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Патент USA US2048373

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July'zl,v 1936. =
2,048,373
M. B. CARROLL
STEAM GENERATQR
Filed March 51,. 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
7
'
INVENTOR
Mme/5 15’. 07mm“.
TTOIIQNEYS
July 21, 1936.
’
M. B. CARROLL
2,048,373 I
STEAM GENERATOR
Filed March 31 , 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
ATTORNEYS
July 21, 1936.
M; B; CARROLL
STEAM ‘GENERATOR
2,048,373
K
'
Filed March 31, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 5‘
.
_-INVENTOR
Mama/.5 ?f/lBFOLL
ATTORNEYS
July 21, 1936.
2,048,373
M. B. CARROLL
STEAM GENERATOR
Filed March 51, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Wm
‘INVENTOR
_
Mame/5 5. 64mm;
BY
.-
-
‘
ATTORNEY
.
2,048,373
Patented July 21, 1936
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
2,048,373
r
‘
STEAM GENERATOR
Morris B. Carroll, Westfield, N. J., assignor to
La Mont Corporation, New York, N. Y., a cor
poration "of New Yorkv
Application March 31, 1934, Serial No. 718,351
‘34 Claims. (Cl. 122-236)
'
This invention relates to steam generators,
and more especially to steam generators which
are particularly adapted for use in automotive
vehicles.
“
The invention is directed to improvements upon
5
steam generators of the general type described
and claimed in the co-pending application of
Walter Douglas LaMont, Serial No. 631,703, ?led
September 3, 1932. Like the steam generator of
10' said (lo-pending application, the steam generator
of this application is directed to the solution of‘
the problem of securing high capacity in a. steam
generating plant adapted for use in automotive
vehicles and especiallyof securing high capacity
15" in a steam generating plant of comparatively
small weight and of such dimensions that it will
"occupy a'comparatively small space. ‘
One of the purposes of the steam generator of
the co-pending application, to the improvement
20 of which the present invention is directed, is the
provision of a steam generator of such low weight
and high, capacity, and particularly of such high
efficiency with respect to the amount of fuel re
quired for its operation, that it can be utilized
25 as a part of a power plant for aircralftf-As
pointed out in the statement of invention of
to simplify the construction from the standpoint
of the manufacture, assemblage and replacement
of the parts, and at the same time to insure the
required uniformity of operation together with
increased eiiiciency. __
5
The invention further aims to provide effective
and substantially uniform heat exchange con
ditions at all points about the heating vehicle at
any point in its path of travel through the gener
ator so that every unit of space in the structure 10
will be e?ciently utilized and that there will be
a minimum of heat loss.
To this end the inven
tion aims to provide heat-exchanging apparatus
for generating steam that is substantially sym
metrical in substantially any transverse or longi- 15
tudinal section.
'
Another object of the invention is so to ar-_
range the steam generating tubes along the path
of travel of the heating vehicle that, while in
suring a maximum of heat transfer, the power 20
required to insure the travel of the heating ve
hicle in heat-exchanging relation to the generat
ing tubes at the desired speed will'be reduced to
a practicable minimum for the space require
ments of the structure. The invention also, aims 25
so to construct and arrange the steam generating
said co-pending application, .with the advent of tubes and the means for supplying waterto said
high steam pressures and the development of tubes as to insure the ‘travel therethrough of
high speed steam turbines and of ‘e?icient and ‘ water and steam in such relative amounts that
neither will interfere with the other and that 30
30 reliable reduction gears, the problem of using the tubes will be protected against burning. To
steam driven prime movers in aircraft, as well
this end the invention aims to provide substantial
as in other automotive vehicles, has been sim
uniformity of conditions in different tubes ex
pli?ed since such prime movers may now be built
with less weight for a given amount of power
35 vbecause of the high e?iciency of their operation.
Moreover, in the case of aircraft, the use of
reduction gears makes possible the operation of
the’propeller at the most efficient speed, thus
posed to the same heat conditions.
Another object of the invention is so to shield 35
all structural parts which do not carry water
by parts which do that little or substantially no
high heat resisting refractory material will be
_ reducing somewhat the requirements of capacity
40 in the prime mover.
required in the generator structure, thereby fur
ther reducing the weight usually required in struc- 40
tures of equivalent capacity.
45 size ofv comparatively large quantities of heat
The invention also has for its object such im-'
provements in the means for supporting the tubes
and other parts of the structure that the desired
relationship of'the parts may be maintained un- 45
der ‘all [heat conditions with a minimum of struc
The steam generator of the co-pending ap
plication hereinabove identi?ed provides, in a
compact and light weight unit, for the release
in a combustion chamber of comparatively small
and for its so efdcient absorption by steam gen
'erating,'steam superheating and air preheating
tubes that relatively large quantities of high
pressure steam can rapidly be generated with
50 certainty, safety and the required continuity for
aircraft operation. The steam generator of the
present invention, while utilizing many, if not
the most of the general principles of construc
55
tion and operation ‘of the steam generator shown
and described in said co-pending application, aims
tural parts having merely supporting functions.
The steam generator of the present invention
utilizes the principles of steam generation de
scribed and claimed in United States Letters Pat- 50
ent No. 1,884,979, granted October 25, 1932, and
one of the important objects of the present inven
tion is so to combine steam generating tubes, con
structed and arranged to generate steam by the
novel process of, said Letters Patent, with e?i- 55
j
2
2,048,373
cient steam and water separating means and a
10
15
20
25
steam superheater that in proportion to the size
and weight of the structure and the total weight
of the water subjected to generator pressure at
one time, greater quantities of high pressure
steam can be generated safely, continuously and
emciently than had heretofore been considered
to be either possible or practicable.
In devising a steam generator for the general
purposes of the present invention, and particu
larly in devising a steam generator for use in air
craft, it is important not only that the parts be
so constructed and arranged that a very high de
gree of e?iciency will be obtained in a compact
unit, but it is also important that the parts be so
arranged as to permit ready removal for inspec
tion and repair or replacement. The present in
vention aims, therefore, not only so to arrange
the steam superheater elements with respect to
the steam generating elements that the steam
superheater tubes will be protected by the steam
generator, tubes and at the same time be so lo
cated as to effect the desired amount of super
heating, but also so to arrange these parts in re
lation to each other that the steam superheater
tubes may readily be removed without interfer
ing with the steam generator tubes. The inven
tion aims also to provide a construction and ar
30
rangement of the steam generator tubes them
selves that will permit'their removal, either indi
vidually or en banc, without substantial disrup
tion of the structure as a whole.
b5
Important features of the invention are the
arrangement of the steam superheater tubes in
such relation to the steam generator tubesthat
the steam generator tubes protect the superheater
adequate amount of heating surface is provided
and at the same time such a steam velocity is
45 insured that a heat transfer rate sufficient‘ to
protect the tubes will result. This arrangement
also has the further important advantage of pro
v1ding cross ?ow of the products of combustion
over the superheater with the resultant turbu
50 lence, an arrangement which makes possible not
only the desired control of the flow of gases over
the superheater tubes, but also a similar control of
the gas ?ow over the steam generator tubes be
tween the legs of which the superheater tubes
are located.
,
‘
An important feature of the invention, which
contributes to the symmetry of the structure as
well as to its e?iciency, is the utilization of what
may broadly be vdesignated as S-shaped steam
60 generating tubes so constructed and arranged in
the generator structure that the water in travel-_
ing through these tubes effects a series ?ow
70
heat impinging on the combustion chamber end
utilized to generate steam, but provision is made
for the utilization also for this purpose of the 5
intensive convection transfer which takes place
where the direction of movement of the products
of combustion is changed or reversed.
The invention embraces also improvements in
details of the construction of various parts of 10
the apparatus which contribute to lightness, fa
cility in assembling, strength to resist high pres
sures, etc. Among such improvements to which
attention may be directed is the tapering of the
intake ends of the steam generator tubes to their 15
points of juncture with the water header whereby
a water header of a smaller cross section than
would otherwise be possible may be used.
Other objects and important features of the
invention will appear from the following descrip- 20
tion and claims when considered in connection
with the accompanying drawings, in which
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section, partly broken
away, through a. steam generator embodying the
invention in a preferred form;
25
Figure 2 is a transverse section on the line 2~—-2
of Figure 1;
>
Figure 3 is a transverse section on the line 3—3
of Fig. 1;
Figure 4 is a transverse section on the line ?—4
of Fig. 1;
‘
Figure 5 is a transverse section on the line 5—5
against excessive heat on the side nearest the
combustion chamber and protect the other side
against loss of heat through the other ?ue wall
40 and also the use of relatively long superheater
tubes so coiled about the combustion chamber
and about the generator tube assembly that an
55
direction of movement of the products of combus
tion is changedpso that not only is the radiant
of Fig. 1;
Figure 6 is a longitudinal section on the line
6-6 of Fig. 5 of a detail of the construction;
1-1 of Fig. l of adetail of the construction;
Figure 8 is a transverse section of a part of the
supporting structure on the line 8-8 of Fig. 6,
. and
Figure 9. is a detail view ‘illustrating the means
for restricting the input into the steam generat
ing tubes from the water headers.
Although many of the’ novel features of the
present invention are equally useful in steam 45
generators intended to generate steam at mod
erate pressures, the invention ?nds one of its
widest fields of utilityin the generation of steam
at high pressures and high temperatures. The
illustrative embodiment of the invention is a 50
steam generator designed to generate steam at
relatively high pressures and at relatively high
temperatures.
_
,
In order that such pressures and such temper
atures may be obtained in a structure that is
comparatively light in weight and comparatively
compact in its dimensions, it is important that
the steam generating tubes be of comparatively
small diameter so that their walls need not be
so thick and also that the travel of the water in
said tubes in heat-exchanging relation to the
heating vehicle ‘be sufficient in length to insure
through both the radiant heat zone and the con
the required steam generating heat exchange.
vection heat zone, the 8-shaped construction also "
It is also important that advantage be taken
providing for the hereinabove described shield
both of the radiant heat developed in the com
ing of the superheater tubes between two of the bustion chamber of the generator and of the
legs of the S. '
'
vconvection and conduction heat and that the
Another important feature of the invention parts be so arranged" that these heats are et
"which contributes both to the symmetry of the ?ciently put to useful work. To this end the
structure and to the uniformity of heat exchange invention contemplates a novel construction and
conditions in the structure and which also facili
arrangement of the steam generating tube;
tates the assembling of the parts and their re
whereby they not only insure the desired heat
~t moval for inspection, repair or replacement, is . exchanging relations between the heating vehicle
the provision of a separate water wall covering and the water, but they also serve to shield the
75 that end of the combustion chamber where
85
Figure 7 is a transverse section on the line
parts of the supporting and
structure
3,
2,048,378
against excessive heat and to shield a steam
superheater both from excessive heat and from
heat loss.
_
‘
In the illustrative embodiment of the invention
the main tubes 2 of the steam generatonwhich
are intended to be used in generating steam by
the process described and claimed in U. S. Letters
change at this part of the path of travel of the
water through the steam-generating tubes 2.
In order to insure still further length of‘ travel
of the water in the steam generating tubes 2 and
at the same time to provide a shieldagainst heat
loss for the steam superheater hereinafter to be
described and protection also for the ?ue wall 26,.
Patent ‘No. 1,884,979, granted October 25,- 1932,‘
the generating tubes 2 are preferably again bent
are so arranged about the combustion space 4
in a combustion or furnace chamber surrounded
laterally by a cylindrical sheet metal wall 6 that
these tubes form a water wall about the com
two legs and preferably extending the whole
bustion space 4, each of the ‘tubes 2 extending
longitudinally of the combustion chamber-and
back upon themselves in the ?ue 22 to provide a
third leg 38, preferably parallel to , the other 10
length of the ?ue 22 in proximity to the wall 26
thereof.
'
~
8
Each of the generating tubes 2 preferably dis
charges into a common header 32 which, like the 15
15 being located in quite close proximity to the wall I water
header 8, is preferably generally annular in
6. Each of the tubes 2 is connected at its intake
end to a waterheader 8 which is preferably an
nular in form so as tov permit a symmetrical
arrangement of the tubes with respectto the
cylindrical combustion chamber, water being de
livered to the header 8 through a delivery pipe
L8 from a circulating pump l2 to insure a suf
?cient head of water in the header 8 to provide
positive distribution to each of the tubes 2. ‘
As shown in detail in Figure 9,. each of the
tubes 2 is tapered to a reduced diameter at the
end where it joins the header 8 and is provided
at this end with a nipple or_ferrule l4 having
therein a passage I6 so determined in size with
respect to the inner diameter of the tube, the
heat to which the tube is exposed, the head of
water delivered by the pump I2, etc., that water
will be delivered to the tube 2 in excess of the
amount that can be converted into steam in its
passage through the tube, but not su?icient so
that the steamwill interfere with the water ?ow
or the water will interfere with the steam ?ow.
In' other words, the input is so controlled that
steam will be generated in accordance with the
process set forth and described in the Letters
40 Patent No. 1,884,979 hereinabove referred to.
To insure that the joint between the tube 2
contour so as to permit a, symmetrical arrange
ment of the generator tubes and particularly of
the legs 38 of these tubes, the annulus being,
however, preferably interrupted at one point, as
will more fully be described hereinafter, to permit
the convenient removal of the steam superheater
assembly.
The steam and water header 32 is
preferably located outside the ?ue 22 so as not
to be exposed to the direct heat of the products 25
of combustion, the legs 38 of the generator tubes
2 being bent as shown at 34 where they’pass
throéigh the wall 26 of the ?ue'to join the head
er 3 .
Steam and water from ‘the header 32 pass,
through a common conduit 36 to a steam and
water separator 38, more fully to be described
hereinafter, the water settling to the bottom of
the separator 38 from whence it is drawn through
a conduit 48 by the pump l2 to be delivered again
to the water header 8. The substantially dry sat
urated steam from the separator passes through
the conduit 62 to a series of superheater tubes 44,
now to be described.
‘In the illustrative embodiment of the invention
sixteenof these superheater‘ tubes 44 are shown
connected to the conduit 42, these tubes extend
and the header 8 will withstand the high pres- ‘ ing into the ?ue 22 and there being coiled about
sures to which the parts of the steam generator the combustion chamber, the coils of the super
are intended to be subjected, it has been found heater tubes being located between the legs 28 45 that a suitable union may be made by providing and 38 of the generator tubes. At their other
grooves l8 in the sides of the hole in the header 8 ends the superheater tubes are connected to a
into which the reduced end of the tube is inserted, steam conduit 46 from which the steam is led
to the turbine or other prime mover.
‘
the tube 2 then being expanded so that the ma
It will be noted that»the superheater coils lie
terial of ‘its outer wall is forced into these grooves.
' To provide an adequate length of travel of the ‘ crosswise of the path of travel of the products of
water in heat-exchanging relation to the heating combustion through the ?ue 22 and, that succes
vehicle in a generator structure that in itself is sive coils are located in zones of increasing heat
not excessively long, for example, that is not so from the point where the superheater tubes enter
long that it would be unsuited for use in vehicles, the ?ue to the point where they leave the ?ue.
55 each generator tube 2 is shown as bent back upon It will also be noted that by reason of their po
itself so as to provide a leg 28 located in a ?ue 22 sition the superheater coils tend to set up turbu
lence in the gases passing through the ?ue 22 and
surrounding the combustion chamber 4 and hav
ing an outer wall 26 formed as a cylinder of sheet thus increase the heat transfer both to the super 60
heater tubes and to the steam generator tubes.
60 metal concentric with the wall 6 v‘of the combus
In order that their positions may not change
tion chamber, the leg 28 also lying in close prox
imity to the wall-6 of the combustion chamber ‘ markedly when heat is applied to the superheat
but upon the outer side thereof. The water wall er tubes and they thus tend to expand, means are
section of the tube 2 is connected to the leg 28 provided for holding them in fairly de?nite rela 65
tions to each other in the ?ue 22 and also in fair
65 by a curved section 28, of substantial radius, ly de?nite relations to the generator tubes and to
which serves at least, three purposes; ?rst, it
avoids a sharp bending of the tube material; the confining walls of the ?ue. The illustrative
secondly, it provides for an easy ?ow of the steam means comprise three perforated bars 48, 58 and
52, through the perforations in which the super
and water from the water wall leg into the con
heater
coils extend whereby the coils are posi 70
vection leg and, ‘thirdly, it permits, as shown,
70 the interposition of a‘substantial heat exchange tively spaced with respect to ‘each other and, in
surface in the gas stream at the point where their upper sections, with respect to the walls 6
there is an abrupt change of direction in the ?ow and 26 of the ?ue, the bars 48 and 58, as shown
of the stream with the turbulence incident there; invdetailin Figure 6 being provided with lugs 54
75 to, thus providing for a considerable heat ex
upon their ‘edges which extend between two ad 75
4-
2,048,373
jacent generator tubes into engagement with the
walls 6 and 26 of the flue and thus positively po
sition the bars, andv with them the superheater
tubes, with respect to these walls.
The lower bar_52 is constructed to permit a
limited movement of the tubes with respect to the
walls 6 and 26 of the ?ue 22 as the tubes expand,
this bar not ?lling up the entire width of the ?ue
between the walls 6 and 26 and being mounted
10 upon'spring-supported rods 56 extending through
The header 32, as just suggested, serves the ad
ditional function of a frame member for support
ing parts of the structure, particularly in the form
of the invention herein illustrated in which the
steam generator is shown as having its main 6
axis horizontal. It will be understood, of course,
that the invention is not limited to an arrange
ment of the parts such that the main axis will be
horizontal and that where conditions permit
many advantages may be obtained by arranging 10
the wall 26. Springs 58 bearing against collars: the main axis of the structure in a vertical posi
60 on the rods 56 tend to hold the bar 52 in its
uppermost position but permit downward move
ment thereof as the superheater tubes expand
15 with the heat.
The combustion or furnace chamber 6 commu
nicates with the ?ue 22 at its rear end. In order
tion, as for example with the burner at the top.
‘ In order to provide for the support of the
header 32, it is preferably.‘ provided with a leg
14, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, by which its weight 15
may be caused to rest upon the ?oor or other base
upon which the generator is mounted.
to provide forthe easy ?ow of the products-of
combustion from the combustion chamber 6 into
20 the ?ue 22 and for their substantially uniform
distribution to all parts of the annular ?ue, there
is provided at the rear end of the combustion
from the water supply conduit l0 through a pipe
76 and thus be subjected to the pressure of the
pump l2 to insure the desired distribution to
chamber 6 a wall 62 which is generally concave in
As the gases leave the ?ue 22, after having
form but has at its center an inwardly extending
25 convex portion which serves to mushroom the gas
stream so that it ?ows equally in all directions to
ward the periphery of the wall 62 and thus into
the annular ?ue 22, with the outer wall 26 of
whichv?ue the wall 62 joins. For convenience in
30 assembling the structure and in taking it apart,
the cylindrical. edge of the wall 62 preferably
' Water to supply the header 68 may be taken
the four generator tubes 66.
.
given up the greater part of their heat to the legs
26 and 30 of the steam generator tubes 2 and to
the superheater tubes 46, they are preferably
caused to pass in heat-exchanging relation to the
air for the burner and to this end there is pro
vided a second ?ue ‘l8 communicating with the
front end of the ?ue 22, the ?ue 18 being bound 30
ed on one side by the wall 26 of the ?ue 22 and
on itsother side by a cylindrical wall 80 which is
connected by a curved end 82 to the front end of
the wall 6, whereby the gases from the ?ue 22 are
directed in an easy curve about the front end of
telescopes slightly into the cylindrical wall 26, the
telescoping of the two parts being limited by a
rib 64 rolled up in the wall 62.
35
To protect the wall 62 from the intense radiant
and convection heat from the combustion cham
the wall 26 into the ?ue ‘l8. Extending through
ber 4, a water wall is preferably located in front the ?ue ‘l8, and so spaced therein as to permit the
of and closely adjacent to the wall 62, this water ?ow of the gases thereover, are the air pre
wall preferably extending up to approximately heater tubes 84, these tubes at their ends being
the point where the legs 30 of the generator tubes ?tted into openings in two rings 86 and 88 which
2 leave the ?ue 22 to enter the header 32. ‘The
water wall which protects the sheet metal wall 62
preferably comprises spirally coiled steam gener
ating tubes 66, there being preferably four of
these spiral tubes 66 leading out of a centrally
located water header 68, as shown in Figs. 1 and
2.
These steam generating tubes 66, like the
with supporting feet 90 and the front ring is also
provided with supporting feet 92.
The air tobe preheated in the preheater tubes
84 is preferably brought into the structure in
tubes 2, are tapered to a reduced diameter where
they join the header 68 and are provided with
nozzles or ferrules which restrict the input of the
water into the tubes so that steam is generated
therein in accordance with the process described
such manner that it serves as insulation against
radiation of the heat to the atmosphere and to
this end this air preferably comes into the front 50
and claimed in U. S. Letters Patent No. 1,884,979,
structure and over the rear end of the structure
and then into the rear ends of the preheater tubes
hereinabove referred to.
'
As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, these spiral generat
ing tubes 66 are so coiled 'upon themselves that
they follow the contour of the inner surface of
the chamber wall 62 and each of the tubes 66
at its other end is connected to the steam and
60 water header 32. Preferably, before entering the
header 32, each of the four generator tubes 66 is
bent to ?t closely about a reinforcing and sup
porting ring 10 connected to the end of the cy
lindrical wall 6 of the‘ combustion chamber and
65
constitute respectively rear and front frame mem
bers of the structure as well as walls helping to
de?ne air passages. The rear ring 86 is provided
?tting between the waterwall leg and the ?rst
convection leg 20 of, the'generator tubes 2, the
purpose of this bend 12 in the spiral generator
tubes 66 being to provide for maintaining the ring
10 and with it the casing 6 and the assembly of
generator tubes 2 in their concentric relation to
the structure, four points of support from the
header 32 thus being provided at equiangular
distances about theaxis- of the structure. The
generator tubes 2 may be and preferably are
76 also spot-welded to the ring ‘I0.
end of the generator structure, passes through an
air jacket surrounding the main parts of the
84. As shown in the drawings, the air jacket .55
comprises an’ outer cylindrical shell 94 which is
so spaced. from the wall 80 of the ?ue 18 that a
substantially annular air passage 96 is provided
between the shell 94 and the wall 86, this pas
sage communicating at its front end with an air 60
intake opening 98 in a casting J00 which forms
a part of the burner structure and of the frame
structure of the generator as a whole. For con
venience of assembling the air jacket and of tak
ing it apart, the cylindrical shell 96 may be ?anged
65
at its'two ends so that at its front end it may be
connected to an annular casing member I02 of
convex section. A similar annular member I!!!
serves to connect the‘ring 86 to the other side
of the air intake as in the casting, mo and thus 7°
extendsthe air jacket over the front of the gen
erator.
'
'
'
-
'
'
I
-‘
'
3
.At its rear end the cylindrical casing 94 is con
nected to the convex rear outer wall I66 0! the air 75
2,048,873
jacket, this wall I06 forming the outer wall of a
doughnut shaped air passage divided by a parti
- tion member I08 into two passages communi
eating with each other, the air coming in through
the passages 96 being turned back by the curved
wall IIO of the doughnut-like structure into.a
passage II2 communicating with the rear open
ends of the preheater tubes 84.
,
The partition wall I08 may be held in its proper
10 relation to the rear wall I06 and the inner wall
I I4 by any suitable means, the illustrated means
comprising bolts II6 passing through all three
walls I06, I08 and II 4 and provided between the
walls I06 and I08 and between I08 and H4 with
15 tubular spacers H8. Three of the bolts II6, with
the associated spacers H8, spaced 120° apart
about the axisof the generator will insure the
desired relationship of the parts.
,
i
To permit convenient, removal of the rear
.20 structure as a whole, the outer wall I06 is pref
erably ?anged to meet the rear ?anged end of the
cylindrical casing 98 and is riveted or bolted
thereto as shown at I20. The partition member
I08 and the wall I I4 of the inner air passage II2
‘are preferably provided with cylindrical por
tions at their peripheries which fit within ‘the cy
lindrical ends of the rear curved extensions I22
andv I24 of the ?ue walls 26 and 80, ribs I26 and
I28 being rolled up in the walls I08 and H8 ad
jacent to the cylindrical peripheries thereof to
abut against the ends of the extensions I22 and
I26 ‘and thereby limit the telescoping movement
of .the parts.
.
The products of combustion or heating gases,
‘ - after they have passed through the ?ue ‘I8, go to
the vstack I30 which communicates with the ?ue
‘I8, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, the ?ue v‘I8 being
enlarged at its rear end where it joins the stack
- to ‘the point diametrically opposite so that the
40 contour of its outer wall is substantially a circle
eccentric to the axis of the generator with'its
greatest ‘eccentricity where it joins the stack I30.
The advantage of this is that it helps to insure
a substantially uniform ?ow of the gases through
:45 the concentric ?ues by distributing the drop in
pressure uniformly over both the parts nearest
to and those more remote from the stack.
In order to insure proper spacing as well as
v ' support'of the ?uewalls 26 and 80. spacing mem
50 bers are preferably provided as .shown in Figs. 1
5
air, supplied for combustion purposes, which
comes in through the preheating tubes 84 into
the annular space I44 about a. frusto-conical
casing I46 which forms a part of the casting I00
and which has in it slots I48 through which the '5
preheated air enters the burner structure. The,
combustion air is directed into combustion. rela- '
tion to the burner by a sheet metal frusto-conical
casing I50 having its base attached to the base
of the casing I46,'the casing I50 being preferably 10
?ared about the water header 8 and being con
nected to an annular shield I52 ?lling in the t ,
space between the casing 'member I50 and the‘
combustion chamber wall 6.
To protect the parts thus described against 15
excessive radiant or convection heat from the
combustion taking place in the chamber It, they
are preferably shielded by still another water wall
formed by a steam generating tube I54 connected
at one end to the water header 8 and at its other 20
end to the steam‘ and water pipe 36, as shown at
I56, this generating tube being coiled about the
burner in a spiral formation that also conforms
somewhat to the ?are of the casing 56 and being
extended also over the‘ annular member I52, 25
thereby effectively protecting these'parts from ex
cessive heat while at the same time utilizing this
heat to generate. steam; The generating tube E58,
like the other generating tubes, will be provided
with a nozzle or ferrule like‘ that shown in Fig. 8 30
so that steam will be generated in the tube in ac
cordance with the method described and claimed
in U. S. Letters Patent No. 1,884,979, hereinabove
identi?ed.
From the foregoing description the operation 35.
of- the device will ‘readily be understood. The
burner having been started in operation to sup
ply fuel to the combustion chamber 4, for exam
ple, an atomized oil fuel, air is simultaneously
forced into theair passage 88 by any suitable 40
blower mechanism, not shown, so that it goes
into the air jacket passage 86 through the inlet
88, then back through the passage II2, through
the preheater tubes 84 into the annular passage
I44 and‘ through the slots I48 in the casing I46 45
into the passage around the burner where it min
‘gles, with the atomized fuel and provides preheat
ed oxygen for-combustion so that heatis rapidly
generated in the combustion chamber 4. Radiant
heat will thus be supplied to the water 'wall sec 50
and 3, these spacing members comprising short tions of theitubes 2 surrounding the combustion
, sectionsv of light I-beams I34, there being three chamber and also some convection heat and the
of these spaced about the axis of the structure, products of combustion will then pass into the ,
' as shown in Fig. 5, and located at the front end of .
55 the wall 26,‘- as shown in Fig. 1, and three more
?ue 22>where they willtravel in heat exchange
relation to the legs 20 and 30 of the steam; gener- 55
ator tubes 2 and also in heat-exchange relation
to the superheater tubes 44 coiled about the com
bustion
chamber but located in the ?ue 22. Radi
_, 26, as shown in ‘Fig. 1.
In order to maintain the water header 8 in, ant heat and convection heat will also be imparted
concentric relation to the ‘generator structure, it to the tubes ‘66 forming the water wall at the
rear end'of the combustion chamber and also to
is preferably supported by bracket arms I36 at
tached to the ring 88 by any suitable means such the tube I54 forming the water wall about the
similarly spaced about the axis and located at
A - points intermediate between the ends of the wall
- 1 as headed screws I38 tapped into the ring, said
‘~ bracket arms being spot-welded or otherwise suit
65. ably secured to the header 8.
As hereinabove, pointed out, the casting I00 at
burner at the front end of the chamber.
.
The water to supply these various tubes will
be taken from the lower end of the separator 38 65
through the conduit 40 ‘and delivered by the
I the forward end of the boiler constitutes both .a pump I2 through the conduit I0 to the header
‘ f a- part of the frame structure and apart of the 8 and through the pipe 16 branching oil’ from .
the conduit I0 to the header 68, the pump I2 7
' = burner structure. The burner, which is not illus
‘putting suf?cient pressure upon the water to in 0
trated in detail but which may be utilized to
, supply the combustion chamber with any‘suitable
sure, with the aid of the nozzles I4, distribution
fuel, such as oil, has its main stem I40 prefer-f‘ ' to all the generating tubes connected with the
respective headers. As hereinabove pointed out,
ably located substantially on the axis of the gen
, erator, the atomized 011 being directed by any the water input into the tubes is controlled by ,
75 suitable guide I42 into the stream of preheated
nozzles or ferrules I4 having openings I6 therein 75
of such dimensions as to insure generation of
steam in the respective tubes by the process of
vided through the walls 80 and 88 to exclude the
air in the passage 96 from contact with the
the Letters Patent No. 1,884,979.
superheater tubes.
'
The steam and water issuing from the gener
ating tubes 2 and from the generating tubes 66,
is collected in the steam and water header 32
and then passes through aconduit 36 to the sep
arator 38. The steam and water issuing from
the steam generating tube I54 joins the steam‘
10 and water in the conduit 86 at the point I56 and
thus also passes into the separator 88.
The separator herein illustrated is constructed
to utilize both centrifugal and gravity forces in
the separation of the steam from the water and
15 comprises a lower compartment I58 into which
extends a frustoconical structure I 66 open at its
smaller lower end and provided on its inner wall
with ba?es I62 arranged to de?ect the steam
and water downward in a spiral path, the spiral
a
increasing in pitch downward to compensate for
reduction in the velocity of the mixture. The
transverse section of the spiral may vary from
top to bottom as shown. For example, the sec
tion may be flat and inclined at the upper end
25 and may be inclined upwardly as shown further
down to form ‘troughs and may also be provided
with lips I68 to increase the depth of the troughs.
It will be noted that the provision of a. concen
trically-located inverted cone-shaped ba?le-sup
30 portingmember provides space of increasing area
For the most part, provision has been made
in the design of the parts for‘ their expansion
and particularly for the expansion of the gen
erating and superheater tubes under the intense
heats utilized in this generator, the bends in the
generator tubes allowing for expansion without
substantial displacement. The casing parts and 10
the supporting elements are shielded from the
high heats by water walls etc. and the limited
expansions to which they are subjected are readi
ly taken up by reason of their structural designs.
The lowermost superheater support 52 is itself
carried on ?oating supports and is unattached at
its ends so that it is free to expand longitudinal
ly. The upper supports 68 and 50 for the super
heater are each rigidly connected at one end to
the ring 88. They are also connected to spacing 20.
rings I 84 and I86 which are spot welded to each
of the legs 86 of the generator tubes 2 to insure
maintenance of the lateral spacing and relative
positions of these tubes. At their other ends the
supports 88 and 58 are connected to the ring 88, 25
as shown in Figs. 6 and 8, in such manner that
they are free to expand lengthwise, the connec
tion comprising a bracket member I88 attached .I _
by screws to the end of each of the supports 88
and 60 and suspended from bolts or screws I'I9 30
from top to bottom between its outer surface and threaded into a plate I8I connected by screws I62
the inner surface of the wall of the compartment to the ring 86, a space being provided between
I58 of the separator casing 38. Into this space the head of each of the screws H9 and the brack
the water separated from the steam is discharged
35 through holes I66 through the cone at or adjacent, et I86 for movement of the bracket lengthwise of
the screws I18.
_
'
to the junction of the ba?es with the cone, the
It will be noted thatthe generator tubes 2, in
holes preferably being of such size as to main
cluding their legs 20 and 30, have substantial sup
tain a head of water in the bafile trough. Pref
port against lateral displacement. For exam
erably more holes are provided in the lower ple, at their front ends the generator tubes 2 are 40 troughs than in the. upper because of - the in
connected to the water header 8, which is sup
creased accumulation of water.
ported by brackets I36 from the ring 88 carried on
To prevent any upward surge _of water from the feet 92. ‘Near the rear end of the combus
the well at the lower part of the compartment__ tion chamber a ring ‘III, which may be spot weld-.
I58 from entering the space within the cone I66,
both to the water wall leg of the tube :2 and to
45; a priming plate I'IO is located‘just below the cone ed
the convection leg 28, or to either, is in turn sup
as shown.
,
_
)
ported by four coils ‘I2 of the generator tubes 66,,
Steam separated from the water in the lower these coilspeing directly supported by their con
part I56 of the separator casing, and usually still nection to the ‘steam and water header 32, which
somewhat moist, will pass up into the secondary in turn restsupon the’ legs 14. In addition to
50 separator which may consist of a spiral pipe I72,’
this, I have the spacing and supporting ring I'IB
preferably of square cross section, which has a which, being spot-welded to the legs 38 of the 50'
I. ‘connection I73 with the compartment I58, as
shown, and serves to convey the vapor to the
‘ upper part of the chamber I‘M-of the secondary '
55 separator, the same spiral pipe H2 also prefer
ably acting as a lguiding ba?ie to spiral the mois-,
ture separated 1 cm the steam in the secondary
- separator downwardly and out through the open?
ing I16 into a by pass I18 that conducts it back
60 into the water well in the lower part of the com
tube assembly, tends to maintain the lateralre- '
lationship of the tubes to each other, the other.
ends of the‘ legs 38 being directly connected to
the water and steam header 82.
If, by reason of the length of the generator as
a whole, additional means be required to main
55
tain the lateral relationships of the generating~
tubes 2 including their legs 26 and 30 this may
be e?ected by Dl'oviding spacing rings I86 and 60
partment I58.
I86 spot-welded to the legs 20 and 38 respectively
The steam from the secondary separator .of the tubes 2.
passes out through the conduit 42. which extends
In? asomewhat similar manner the spiral coils
about,;%ths of the way down into the chamber of the water wall tubes 66 at the rear end of the
65 I'M.
The conduit 62 is connected to the super
heater tubes 44 which in turn are connected to
- the conduit 46 through which the superheated
steam is taken to the turbine or other prime
mover.
70
.75
_
If it is found desirable to protect the super
heater tubes, where they pass through the air
jacket passage 96 to their connection with the
.steam pipe 46 to the prime mover, from loss of
superheat to the cold air coming in through the.
passage 86, a walled passage I‘I'I may be pro
combustion chamber may be supported in proper 65
relationship to each other by straps I88 radially _
arranged behind the water wall spirals and spot
welded. to each of the coils that they traverse.
Preferably these straps will be arranged so that
alternate straps are connected at their ’outer
ends to the casing 62 and are left free at their
inner ends while the other straps will be con
nected at their inner ends to the casing 62 and
left free at their outer ends.
.
As hereinabove suggested‘. the steam and water 75
”
2,048,878
'
-
7
1
preferably not a‘ complete annulus of‘ at least 1000 H. P. on the prime mover, with a '
but is interrupted at a point opposite the straight - su?icient surplus to operate the auxiliaries such as
the pump l2 and the fuel and air blowers, not
sections of the super-heater tubes 44 to permit . shown,
and which will generate steam at 1000
. header 32 is
the withdrawal of the super-heater assembly as a
pounds pressure and at about 1000° F. tempera
whole without disturbing the generator tube as
'
“
~
sembly. In order to maintain the two ends of the ture, is the following:
The
steam
generating
tubes
2,
of
3A"
O.
D.
and
incomplete annulus in proper relation to each '
about a cylindrical combustion space of
other and to the surrounding structure, the ends spaced
are preferably provided with laterally-extending a diameter of approximately 33" in a generator 10
structure having an overall length of about 11
10 ears I90, opposed to each other, through which feet, would each be about 26 feet long, including
bolts I92 extend to lock the parts in a predeter
the convection legs 20 and 30, which would give a
mined relation to each other. A similar inter
substantial path of travel of the water in heat
ruption is provided in the ring 86.
exchanging
relation to the radiant and convec~
Whenever it is desired to withdraw the super
tion heat of the combustion chamber and also 15
15 heater assembly the superheater. tubes 44 are in heat-exchanging relation to the convection and
disconnected from the conduit 42 as, for example,
heat of the convection ?ue 22.
'by cutting them o? with a hack saw, and are also radiant
The superheater tubes 44, of approximately the
disconnected from the steam conduit 46. The same outside diameter as the generator tubes 2.
bolts I92 are then withdrawn from the ears I90
would have an average length each of about 84 20
20 at the two ends of the incomplete annulus 32,
feet.
The overall diameter of the structurewould
the rear end of the generator casing and the rear
be about 4' 6". The water header 8 would prob
water wall having been removed, and the super
heater assembly can then be withdrawn bodily ably be about 3 inches 0. D. and the steam and
header 31/2 inches 0. D.
from the structure without interference with the water
It will be understood that the foregoing ?gures
assembly of generator tubes,’
,
It will be noted from Figure 2 of the drawings are given merely for‘the purpose of illustrating
that the casing walls 94, 80 and 26 are each pro
> vided with slots to provide for the withdrawal
of the straight sections of the superheater tubes,
these‘slots- being provided respectively with re
movable covers I94 and I96 and I88. ‘
'
Each of the steam generator tubes 2, with its
convection legs 20 and ‘30, it will be seen, lies ap
proximately in a plane radial to the axis of the
generator structure as a whole. It may, how
ever, sometimes be desirable not to have all three
legs of each generator tube exactly in- a plane
radial to the axis of the generatortas a whole.
For example, it may be preferable to have the
40 water wall legs of the tubes 20 staggered with
respect to the water wall sections so that the
the relatively small overall dimensions and the
relatively light weight of a steam generator of
this capacity which is made possible by the im
proved design of the present invention and that
there is no intention to con?ne, the invention to
the particular dimensions for the particular ca
pacity referred to, the invention obviously per
mitting wide variations in the relative dimensions
of theparts for the same capacities and also to
meet particular conditions, particularly in auto
motive vehicles.
>
‘
.
'\
Although the generator herein illustrated and
described is arranged with its main axis extend
ing in a horizontal ‘direction, the invention is 40
not con?ned to such an arrangement of the main
The method ofgenerating
steam
employed
in
this
structure and described
these portions of the casing 6 which lie between‘
’ cooling effect of the legs 20 will be exerted upon \ axis of the structure.
the water wall legs.
L
g
‘ and cfaimed in United States Letters Ratent No.
£884,979, granted October 25, 1932, permits the
If closer spacing of the straight portions of the - generating
to‘ be arranged in substantially
water wall legs, of the generator“ tubes 2 is desired . any manner,tubes
either vertically or inclined, or hori
‘ than would be possible with curves 28 of uniform
radii of "curvaturejaltemate curves 28 may be of
smaller radius ‘of- curvature than the'tubes, adja
cent thereto whereby a slight nestingpof'adjacent
’ to
' tubes may be permitted, thus allowing a closer
spacing of the straight, sections.
45
zontally and‘ spirally, as herein shown. It is
therefore practicable to turn the illustrated gen
erator up on end, for example, with its rear end 50
at the bottom of the structure, the only ?uid c0n-.
?ning structure change necessary, when this is
I
Although the main supply of air for combustion ,_done,-beirig to re-locate the steam and water sep-v
will preferably come in through‘ the openings I48
in the burner casing, it may be found desirable‘
in some‘ cases to provide secondary ‘air for the
completion of, the combustion. vWhen this is
found to be desirable, openings 100 and 202 may
arator 38 and the pump l2.
>
What is claimed as new is:
1. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a com
bustion chamber and a surrounding ?ue, ‘and
water walls lining said combustion chamber and
said ?ue and comprising steam generating
tubes each of which extends over the lateral wall
enter the rear end of the combustion chamber. .
From the foregoing description of the construc- ' of the combustion chamber and over the two
be provided respectively in the walls H4 and 62
60 which will permit air from the passage H2 to
'
, tion and mode‘of operation of a steam generator
embodying the present invention it will be ap
parent that‘ theinvention “facilitates the design
and construction of a compact_ generator for pro
ducing high pressure, high temperature steam in
substantial quantities. .
Without attempting to go into detailed engi
70 neering calculations, it may be stated that a
rough estimate of the dimensions of various parts
of.'-_a steam generator, having the general con
s‘truction and arrangement of parts herein illus
trated and described, which will have a capacity
lateral walls of the ?ue.
-
,
2.‘In .a steam generator, an enclosing casing
’ so “partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan
tially cylindricalcombustion chamber and a ?ue -
surrounding and'substantially }concentric with
said combustion chamber and communicating
therewith at one .end, and water walls/lining
said combustion chamber and ,said ?ue and
comprising
steam generating
tubes
each
of ‘ '
which extends over the lateral wall of the com
bustion chamber and over the two lateral walls
of the ?ue, said’ generating tubes being each lo
2,048,873
cated' approximately in a plane radial to the
axis of the combustion chamber.
3. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
?ue surrounding and substantially concentric
with said‘ combustion chamber and communi-,
cating therewith at one end,‘ water walls lining
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a sub
the lateral wall of said combustion chamber and
stantially cylindrical combustion chamber and a
?ue surrounding and substantially concentric
the lateral walls of said ?ue and comprising
steam generating tubes each of which extends
with said combustion chamber and communi - rearwardly over the lateral wall of the combus
eating therewith at one end, water walls in said tion chamber, forwardly over the inner wall of
combustion .chamber and. said ?ue and com
the ?ue and rearwardly over the outer wall of
10 prising steam generating tubes each of which ex
the ?ue, an annular distributing header to which
tends over the lateral wall of the combustion
chamber and over the two lateral walls of the
the intake end'of each of said tubes is con
nected, located at the front of the structure, an
- ?ue; an annular distributing header to which
annular collecting header to which the discharge
end of each of said tubes is connected, located
at the rear end of the structure, and return 15
one end of each of said tubes is connected, and
15 an annular collecting header to which the other
end of each of said tubes is connected.
4. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a sub
connections between said headers comprising a
steam and water separator and a circulating
. pump-
‘
stantially cylindrical combustion chamber and a
8. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
?ue surrounding and substantially concentric so partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan 20
with said combustion chamber and communi _tially cylindrical combustion chamber and a ?ue
cating therewith at one end, water walls in said _
combustion chamber and said ?ue and compris- ‘
ing steam generating tubes each of which ex
25 tends over the'lateral wall of the combustion
chamber and over the two lateral walls of the
?ue, an annular distributing header to which
one end of each of said-tubes is connected, an
annular collecting header to whichhthe other
30 "end of each of said tubes is connected, and av
return connection between said headers in
cluding a steam and water separator and a cir
culating pump.
‘\
5. In a steam generator of the closed circuit
85 positive circulation typ'e, an enclosing casing so
partitioned interiorly as to provide a combustion
chamber and a surrounding ?ue communicating
‘therewith at one/end, water walls lining said
combustion chamber and ‘said ?ue, said‘ walls
comprising steani <generating tubes forming
parts of a closed circuit, means in said circuit
for setting up a positive circulation of water
through each of said generating tubes in an
amount in excess of the conversion capacity
thereof, and means for separating the steam
produced in said circuit from the water before
it is returned to the generating tubes, each of
said combustion chamber tubes being so con
so
nected to two ?ue tubes as to provide for ?ow
of water introduced into said three tubes only
in series in a given order over said combustion
chamber and ?ue walls.
6. In ;a steam generator of the closed circuit
I positive circulation type, an enclosing casing so
55 ‘partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan
tially cylindrical combustion chamber and a
?ue surrounding and substantially concentric
' with said combustion chamber and communi- '
.zcating therewith at one end, water walls lining
the lateral wall of said combustion chamber and
the lateral walls of said ?ue and comprising
‘steam generating tubes each, of which extends
_ rearwardly over the lateral wall of the combus- ,
tionchamber, forwardly over the inner wall of
the ?ue and rearwardly over the outer wall of
I the ?ue, an annular distributing header to which
:the intake end of each of said tubes is connected,
.located at the front of the structure, and an
,annular collecting, header to which the discharge
70 end of each of said tubes is connected, located
‘at the rear end of the structure.
surrounding and substantially concentric with
said combustion chamber, water walls‘ lining
and protecting the cylindrical wall of said com
bustion chamber and theadjacent wall of said
?ue and comprising steam generating tubes each
of which extends lengthwise of said combustion
chamber and lengthwise of-said ?ue, an annu
lar distributing header to which each of said gen
erating tubes is connected at its intake end, an 30
annular collecting header to which each of said
tubes is connected at its discharge end, other
water wall tubes shielding one end of said com
bustion chamber and discharging into said col
lecting header, and a distributing header for
said last mentionedv tubes.
, 9. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a com
bustion chamber and a communicating ?ue
around said chamber,’ steam generating tubes 40
arranged about the combustion space in said
chamber and so extended lengthwise of said
combustion ch‘amber'and into and along the two
walls of said ?ue’that they line and protect from
excessive heat both the wall of the combustion 45
chamber and the two walls of the ?ue, a water
header with which one‘ end of each of said tubes
is connected, said header’forming -a loop of a‘
contour similar to that of the'cross section of
the combustion chamber, and a second header 50
to which the other end of each of said tubes is
connected, said second header having a contour
similar to that of said ?ue.
10. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus
side said combustion chamber and steam gener
ating tubes each having at its intake end means
for restricting the input of water thereinto, each
of said tubes comprising three substantially paral
lel sections successively connected by bends, one
section being exposed directly to the heat of the
combustion chamber and the other two sections
being located in said ?ue and exposed therein to ‘
the heat from the products of combustion, the
direction of ?ow of the water through the section
‘to
as
of the tube in the combustion chamber andthrough ' I
one of the sections in the ?ue corresponding to
the direction of movement of the heating“ vehi
cle and being counter to the direction of move
ment of the heating vehicle through the other
‘ 7. In a. steam generator of the closed circuit -- section of the tube.
positive circulation type, an enclosing casing so
partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan
tially cylindrical combustion, chamber and a
55
tion chamber and a communicating ?ue along
11. In a steam generator, anenclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide combustion
chamber and a ?ue surrounding, said combustion
9
‘ 8,048,878
chamber and communicating therewith at one the ?ue walls, steam superheater tubes located in
end, a‘ water wall comprising steam generating
the ,?ue, coiled about the combustion chamber
tubes each of which extends lengthwise of the and separated from “the ‘walls of the ?ue by the
combustion chamber and lengthwise of .the~?ue,' steam generating‘ tubes, a loop-like'water header
the leg of the ‘steam generating tube within said to which one. end of each of said generating tubes
?ue being substantially parallel to the leg within ' is connected, and a second loop-like steam and
the combustion chamber and the two legs being water header to which the other end of each of
connected ‘by a bend providing a_ loop 01' substam
said tubes is connected.
' tial radius, and steam superheater .tubes located '
in said ?ue and coiled about said. generating tube
_
-
x
17. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to‘provide a combus 10
- tion chamber and a communicating ?ue around
assembly.
, 12. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
,so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus-'
tion chamber and a fine surrounding said com
15 bustion chamber and communicating therewith at
said chamber, steam generating tubes ‘arranged about the, combustion space in said chamber and
so extended lengthwiseof said combustion cham
ber and into and lengthwise of the two walls’ 0! 15'
one end,la water wall comprising‘ steam generat said ?ue as to line and protect the chamber and
ing tubes each of which extends lengthwise of the ?ue walls, steam superheater tubes located in v
said combustion chamber and lengthwise oi the the ?ue, coiled about the combustion chamber
?ue, the leg of the steam generating tube within and separated from the walls of the ?ue by the
20 said ?ue being closelyradjacentto and substan
steam generating tubes, a loop-like water header 20
tially parallel to the leg ‘within the combustion to which vone end ofteach of said generating tubes
- chamber and the two legs being connected by at is connected, and a second loop-like steam and
_' bend providing a loop offset to the chamber side water header to which the other end of each of
oi'the ?ue leg,‘ and steam superheater tubes lo ' said tubesvis connected, said last mentioned header
25 cated in said ?ue and coiled about said generating having its loop interrupted to provide for bodily 25
tube assembly.
'
‘v
withdrawal of the steam superheater assembly.
-
13. In a steam ‘generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus
tion chamber and a ?ue surrounding said com
so bustion chamber and communicating therewith
at one end, a water wall lining said combustion
' chamber and the adjacent wall of said ?ue ‘and
comprising steam generating tubes each of which
' extends lengthwise 01' said combustion chamber
and lengthwise of .said ?ue, a water distributing
18. In a steam- generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan=
tially cylindrical combustion chamber and a ?ue
surrounding and substantially concentric with 30
said combustion chamber and communicating
therewith at one end, water walls , lining said
combustion chamber and said ?ue and-compris-,
ing steam generating tubes each of which ex
tends over they lateral wall of the combustion3
chamber and over the two lateral walls of the
‘of the cross section of the combustion chamber ~ilue, steam superheater tubes coiled about the
and to which the intake end of each of said tubes combustion chamber and: located in said ?ue
headeriorming a loop of a contour similarto that -
i
is connected, a steam and water collecting header
forming a loop of a' contour similar to that or the
cross section of the ?ue and to which the dis
between the,legs of the steam‘ generating-tubes
therein, whereby said‘superheater coils may be 40
removed bodily from the structure without dis lg
return connections between said headers includ
19. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
charge end of each vof said tubes is connected, .turbingthe steam generating tube assembly.
ing a steam and water separator and a circulating ‘ so partitioned interiorly as to ‘provide a substan
pump,v and steam superheating tubes receiving‘
the steam i'rom'said separator, located within said
?ue.‘ and coiled about said combustion, chamber
and generating tubeassembly.
’
'
14. A steam generator comprising an enclosing
ceasing ‘so partitioned interiorly as to provide a
combustion chamber and a surrounding ?ue,
water walls lining said combustion chamber and
said ?ue and comprising steam generating tubes,
tially cylindrical combustion chamber and a ?ue
surrounding‘ and substantially concentric with
said combustion chamber and communicating
therewith at one‘end, water walls lining said
combustion ‘chamber and said ?ue and compris
ing steam generating tubes each or which ex- 7
tends over the lateral wall or ,the' combustion
chamber and over the two lateral walls of the
‘?ue, steam superheater tubes coiled about the
combustion chamber and located in said ?ue be
tween the legs oi.’ the steam generating tubes
of the ?ue, and steam superheater tubes located therein, whereby said superheater coils may be
within said ?ue and embraced by said steam gen-4 removed bodily'irom the structure without dis
turbing the steam generating tube assembly, an
erator tubes.
.
,
e
each of which extends over the lateral wall of the
55 combustion chamber and over the two lateral walls
annular distributing header to which one end of
each of said‘ steam generating tubes is connected,’ 60
an annular collecting‘header to which the other
end or, each of said steam generating tubes isv
' one end,'steam generating tubes lining and pro
connected, said last mentioned annulus having
testing the walls of said combustion chamber and . an'inner diameter greater than that oi’ the super
‘oi’ said ?ue, and steam superheater tubes located heater coils to permit the withdrawal of said coils
in said ?ue‘ and separated from said ?ue walls by "through the open center of said header.
. said steam generating tubes. ,
20. Ina’ steam generator, an enclosing casing
'16. In a steam generator, an enclosing easing so partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus- ,
tially cylindrical combustion chamber,’v a water
70 tion'chamber' and a communicating ?ue around ' wall lining the cylindrical inside surface of said
said chamber, steamaenerating tubes arranged’
15. In a; steam generator, an enclosing casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus
tion chamber and a ?ue surrounding said combos-.
tion chamber and communicating therewith at
about the combustion space in said chamber and
chamber and comprising tubes extending length
so extended lengthwise oi'said combustion cham
ber and into and lengthwise oi the two walls of
ing one end or said combustion chamber and com-_
'76 said ?ue as to line and protect the chamber and
wise or said chamber, a second ‘water wall ‘cover
prising spiral tubes, intake headers for the tubes "
10
8,048,878
of the respective water walls and a common head
er into which all of said tubes discharge.
21. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
50 partitioned interiorly as toprovide a cylindrical
combustion chamber having a sheet metal wall
stopping short of the rear end of the combustion
space and a ?ue surrounding said combustion
.chamber and having a sheet metal outer wall, a
sheet metal rear wall continuouswith said ‘?ue
10 outer wall and provided with an annular con
26. In a steam generator of the closed circuit
positive circulation type, the combination with an
enclosing casing so partitioned interiorly as to
provide a combustion chamber and a fuel burner
comprising means for directing a mixture of air 5
and fuel into said combustion chamber, of a water
wall comprising tubes extending lengthwise of
said chamber and arranged about the combustion
space therein, said partitions de?ning a ?ue sur
rounding said combustion chamber and commu
nicating therewith at one end thereof, said tubes
each also extending into said ?ue and over each
cavity opposite the end of the combustion cham
ber wall, and steam generator tubes lining and
protecting said combustion chamber wall, the two - wall thereof along the path of travel through said
15
walls of said ?ue and said rear wall.
?ue of the gases coming from said combustion
22. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing , chamber, said partition also de?ning a second ?ue 15
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus- '
surrounding and communicating with said ?rst
tion chamber and a ?ue surrounding said combus
mentioned ?ue at the end of said ?rst mentioned
?ue remote from that connected with the com
tion chamber and communicating therewith at
one end, all formed of sheet metal, individual
20 continuous steam generating tubes each lining
and protecting the wall of said combustion cham
ber and also the two walls of said ?ue, said par
titions de?ning a second ?ue surrounding said
?rst mentioned ?ue and communicating there
25 with at the end of said ?rst mentioned ?ue re
mote from its communication with the combus
‘tion chamber, and air preheater tubes extending
through said second ?ue.
23. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing
sov partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan
tially cylindrical combustion chamber and a ?ue
surrounding and substantially concentric with
said combustion chamber and communicating
therewith at one end, all formed of sheet metal,‘
35 a water wall lining said combustion chamber and
said ?ue and comprising steam generating tubes
each of which extends over the lateral wall of.
the combustion chamber and the two lateral walls
of the ?ue, said partitions de?ning a second ?ue
40 surrounding said ?rst mentioned ?ue and com
municating therewith at one end, air preheater
tubes extending through said second ?ue, a jacket
surrounding said two ?ues and providing an air
intake ?ue communicating with said air pre
bustion chamber, air preheater tubes communi
cating with said burner for preheating the air 20
therefor and arranged in said second ?ue along
the path of travel of the hot gases through said
second ?ue, and an air jacket surrounding said
second ?ue and providing an air intake ?ue
communicating with said air preheater tubes at 25
one end thereof said'water wall so lining and pro
tecting the combustion chamber wall and the two
walls of said ?rst-mentioned ?ue that said cas
ings and said ?ues may .be formed of sheet metal
without refractory lining.
30
F 27. In a steam generator, an enveloping casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus
tion chamber and a ?ue surrounding said com
bustion chamber and communicating therewith
at one end, and steam generating tubes lining 35
and protecting the wall of said combustion cham
ber and the walls ‘of said ?ue, each of said com
bustion chamber tubes being so connected to two
?ue tubes as to provide for ?ow of water intro
duced into said three tubes only in series in a
given order over ‘said combustion chamber and
?ue walls.
~_
.
28. In a steam generator, an enveloping casing
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus
45 heater tubes at one end, and a stack connected tion chamber and a ?ue surrounding said com
‘to said second ?ue at the end thereof remote fromi bustion chamber and communicating therewith
its connection with the ?rst'?ue.
.
at one end, steam generating tubes lining and
_ 24. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing protecting the wall of said combustion chamber
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a substan
and the walls of said ?ue, each of said combus
50 tially cylindrical combustion-chamber having its tion chamber tubes being so connected to two ?ue
cylindrical wall stopping short of the rear end ' tubes as‘ to provide for ?ow of water introduced
of the combustion space, a ?ue surrounding said into said three tubes only in series in a given
combustion chamber and'having an outer wall order over said combustion chamber and ?ue
"substantially concentric with said combustion walls, ‘and means for insuring distribution of the
55 chamber, and a rear wall continuous with said water to the steam generating tubes so as to in 55
outer ?ue wall and provided with an annular‘ sure said series ?ow of water through said three
‘concavity opposite the end of the combustion tubes.
chamber wall constructed and arranged to facili
tate substantially uniform distribution of the
products of combustion to the ?ue and to reduce
> resistance to change of direction by maintaining
a substantially constant velocity.
25. In a steam generator of the class described,
an enclosing casing so partitioned interiorly as to
65 provide, a substantially . cylindrical combustion
chamber and a water wall covering the rear end
of said combustion chamber, said water wall com;
prising a plurality of spirally coiled steam gener
ating tubes, said spirals lying one within the
70 other whereby close-spaced shielding of the wall
surfaces by the tube surfaces is provided without.
too sharp bending of any individual tube, and a
header, shielded by the central portion of said
water wall, to which the inner ends of said spirals
75 are connected.
29. A steam generator having, in combination,
an enclosing casing so partitioned interiorly as
to provide a substantially cylindrical combustion 60
chamber and an annular ?ue extending about
and communicating with said combustion cham- ,
ber, steam generating tubes extending length
wise of said chamber and arranged about the '
combustion space therein, said tubes also extend- 65
ing into said ?ue and along thepath of travel
through said ?ue of the gases leaving the com
bustion chamber, and steam superheater tubes
coiled about the combustiomchamber and so lo
cated in said ?ue as to be positioned interiorly 70
of the extent of some of said tubes in said ?ue.
30. A steam generator comprising an envelop?
ing casing so partitioned interiorly as to provide ,
a combustion chamber and a surrounding ?ue,
and steam generating tubes lining and protecting '
,
-
2,018,873
the wall of the combustion chamber and the walls
of said ?ue, said tubes lining one wall of said
?ue being separated from those lining the other
wall of the ?ue to leave a space for a heat ex
changer within said ?ue unoccupied by said steam
generating tubes.
.
-
31. A steam generator‘ comprising an envelop
ing casing so partitioned interiorly as to provide
a combustion chamber and a surrounding ?ue,
steam generating tubes lining and protecting the
‘
ing so partitioned interiorly as to provide a sub
stantially cylindrical combustion chamber and a
?ue surrounding and communicating with said
combustion chamber at one end, a water wall
surrounding the combustion spacebin said cham- 5
- her and comprising tubes extending longitudinale
1y of said chamber, said water wall tubes being >
extended into said ?ue along the path of travel
of the hot gases through said ?ue, and a rear
wall having an annular concavity opposed to the 10
wallv of the combustion chamber and the walls
partition between the combustiona chamber and
?ue being separated from those lining the other
34. A steam generator having an enclosing cas
ing so partitioned in'teriorly as to provide a sub
of said ?ue, said tubes lining one wall of ‘said - said ?ue.
wall of the ?ue to leave a space for a heat ex
15 changer within said ?ue, unoccupied by said
"
stantially cylindrical combustion chamber and a'15
?ue surrounding and communicating with said
combustion chamber at one end of the partitionv
tubes located in said space in said ?ue.
32. In a steam generator, an enclosing casing separating said ?ue from saidv combustion cham
ber, a water wall surrounding the combustion
so partitioned interiorly as to provide a combus
tion chamber and a communicating ?ue around space in said chamber and comprising tubes ex- 20
longitudinally of said chamber, said wa
said combustion chamber, steam generating tubes tending
wall tubes being extended into said ?ueralong
arranged about the combustion space in said, ter
chamber and extending both lengthwise of said the path of travel of the hot'gases through said '- ~ a' rear wall having an annular concavity
25' combustion chamber and‘lengthwise of said ?ue,v ?ue,
and steam superheater. tubes located in said ?ue opposed to the partition, between the combustion 25 _
chamber and said ?ue, and a water wall covering ,
‘and coiled about said combustion chamber but said
rear wall and conforming substantially to
positioned interiorly with respect to at least some
‘
of said steam generating tubes located in‘ said the surface contourithereof.
?ue.
MORRIS
CARROLL. , 30
33. A steam generator having an enclosing cas
30
steam generating tubes, and steam superheater
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