent operation which will
hereinafter be referred to as unhairing. One of
the essential steps in preparation therefor con
sists of the operation of beating up the fur pref
erably with heavy reed sticks, to make the coarse
hair more visible. By this step the hairs and
'fur are loosened up, and folded up or covered
guard hair caused to stand up so as to be exposed‘
for the next step.
45
When this is completed, the'unhairing opera
tion is performed, consisting of the step of cut
ting off the coarse guard hairs at their roots, so
as not to be visible, or discernible by touch
through the soft ?ne fur. This operation may
be done either by machine or by hand, the spe
ci?c step rather than the speci?c means being an
element of this invention.
‘The next important step is that of shearing,
.or cutting the fur to such predetermined height
55 ,as is considered expedient by experience. A spe
cial shearing machine is preferably employed for
this purpose consisting of a plurality of cylindri
cally disposed blades set at an angle and coop
erating with a stationary knife set close thereto,
vso the revolution of the cylinder producing a shear
ing action. This operation, as stated, shortens
the fur, reduces the weight of the pelt as a
result thereof and also, when applied to beaver,
exposes the lighter underwool at the roots of the
65 fur to produce a striped effect not ordinarily
seen in the usual heavy beaver skins.
,
At this stage it is possible that not all the fur
has been sheared to a uniform height due to the
fact that some of the, fur hairs may have been
a smooth, even and velvet-like texture. '
'
_
It is of course obvious that beaver or nutria
processed by my invention will not only be lighter
in weight, but more beautiful in appearance i...
reasons already set forth.
Furthermore, inas- so
much as the fur treated by this process, is much '
shorter, thev'icurling tendencies‘ heretofore con
sidered inherently characteristic of beavers when
exposed to moisture are entirely eliminated.
The process constituting my invention may 80
contain all of the steps above mentioned, or
where experience dictates otherwise, certain of
the steps may be omitted,—,depending upon the
nature of the skin, the section of the country
from which it came, the season it was pelted and 85
other considerations. The important steps, how
ever, namely plucking, shaving, unhairing, shear
ing and reshearing .are necessary in practically
every .case where this process is to be applied to
previously untreated'beaver ‘or nutria, in .yiew of 40
the fact that these steps are directed to reducing
weight, shortening the hairs and removing the
unsightly guard hairs. Where, however, certain
of the steps are unnecessary, due to a previous
processing or the very nature of the skin, certain 45
parts of this process can independently {be em
played to perform the functions intended for
them, such as treating a skin merely to/ remove
the guard hair, or to reduce the height of the
fur hairs,--all without employing the other steps 50
of the process.
'
It is of course understood that modi?cations of "
the steps and departures from the speci?c pro
cedure hereinbefore outlined may be resorted to
within the scope of the appended claims, without 55
departing from the spirit ofthis invention.
What I claim is:
.
1. In a method of treating beaver,~the steps
of drumming the skin in a mixture of one part
of rice starch and eight parts of saw-dust to
stiffen the tops of the fur, and shearing the fur
to a predetermined height.
‘
.
2. In a method of treating a beaver fur skin
and the like, the steps of operatively applying a
mixture of rice starch and saw-dust to the fur to 65
stiffen the tops thereof, and shearing the fur to
a predetermined height.
3. In a method of treating a fur skin, the
steps of operatively apphring rice starch to the
bent over during the shearing process, permit fur to stiffen the‘tops thereof, and shearing the 70
ting the blades to pass thereover without cutting - fur to a predetermined height.
them. '16 prepare the skin for a reshearing op
4. Ina. method of treating a fur skin, the steps
eration, the skins are given a very careful drum
of stiffening the tops of the fur hairs, and shear
ming with saw-dust to which is added preferably ing the fur to a predetermined height.
75 rice starch in the approximate proportion of one
5.1m. a method of treating a beaver fur skin 75
'
2,048,030
'
‘
’
3
and the like, the steps of shearing the fur to a.
to a. predetermined length, drumming the skin
. predetermined length, stiffening the fur, brushing
with a mixture of sawdust and rice starch to
the fur to straighten vup unsheared'iurs, and re-
sti?en the tops of the furs, brushing the fur t0
shearing the fur to level it oil and further reduce
straighten up unsheared furs, and reshearing the
5 the height thereof.
'
6. In a. method 0! treating a fur skin, the steps
or cutting oil the guard hairs“, shearing the fur
-
fur to level it 01! and further reduce the height ' 5
thereof.‘
'
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ISADORE REIFFEL.
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