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Патент USA US2054154

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Sept. 15, 1936.
Filed ' July 15, 1929
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Patented Sept. 15, 1936
Hiram J. Carson, Cedar Rapids,v Iowa.
Application July 15, 1929, Serial No. 378,256
4 Claims. (C1. 48-202)
This invention relates ‘to the production of admixed with the blasting air as‘ needed and de
combustible gas and by-products such as oils, tar,
and ammonia from bituminous fuel in gas‘pro
ducers and the utilization of part or all of the
5 gases so produced in boilers and furnaces and the
recovery of any remaining gases for other uses.
The principal objects of the invention are to
effect economies in such production and utiliza
tion by certain improvements in the methods
10 employed.
The invention comprehends improved methods '
for: the production and recovery of rich distilla
tion gas and blue water gas, and also oils,'tar,
and ammonia from bituminous fuel in conjunc
15 tion with the production of producer gas from
the carbonized residue with‘ the distillation gases
and products drawn off with a controllable
amount of or no admixture therewith of the pro
ducer gas; the utilization of part of the pro
ducer gas by combustion in regenerators for
highly superheating steam for the- formation of
water gas, carbonizing the fuel and/or the pro
duction of ammonia; the use of air and/or oxy
gen in the carbonizing chamber for supplying a
25 part of the heat. required for carbonization
and/or for the water gas reaction; the immediate
utilization of part or all of the producer gas so
formed by combustion in a boiler or furnace with
the combustion products therefrom used for pre
30 heating the air for such combustion and/or the
' air for the producer; the use of combustion prod
ucts from the boiler or furnace and/or steam as
an endothermal agent for controlling the fuel
bed temperatures in the producer and the forma
35 tion ‘of combustible gas; an improved heat cycle
in producers and boilers in combination where
by ,the gasi?cation and utilization of the heat
of combustion of the fuel-are carried on in a
highly efficient manner.
Zl‘he invention also contemplates the removal
. of ash from the producer in liquid form to thereby
eliminate the usual temperature limitationsv be
cause of the fusing temperature of the ash, and
‘ permit operation at relatively high fuel bed tem
45 peratures and capacities and the use of cheap
fuels with an avoidance of ash deposits in the
boiler or furnace and the usual operating dif?cul
ties and expense in connection therewith.
To insure theeasy liquefying of the ash the
50 invention contemplates the use of preheated air
In the latter case the time interval re
quired for ?uxing material charged with the fuel
to work down to the slagging level is avoided.
The invention further contemplates the intro
duction of combustible gas with the blasting air
in the bottom zone in case' of di?iculty in slag
ging, which may for example be occasioned by
a de?ciency of. combustible in‘ the fuel at the
slagging level.
The blasting air may also be enriched with
oxygen for further hastening combustion and
liquefying the slag when desired.
v'I'he invention also contemplates the use of
part of the producer gas for the alternate heat 15
ing of two regenerative chambers and the heat
stored therein in turn employed for highly super
heating steam to be delivered to and utilized in
the carbonizing chamber or zone of the producer.
Other objects of the invention will more clearly 20
appear from the description and claims herein
after following.
In the drawing forming a part of the’applica
tion, a suitable apparatus has been disclosed for
the effective carrying out of the improved method 25
or process.
In said drawing, Figure 1 is a part‘
vertical sectional view, part elevational view of‘
a gas producer plant and associated steam gen
erating boiler for effecting the complete cycle of
steps of the improved process. Figure 2 is a part 30
top plan view and part horizontal sectional view
of the regenerators and generator shown in Fig
ure 1, the sectional view of the generator cor
responding approximately to the line A-A of
Figure 1. Figure 3 is an enlarged vertical sec-v 35
tional view of the carbonizing chamber used in
the gas producer and shown in Figure 1. And
Figure 4 is an enlarged vertical sectional view, il
lustrating more particularly the details of con
struction of one of the air tuyeres, tuyere header 40
and supplementary inlet valve associated there
with, shown is Figure 1.
The apparatus may now be described in detail.
In Figure 1, the gas producer I 2 is shown in
section having mainly two zones. The lower zone
I3 is the producer gas generating zone and con- /
tains mainly incandescent fuel. The upper zone
contains a carbonizing chamber I4 which is
charged with fuel and ash fluxing material, as
limestone, when desired, through any suitable
in the lower zone of the fuel column.
charging device as I5.
The invention contemplates the use of a flux
ing material which may be charged with the fuel
Air blast inlet means are shown at level I6
through valved inlets I611. and Ilia’ and also at
level I‘! through valved inlets Ho. and Na’.
Means for admitting steam at level I‘! when de
or introduced in the bottom zone of the fuel col
umn in any suitable manner such as blown in.
, 2
sired for use in controlling fuel bed temperatures
is indicated at l8. Air supplied through l'la'
may be mixed with the steam and admitted to the
fuel at level I‘! as shown. Stack gas is preferably
used as an endothermal agent for controlling fuel
bedtemperatures. This may be injected under
pressure at level I'I_as through supply pipes 53
_ or inspirated by and mixed with air as indicated
leading to the carbonizing chamber in the pro
The valved steam inlet means are equipped
with pressure’ regulators 4! and Ma to control
the pressure of steam admitted to theregenera
tive chambers. This control is effected by a pres‘
sure pipe 42 opening into gas passageway 20 of
the producer.
The gas burner 24- is . shown
equipped with suitable air mixing means 24a for
at inspirator l8.
In heating operations with the gas containing I regulating the combustion air admitted through l0
a relatively high percentage of hydrogen a sub-7
stantial portion of the total heat of combustion
is lost in the latent heat of the water vapor in
the resulting stack gases. The hydrogen con
15 tent of the producer gas and the stack of water
pipe 43;
Combustion is effected. in the boiler combus
tion chamber or firebox 44 with the combustion
products passing through the tubes and thence
through opening 45 into an air preheater 46 15
vapor loss are substantially reduced if. an endo
having a stack outlet 41. The combustion cham
thermal agent such as stack gas containing little
her may be substantially reduced in volume with '
' or no hydrogen is used.
The carbonizing chamber has an annular pas-4
20 sage around it of a relatively large area, at 20 to
lower the velocity of the gases leaving the in
candescent fuel and reduce or avoid the carry
ing along of ?ne fuel particles in the gases. The
annular passage is preferably narrowed at 2| to
25 increase the velocity of the gases and heat trans
fer to the carbonizing chamber. The annular
. passageway 21! and 2! is preferably enlarged at 22
to reduce the velocity of the gases at this point
and to further a uniform passage of-the gases
30 around the carbonizing chamber. The producer
gases pass from 22 through a conduit 23 and a
burner and air mixer 24 into the boiler 25.
The wall of the carbonizing chamber II is
preferably made of heat resisting metal to per
35 mit a relatively high rate of heat transfer theree
through, but may be made of any suitable mate
rial. This chamber may be in the form of a trun
cated cone with the larger end down to facili
' tate the downward passage of the fuel and avoid
heat radiating surface provided as indicated by
the line “a with resultant economies. The com
bustion and producer. air may be supplied by a 20
fan or blower 48 with preheated air .offtakelt
from the air preheater leading to the boiler bum
er 24 through pipe 43 and to the producer and
regenerative chambers as before described.
stack gas passageways 50 and 5] are shown
leading to a blower 52 for withdrawing the stacl-r~
gases either from the inlet or outlet of the air
preheaters and delivering these gases through
pipe 53 to level ll in the producer. When the
air inspirating effect of the air admitted through 30
Ila to inspirator i8 is relied on for drawing the
stack gas into the producer, the blower 52 may
be dispensed with.
' The producer‘is shown with a hearth 54 ‘pref
erably sloping toward a slag discharge opening
55 which is normally closed by any suitable means
such as ?reclay. A second slag discharge open
.ing 55a is shown at a higher level for use when
iron or metallic ore is charged with the fuel as
sticking or hanging. The carbonizing chamber a i'iuxing agent.- The metal may be drawn off 40
preferably contains an assembly'26 in the center at the lower level 55 with the slag drawn off at
v I
thereof. This assembly is shown enlarged in the higher level 55a. '
The pipe 56 opening into air inlet at level l6
Figure 3, and is more fully described hereafter.
An inlet 2'? for steam is shown near the bot ' indicates admission means for gas or oxygen for
tom of the carbonizing chamber, supplied by a mixing with the air to effect combustion ‘or
vertically disposed conduit 28 passing through the raise the temperatures in thefuel bed at this
assembly aforesaid and fed and supported by a level as desired forlsla-gging‘ the ash. This con
nection 56 also indicates means ‘for supplying
' pipe 29.. Pipe 2911 connected into pipe 29 indi
' >
cates a means for admitting oxygen and/or air ?uxing material into the air blast.
Another opening into the fuel bed’ at any suit
50 to the lower portion of the carbonizing chamber able level as 51 is shown for the introduction of 50
to supply any heat required for the water gas
?uxing material as desired.
reaction and/or carbonization of the fuel.
The producer is equipped with a valved gas
An assembly cap or valve 30, adjustable as by
a cable 3| for regulating the division of flow of outlet 58 in the top of the carbonizing chamber
gases through the assembly 26 andthe fuel is
Two regenerative chambers 32 and 32a as indi
cated in' Fig. 1 and shown in Fig. 2 are connected
to the passageway 22 of the producer through
passageway 33 andvalved inlets 34 and 3411.
These regenerative chambers are connected to a
stack 36 and an air preheater 36a through valved
outlets 35 and 3511. This preheater preheats the
combustion air to the regenerators and has air
85 inlet and outlet as indicated at 36a’ and 36a".
Each regenerator is adapted for the combustion
for the withdrawal of distillation gas and vapor 55
and any other gases mixed therewith to such
farther point as is desired.
In the partial plan view of Fig. 2, a generator '
section on theline A--A at level I6 in Fig. 1 is
shown. Air inlet headers are indicated at l6 and 60
I6’, and tuyere openings in the long sides of the 1
generator section are indicated at l6". ‘Doors
are indicated at El opening into the generator
through‘ removable blocking as 62. The jets of
air and stack gas and/or steam from the tuyéres 65
in the long sides of the generator practically
cover the hearth thus insuring an active use ‘of
of producer gas therein entering through pas
sageway 33, valves 34 and Me with combustion
air admitted through air inlets 31 and 31a into
the respective combustion chambers, only one of‘
In Fig. 3, an assembly 26 is shown in a frag
mental-3r section of the carbonizing chamber I4 70
with steam and/or oxygen and/or air admission
which is shown and referenced 38.
means 21 supplied by pipes 28, 29 passing through
Each re
generator is equipped ‘with valved steam inlet '
means 39 and 39a and valved steam outlet means
75 40 and Illa connected into steam supply pipe 29»
the entire hearth area.
the assembly as described for Fig. 1.
. ~
This assembly is preferablymade of a series
of ‘open cylinders or cones 66 of any desired form 75
and preferably in the form of truncated cones
with the bottom of each cylinder or cone pro
jecting over and below the top of the next lower
one thus forming a protective skirt around the
upper end of the next lower cylinder or cone to
4lJ-a into the bottom of the carbonizing cham
ber through inlet 21.
The highly superheated
steam so admitted in contact with the hot carbon
in the base of the carbonizing chamber forms
some water gas and this with any undecomposed ‘
steam more or less blankets the bottom of the
prevent fuel falling therein and to provide annu
lar openings 61 for the escape of volatile matter carbonizing chamber against the admission of
' ,
from the fuel into the open passage through the‘ the low grade producer gas. ' .
series of cylinders as indicated by arrows.
Fig. 4 shows a fragmentary section of a gen
erator wall with an air blast tuyére therein. The
tuyeres at each level are supplied by tuyere head
er pipes ‘I I, which are supplied by air distributing
pipe through valves 12. The tuyére nose ‘I3 is
15 shown projecting beyond the generator wall and
The water gas and steam and/or producer gas I
sweeping upwardly through the fuel drivesvoff l0
any remaining volatile matter in it and enters
the assembly through the bottom of annular
openings as at 61, or passing up through the
fuel passes out through upper o?take 58. 'The
cap 30 on the assembly may be-raised or lowered 15
cooled by water~entering through pipe 14 and
for adjusting the ?ow ‘through the fuel and the
discharging through pipe 'I4—a.
assembly as desired.
The pipe 56, shown inserted in a tuyere, indi
cates means for the introduction of combustible
gas or oxygen for mixing with the air and fur
thering combustion at this level.
Fluxing material in powered form may also be
so admitted into'the blasting air through pipe 56.
The improved process is carried out in the
25 apparatus described, as follows:
A ?re is kindled on the producer hearth 54
and the producer ?lled with fuel (preferably coke
at the start) which is replenished with prefer
ably bituminous fuel thereafter through charg
30 ing opening ‘15.
Valve 23, when provided, 7 is
The valve 58 is adjustable and with the rate
of steam admission in the bottom of the carbon
izing chamber also adjustable the admixture of 20
any desired portion of producer gas'with the dis
tillation gases which are drawn o? at 58 may be
The blue gas and steam and any producer gas
mixed therewith in passing through the cylin-. 25
ders of the assembly produce a vacuum effect
which draws the gas. from the fuel being carbon
ized in through the annular spaces 61 into the
stream of gas.
The gas and vapors are accord
ingly withdrawn from the fuel substantially as 30
16. At the start the lower slag opening ‘55 may
evolved and, mixed with the blue gas and steam,
leave the assembly through 38 and pass out
be left open so some burned gases may be dis
through 58.
open. Air is admitted through tuyeres at level
charged here with a resultant drawing down of
35 the heat to highly heat the hearth. ‘As air is
admitted and the fuel bed becomes hot the oxy
gen of the air is burned to CO2 at ?rst and then
‘ decomposed into carbon monoxide mostly. This
gas passes up‘ through the fuel bed, preheating
40 the fuel, leaving ‘it at passage 20, and passing
The heat for carbonizing the fuel is supplied
by the sensible heat of the blue gas and any
assembly and is supplemented by:
(a)—The heat in the producer gas passing
around the carbonizing chamber.
(b)--The use of additional amounts of excess 40
around the carbonizing chamber, passes out to
steam preferably superheated to the highest prac
the boiler through passageway 23 and burner 24.
ticable extent as above described. by the com
bustion of a portion of the producer gas in re
Air for effecting combustion of this gas is
admitted through 43. The gasis burned in com
.bustion chamber 44, and passing through the
boiler enters the preheater 46 throughpopening
45. This preheater may be of the recuperative
type but is preferably of the regenerative type
and adapted for operation at high stack temper
50 atures, say 800 deg. and more.
The burned gases in passing through the pre
heater 46 preheat the air admitted to the pre
undecomposed-steam passing through it and the
generative chamber.
(c)—Passing part of the producer gases 45
through the carbonizing chamber and using the
sensible heat thereof, and/or
(d)—Admitting air and/or oxygen‘mixed with
or independent of the. steam in the lower portion
of the carbonizing chamber as through 21, or 50
equivalent means for effecting combustion and
‘the liberation of additional heat in the bottom
_ heater as through fan 48, the preheated air being zone of the carbonizing'chamber.
The carbonization temperature may accord
taken off at 49 and'supplied to the boiler burner
55 through 43 and to the producer at levels l6 and ingly be varied and controlled by the above
I‘! as desired. As blasting with the air continues methods of heating.
The hydro-‘carbon vapors are drawn off sub
at level IS, the heat liberated by the burning of
stantially as formed through assembly 26 and
the carbon to carbon monoxide continually in
outlet 58 with a recovery of ‘the condensible
creases the fuel bed temperature. When the de
sired fuel bed temperature is reached stack gas hydro-carbons in liquid form with little or no 60
drawn off hot at 45 ahead of the air preheater di?iculty from the fuel arching or sticking dur
' or at 5| in the outlet of the preheater may be
forced under pressure by fan 52 or inspirated by
air injected through pipe l'|—a. and I8 through
65 tuyeres at level II to absorb the excess heat by
the decomposition of the CO2 in the stack gases
and keep the fuel bed temperature at the desired
A part of the producer gas is burned alter
70 nately in regenerators 32 and 32-41., with ‘air
from preheater 48, or 36-0. admitted through
valved inlets 31 and 3'|-a.
While one regener-' '
ator is being heated, steam is admitted to the
other through valved inlet 39 and 39-a, and is
75 passed ‘superheated through valved outlets 40 and
ing carbonizing.
The volatile matter of bituminous‘ fuels is of
varying composition and distillable at different
temperatures. The volume and quality of the 65
volatile matter given off varies with the tem
perature and time of heating. When the volatile
matter distilled oil‘ at relatively higher tempera
tures passes through cooler fuel some or all of
it is condensed on the, cooler fuel. This con 70
densate incases the lumps or particles of fuel in
a liquid envelope often of a plastic nature which
is not again vaporized until the fuel passes into a
zone of higher temperature. Meanwhile the
lumps and particles contain volatile matter dis 75
’ 2,054,154
tillable at relatively lower temperatures which,
,' being partially :or ‘wholly con?ned within the
liquid envelope, causes the fuel to swell. With
the volatile matter evolved from bituminous fuel
more nearly is an approach made to a closed
heat cycle with a reduction in the volume of '
escaping stack gases.
The use of the boiler stack gases for preheat
ing all air used in'the combined process and the
as it is heated removed from contact therewith
under temperatures and partial pressure condi
return of a portion of the stack gases to the pro
tions above the condensation point, the time re-= , ducer insures a relatively higher mass of the air
quired for distilling off the volatile matter at any to be preheated than in the outgoing stack gases,
given temperature is greatly reduced; cracking with a more nearly complete'recovery of heat in
of the hydrocarbons so evolved is avoidedgand the
condensible portion of these hydro-carbons may
With the hydro-carbons drawn off as formed
and cracking avoided, the heat required for car-=
15 bonization is substantially less.‘
The invention contemplates the distillation of
the fuel under controllable temperature condi
tions to permit the evolving and recovery of con
densible hydro-carbons of varying qualities as
The passage of the producer gases around the
carbonizing chamber insures the relativelyrapid
heating and carbonization of the fuel in contact
with the chamber wall. The admission of highly
25 superheated steam and/or air and/or oxygen in
the lower zone of the carbonization chamber and
its passage through the fuel and the assembly in
sures the drawing ‘off of the volatile matter under
temperature and partial pressure conditions
30 which avoid condensation and permit the re
covery of the oils'and rich gases.
the waste gases than is obtainable with usual 16
The use of a portion of the producer gas for
be recovered in liquid form. .
The use of
combustion in regenerators for superheating
steam further increases the mass of the air to
bepreheated in proportion to the stack gases 15
~from the boiler or furnace.
The air preheater SG-m recovers any otherwise
waste heat from'the regenerators and preheats
the combustion air for the regenerators. " When
this preheater is used the. valve 49a in Fig. 1 is
closed. When air‘ from preheater 46 is used in
the regenerators valve 36a" is closed.
,The invention provides for the‘ production,
utilization and recovery of combustible gases and
by-products of various qualities from a variety 25
of carbonaceous fuels.
The steam superheating regenerators may be
dispensed with whenever it is desired to im
mediately burn all of the gases produced, in.
which case the upper zone of the producer forms
the carbonizing chamber with chamber It
su?icient undecomppsed steam, assistsin the de " omitted and the fuel ?lling the entire upper
volatilization of the fuel and results in the forma
Combustible gases of different qualities may
tion of ammonia, which mixed with the rela‘
35 tively small volume of rich gases is easily recover
be produced and recovered, and the steam super
heating regenerators dispensed with when the
able. '
The steam or stack gas enters the fuel ‘at level needed heat for carbonizing the fuel is supplied
II, a- sufficient distance above level-J6 so as to
bypass the lower intensely hot zone without an
by passing the required amount of producer gas
and/or air and/or oxygen’through the carboniz
appreciable cooling action on any liquid slag in
that zone.
With the producer, boiler, and regenerators at
the desired temperature throughout for regular
operation, highly superheated steam‘ and/or air
45 or oxygen is admitted in the bottom zone of the
carbonizing chamber and the resultant gases, oil
vapors, and ammonia are continually drawn off
at 58, the carbonized fuel descends into the pro
ducer gas generating zone i3, where it is con»
50 tinually blasted by highly preheated air from air
The economics and advantages of the di?erent 40
features of my invention are obvious:
Provision is made for the recovery of rich gas,
oils, tars, and ammonia from bituminous fuel
which- is now lost orburned in boiler and other
The use of controllable amounts of highly
superheated steam and/0r air or oxygen and the
withdrawal of vapors without condensation in
sures the rapid carbonization of the fuel.
preheater 46, with the temperature controlled
The more valuable constituents of coal are re
' by steam or stackgas separately or mixed with
covered for higher uses with the low grade car
air admitted at the higher level for controlling
fuel bed temperatures.
Any ?uxing material, as limestone, charged
with the fuel for lowering the melting point of
the ash has the additional advantage of further
ing. the production of ammonia. It also carries
down a substantial part of the vsulphur in the
60 fuel ,into 'the slag.
With the stack gases leaving the boiler at rela
- tively high temperatures and used for preheating
air, the boiler heating surface 44a provided oper
ates at a higher temperature differential with
65 an increase in heat'transfer per unit of heating
With stack gases preferably hot used
as an endothermal agent in the producer, prac
tically all the sensible heat in this portion of the
stack gases is returned to the process. The high
70 er the preheat in the air to the producer, the
greater is the cooling action required for keeping
the fuel bed temperature down to any desired
point. The hotter the'stack gases used as an
endothermal agent, the more of these gases may
75 be used for a given amount of cooling and the
bonized residue gasi?ed and immediately used in
boilers'or furnaces.
The present limitation in producer gas produc
tion occasioned by a fusing temperatureof the
fuel ash is de?nitely removed by removing the
ash in liquid form.
Cheap, abundant fuels are made available for
gas production.
Theme of the fluxing material as limestone for 60
liquefying the ash has the additional aiilrantage
of furthering the production of ammonia and
methane, and carrying sulphur into the slag.
‘The usual dimculties due to the sticking and‘ 65
hanging of fuel are overcome and "the rich
gases and hydrocarbons recoverable in liquid
form are recovered under controllable tempera
ture conditions with a controllable admixture
therewith of other gases.
The production of ammonia is favoredby the 70
introduction of steam in the carboniz'ing chamber
vwith the temperature therein controllable within
the optimum limits for ammonia formation.
The different features are all combined to- pro- u
vide methods for the production and recovery oi.’
rich gas and byproducts from the coal at rela
tivelyvhigh rates in apparatus of a given size
with the e?icient production and utilization of
> producer gas in a partially closed heat cycle.
The use of stack gases as an endothermal agent
limits the formation of hydrogen and lowers the
stack losses by reason of the decreased water
vapor content in these stack gases.
With the gas used hot as it leaves the producer
and mixed with air heated to a relatively high
temperature combustion is greatly accelerated
and the combustion space required for a given
capacity is substantially reduced with a resultant
reduction in radiation, losses.‘ The heat radiat
ing power, of the carbon monoxide ?ame is rela
tively high and with the provision of heat radiat
ing surfaces in the combustion chamber, ex
tremely high rates of heat transmisson to the
boiler or furnace material are obtained.
The reduction of the fuel to ash in the pro
ducer results in a relatively‘ ash free gas being
delivered to the boiler or furnace with a result
that the heating surfaces remain clean for an
2. The herein described improved method of
manufacturing producer gas vfrom carbonaceous
fuel in a gas producer having .an upper carbon
izing zone and‘ a lower producer gas zone, which
includes: continuously air blasting the lower
portion of the column of fuel in the producer
gas zone and maintaining the slag liquid at the
base of the column; drawing off the producer
gas thereby formed from the upper portion of
said lower zone; burning a portion of the pro 10
ducer gas in regenerators; highly superheating
steam in said regenerators; passing said highly
super-heated ‘steam and an oxygen-containing
?uid to the lower portion of. the carbonizing
zone; and passing such steam and ?uid upward 15
ly through the carbonizing zone and drawing off
the generated and distilled gases liberated there
by and admixed therewith.
3. The herein described improvement in the
method of manufacturing combustible gases 20
from carbonaceous fuels in gas producers hav
ing an upper carbonizing zone and a lower pro
maintenance expense, etc. in present boiler prac
tice necessitated by ash deposits on the, heating
ducer gas zone which includes: continuously air
blasting the column of fuel in the lower portion
of the producer gas zone and maintaining the 25
slag liquid; drawing off the producer gas there
by formed'from the upper portion‘ of said lower
surface and the annoyance and expense caused
zone substantially without contact with the fuel
by the discharge of ?ne ash with the stack
30 gases is avoided.
From the preceding description, it is evident
that the improved method makes possible: the
recovery of the valuable gases ‘and by-products
in the carbonizing zone; admitting superheated
steam substantially centrally and at the bottom
25 inde?nite period, vand the frequent shutdowns,
of coal now used in boilers and furnaces on a
35 large scale for higher uses with the immediate
consumption of the relatively low grade carbon
residue and the highly e?icientand practically
continuous operation of high capacity boilers and
pendent of the producer gas generating process
proper, that is, useful results extraneous of the
‘zone and simultaneously drawing into such ad
mixed steam and gases, the vapors and gases
when and as distilled and released from the fuel
in said upper portion of the carbonizing zone.
While I have herein referred speci?cally to
steam generating boilers and. furnaces, it will be
understood that the invention is equally ap
plicable to other heat utilizing devices, by which
term “heat utilizing devices” as used in the de
45 scription and claims, I mean devices for ac
complishing useful or productive results inde
gas making cycle proper.
of the fuel in the lower portion of the carbon
izing zone; and conducting the steam admixed
with the formed and liberated gases from the
fuel through an apertured passage within the
fuel in the upper portion of said carbonizing
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. In the manufacture of combustible gas
from bituminous fuel in apparatus including a
gas producer having an upper carbonizingzone
and a lower producer gas zone and two regen
55 erators, the improvement which consists inair
blasting the column of fuel in the lower portion
of the producer gas zone, drawing off the pro--_
ducer gas formed thereby from the upper por
tion of the lower zone substantially without con
60 tact with the fuel in the carbonizing zone,
burning a portion of the producer gas alter
nately in each of the regenerators, admitting
-steam alternately to each of the regenerators,
passing the steam highly superheated therein
65 from the regenerators to the lower portion of
the carbonizing zone and thereby substantially
blocking o?’ admission of producer gas to the
carbonizing zone, passing the steam through the
carbonizing zone, drawing off the distillation
70 gases liberated thereby and admixed therewith
from the top of the upper zone, and drawing o?
ash and clinker forming material as liquid slag.
4. In the manufacture of combustible gas 40
from carbonaceous fuel in a generator wherein
the fuel descends ?rst through a distillation
zone and thence into an incandescent, up air
blasted zone with resultant generation of pro
ducer gas therefrom, the improvement which 45
consists in: con?ning the fuel in its passage
through the distillation zone to a continuous sol
id column of substantially annular form and ad
vancing the fuel downward through said annu
lar column formation solely by gravity; con 50
tinuously heating said annular colum'n‘ portion
of the fuel throughout its entire height by pass
ing the generated producer gas vertically up
ward along the outer‘ side of the annular col
umn portion of fuel but without contact of said 55
producer gas with the fuel in the annular col
umn portion; and, simultaneously with said
heating by the producer gas, introducing highly
heated ?uid into the fuel at the lower portion of
said distillation zone, passing said ?uid upward
ly through said annular column portion of the
fuel to effect distillation thereof throughout its
height, and withdrawing laterally inwardly and
upwardly into the interior of the annular column
portion of the fuel the ?uid and distillation prod 65
ucts simultaneously evolved by and from the ?uid
and heat of said producer gas, progressively at
frequently vertically spaced intervalsfrom the
inner side of the annular column portion sub
stantially throughout the entire height thereof. 70
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