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Патент USA US2048279

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July 21, 1936.
E. H. MERRITT
2,048,279
PLYWOOD AND METHOD OF FORMATION
Filed Jan. 18, 1952
2 Sheets-Sheet l
INVENTOR
July 21, 1936.’
E_ H; MERRlTT
2,048,279
PLYWOOD AND METHOD OF FORMATION
Filed ‘Jan. 18, 1932
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
é) 'INVENTOR
'
‘Patented July 21, 1936
2,048,279
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
z,o4s;279
rLYwoon AND METHOD or Foam-non '
Ericsson H. Merritt, Lockport, N. Y., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Laminating Patents
Corporation, Seattle, Wash, a corporation of
Delaware
Application January 18, weasel-m No. 587,217
10 Claims.
This invention relates‘ to plywood and to
(Cl. 154-2)
,
Fig. 9 is an enlarged detail plan view of a corner '
methods of forming the same, and, more particu
of the lamination of Fig. 8 containing insulating
larly, to plywood embodying insulating board and
board.
methods for its formation.
1
An object of the invention is the provision of
an improved laminated product comprising a
veneer facing backed by structural insulation.
character described which is especially resistant
'
A still further object is to provide‘ such a
product which is sturdy. and can be readily put
in place.
,
loose-texturedmaterial are well known and are
available in a variety of forms. Among these are
boards comprising shreds, ?bers or other types of ’
A further object is to provide a product of the
10 to marginal injury.
-
Structural insulating members composed of _
'
Another object is the provision of ‘an improved
method of forming a product of the character
under consideration.
‘A further object is to provide an improved
particles of wood. of various straws, of roots and
the like,‘ and other loose-textured composite
boards having the heat and sound insulating l0
qualities desirable for structural work. For the
sake of facility of expression the term "insulating
board"'is used herein todescribe such products.
The use of such products faced by natural
wood veneer has numerous advantages in con- 15
structional work where insulation and appear
ance are both required, as, for example, in the
method for uniting insulating board with natural. rooms of dwellings, and numerous efforts have
wood.
been made to provide a material of this type
20 > A still further object is to provide a method for which will ‘satisfy the requirements for such 20
‘ securing a strong bond between wood and a layer a product. Many. di?iculties have been en
composed of materials of greater absorbent countered, however. Among these have been
qualities.
‘
_
i’ailure'to secure a proper bond between the veneer .1
Other objects of the invention will in part be and the insulating board, weakness in the mar
25 obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
ginal edges, and particularly in the corners of the
The invention accordingly comprises the several
steps and the relation and order of one or more
of such steps with respect to each of the others,
and the article possessing the features, proper
30 ties, and the relation of elements, which are
exempli?ed in the following detailed disclosure, ‘
product, tendency toward cleavage along a plane
parallel to the face of the product, and the
fragility of the product when compared with
natural wood.
With a view to overcoming the foregoing and 80
other difficulties, the invention contemplates the
and the scope of the application of which will be . provision of a laminated product including a layer
indicatedsin the claims.
of reinforced insulating board and the provision
‘
- For a fuller understanding of the nature and
35 objects of theinvention reference should be had
to the following detailed description taken in
connection with the accompanying drawings, in
which:
I
‘
v
Figure 1 is a top'view of a section of plywood
40 embodying the invention, with a portion of the
face veneer cut away; ‘
.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view along the line‘ 2-2 in
Fig. l;
.
of an’ improved method of uniting an insulating
board-containing layer to a teneer facing.
35
In accordance with the invention there is pro
vided a plywood structure comprising a layer -
composed principally of insulating board re
inforced by sections of a densematerial of the
nature of wood. Examples ofsuch a material are 40
natural wood and arti?cial woods having simi
lar characteristics. for instance, boards formed
from ?bre or pulp and having a hard, dense
Fig. 3 is'a similar view of a two-ply structure;_ ‘structure imparted by. relatively high pressure
Fig. 4 is a ‘view similar to Fig-1 showing
or otherwise. The reinforcing sections prefer
modi?ed form of structure;
,
‘
Fig. 5 is a sectional view along the line .5--5 in
Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a top view showing another modi?ca
50
ably, also backed by a layer of veneer.
4:5.
-
Fig. 6‘;
One example of a product such as contemplated 60
by the invention is exempli?ed in Figs. 1 and 2. ,
This product comprises a core III, the major por
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic showing of a method of
forming plywood in accordance with the inven
tion of which is composed of sections ll_ of in
sulating board.- with intemal and marginal re
tion; and
inforcing members l2_ and I3, respectively, of
tion;
'
.
Fig. 7 is a sectional view along the line 1-1 in
55
ably extend transversely of the insulating board
layer, i. e. from the front to the back thereof.
The insulating board layer is faced and, prefer
-
.
55
,
2,048,279
ple, as causticsoda in cases-where proteinous ad
natural wood or the like. On either side 'of this
core are facings l4 and i5 of veneer suitably - hesives such 'as those mentioned above are to
united with the core by an adhesive.
v be utilized.
' In instances where the veneer backing is un
necessary, this may be :omitted as indicated in
Fig. 3, wherein there is‘ shown a veneer facing
I6 secured to a reinforced insulating board layer
H, which is in this instance, constructed simi
larly to the layer ll] of Figs. 1 and 2. It may
10 be noted in this connection, however, that when
face and back veneers are utilized, a particularly
sturdy product is secured.
~
There is shown in Figs. 4 and 5 a construc
tion somewhat similar to ‘that shown in Fig. 1.
15 In this instance only the parallel reinforcing'
portions of natural wood are utilized, the lateral
members being omitted. The insulating board
layer is indicated at l8, the parallel reinforcing
members at l9 and the veneer facing and back at
20 20 and 20'.
It is to be noted that in each of these cases
reinforcement is provided at the corners of the
panel. In some instances the reinforcing mem
bers may be omitted at all portions of the in
sulating board layer except the corners.
A
structure of this nature is shown in Figs. 6 and
7 wherein the insulating board layer is shown
at 2| as embodying triangular reinforcing mem-‘
bers 22 of natural wood or the like at each cor
30 ner.
The veneer facing and back are indicated
at 23 and 23’.
-
As will be understood, the reinforcing mem
bers may be arranged in numerous other ways
without departing from the invention.
Due to the provision of reinforcing members,
35
as indicated, it is possible to provide _a structure
which stands substantially the same stresses as
a solid wood panel and will possess additional
insulating properties. Moreover, the .wood sec
40 tions are particularly adapted for easy nailing.
Such a product, because of its rigidity, can be
applied directly to the studding of a house and
provide protection-against heat. cold and sound,
and at the same time form a smooth surface
45 which can be readily ?nished with paint or var
nish. In such a panel, the tendency toward
peeling, which is particularly marked when paint
or varnish are applied to a surfacing veneer due
to the strains set up, is greatly reduced where
'50 the face and back veneers are tied together by
the reinforcing means.
_
In the formation of a panel including a layer
of insulating board, the use of liquid glues has
various disadvantages, among which is the ex
55 cessive tendency of insulating board to absorb
glue, and, when these contain a strongpalkali,
its tendency to attack the size and/or the cellu
lose ?bres themselves, and to increase the ab
sorbent action thereof. To avoid these and other
60
diiliculties the invention contemplates the appli
cation of an adhesive base in powdered form to
a surface to be glued. Any of a wide variety of
types of adhesive .may be utilized, reference be
ing made particularly to powdered casein, soya
65 bean flour and powdered blood albumin, the lat
ter being particularly desirable.
With a view to securing a particularly strong
bond between the insulating layer and the ve
neer, the invention contemplates the pre-treat
ment of the reinforcing members. Such pre
treatment preferably comprises applying to one
or more of the surfaces thereof a bond-assisting
liquid.
Such liquid may comprise a heat-setting
liquid glue, for instance, a wet blood glue, or a
75 suitable bond-assisting chemical such, for exam
In the use of an adhesive, for instance those
mentioned above, of a character such that the 5
plasticization thereof may be assisted by an alka
line reagent, a mild alkaline reagent may be
provided at the glue line and a particularly strong
alkaline reagent may be provided at the portion
of the glue line where wood contacts with wood. 10
The mild alkaline reagent may be desirably sup
plied by mixing powdered lime with the adhesive
before application, and the strong alkaline re
agent may be desirably supplied by dipping the
reinforcing inserts in a solution of caustic soda l5
orother strong alkali before association with the
insulating section or sections, or by painting
their surfaces after inclusion. Either reagent
may be applied in any other suitable manner.
In the use of an adhesive plasticizable by wa- 20
ter, moisture may be provided in any suitable
manner, as from one or the other of the layers
if these contain su?icient water to yield up a‘
supply to the adhesive, or by spraying one or
both of the surfaces to be glued before and/or
after the application of the powdered adhesive.
A speci?c form of procedure whereby articles
embodying the invention may be produced and
a method embodying the invention may be car
ried out is illustrated in Fig. 8. The reinforcé 30
mg inserts are carried through a tank 24 con
taining a caustic soda solution indicated at 25
by means of a conveyor 26. Preferably, in the
construction of articles such as shown in Figs.
1 and 2, the inserts are formed into a framework 35
as indicated at 21 and thus pass through the
treating bath. Parallel to the conveyor 26 is a
conveyor 28 on which veneer plies 29 are car-t
ried under material applying mechanisms indi
cated diagrammatically at 30, 3| and 32. The
mechanisms 30 and 32 are indicated diagram- ~
matically as a type disclosed in the copending
application of Ericsson H. Merritt and Richard
W. Stanley, Serial No. 535,822, filed May 8, 1931,
and the mechanism 3| is indicated ‘diagram 45
matically as of the type disclosed in the copend
ing application of Louis G. Merritt and Ericsson
H. Merritt, Serial No. 542,257, filed June 5, 1931.
By this means the upper surfaces of the veneer
plies are first moistened, after which there is
applied powdered blood albumin with which hy
drated lime has been admixed in a proportion
of about one part by weight of hydrated lime to
three parts by weight of blood albumin, and the
powder is thereafter moistened by the mechanism 55
32. The pre-treated frame 21 is disposed on a
veneer ply 29, after it has passed under the
mechanisms 30, 3| and 32, and insulating board
sections 33 are associated with the frame to
complete the layer. A succeeding veneer ply 29
is turned over and placed upon the layer 34
formed by the members 33 and the frame 21.
The completed assembly is thereafter subjected
to bonding conditions. for example, to'a pres- sure of 150 lbs. per square inch at 250° F. for 65
~ about thirty seconds, in a suitable veneer press
such as indicated diagrammatically at 35.
In accordance with the procedure such as the
foregoing, there may be efficiently produced a
product wherein veneer is effectively united to 70
both the insulating board and the natural wood
sections and wherein neither splitting of the ve
neer nor deformation of the insulating board
‘ portions occur.
Since certain changes in carrying out the above 75
3
2,048,279
method, and certain modifications in the article of caustic soda, to‘ the surfaces of ‘said wood sec
which embody the invention may be made with
tions. . '
5. The method of forming plywood which com/5
out departing from its scope, it is intended that
all matter contained in the above description or
shown in the accompanying drawings shall be
interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting
sense.
It is also to be understood that the following
claims are intended to cover all of the generic
10 and speci?c features of the invention herein de
scribed, and all statements of the scope of the in
vention which, as a matter of language, might
be said to fall therebetween..
Having described my invention, what I claim as
15 ‘new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. The method of forming plywood, which com
I prises applying a facing layer to a layer com
p'osed principally of insulating board and con
taining sections of a dense ‘material of the na
20' ture of wood, and subjecting to bonding condi
tions in the presence of an interposed adhesive
in powdered form, said method including ‘the
step of pre-treating in a predetermined manner
the wood sections of the insulating board layer
25 with 'a bond assisting liquid prior to contacting
the adhesive'therewith, said insulating board not
being so pre-treated.
2. The method of forming plywood, which com
prises forming a layer composed principally of /
30 insulating board and having incorporated there
in sections of a dense material of the nature of
wood, the surfaces of said sections aligned with
the insulating board surface to be glued having
been pre-treated with a bond-assisting liquid,
providing a veneer layer, applying an adhesive
in powdered form to the surface of one of said
‘layers, assembling and subjecting to bonding con
ditions.
.
_
3. The method of forming plywood, which com
40 prises forming a layer composed principally of
insulating board and having incorporated there
in sections of a dense material of the nature of
wood, the surfaces of said sections aligned with
the insulating board surfaces to be glued hav
45 ing been pre-treated with a bond-assisting liq
uid, providing veneer layers, applying an adhesive
prises dipping in a caustic sodasolution inser s
formed of a dense material in the nature of wobd,
forming a layer composed principally of ins at
ing board and including said wood inserts pro
viding a veneer layer, applyingptoone of said lay
ers an adhesive base in powdered form, assembling and subjecting to bonding conditions.
6. The method of forming plywood, which
comprises dipping in a caustic soda solution in
serts formed of a dense material in the nature
of wood, forming a layer composed principally of
insulating board and including said wood inserts,
providing a veneer-layer, applying to saidveneer
layer a powdered adhesive base which is of such
character that the plasticization thereof is as
sisted by caustic soda and which is heat-coagu
lable, assembling and subjecting to heat and pres
sure.
-
_7. The method of forming-plywood, which com
prises dipping in 'a caustic soda solution inserts
‘formed of a dense material in the nature of wood,
forming a layer composed principally of insulat
ing board and including said wood inserts, pro
viding a veneer layer, applying to one of said lay
ers powdered blood albumin admixed with hy
drated lime in a proportion of about one part of
hydrated lime to three parts of blood albumin,
assembling and subjecting to heat and pressure.
8. A method of forming plywood, which com
prises providing a core composed principally‘of
insulating board with transversely-extending in
serts of a dense material of the nature of wood,
providing a veneer facing, utilizing an adhesive
base of a character such that the plasticization
thereof in the presence of water is facilitated by
an alkaline reagent, providing an alkaline re
agent for the adhesive’ base, providing a strong 40
er alkaline reagent for the adhesive base at said
‘inserts, assembling and subjecting to bonding
conditions.
'
i
' 9. A method of forming plywood, which com
prises applying an adhesive base in powdered 45
form to a surface of each of a pair of veneer fac
ings, forming on one ofsaid surfaces a core of
in powdered form to at least one of ,each pair insulating board having transversely-extending
of surfaces to be united, assembling and subject ' inserts of a dense material of the nature of wood
ing to bonding conditions.
pre-treated with a bond-assisting liquid, dispos ,50
50
4. The method of forming plywood, which ing the other of said surfaces thereupon, and sub
comprises applying a layer of veneer to a layer jecting to bonding conditions.
composed principally of insulating board and
containing sections of a dense material of the na
55 ture of wood, and subjecting to bonding condi
tions, said method including the step of applying
to at least one of the surfaces to be joined a pow
dered adhesive material of such character that
the plasticization thereof is assisted by an alka
60 line ~re-agent, and the step of applying a strong
alkali having the alkalinity of a strong solution
10. The method of forming plywood, which I
comprisesapplying an adhesiverbase in powdered ‘
form to a surface of a veneer facing, forming 55
a core of insulating ,board having transversely
extending inserts of a dense materialof the na
ture of wood pre-treated witha bond-assisting
liquid, disposing said surface thereupon and sub
jecting to bonding conditions:
ERICSSON H. MERRITT.
60
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