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Патент USA US2258307

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Oct. 7, 1941.
H_ F, y|cKERs
2,258,307 ‘
Filed Nov. 18, 1938
18
¢
INVENTOR
HARRY
E VlCKERS
%@
zW
ATTORN EY
0a. 7, 1941.
'
H_ F, VICKERS
‘
2,258,307
POWER TRANSMI SS I'ON
Filed Nov.‘ 18, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR
HARRY F. VICKERS
BY
, A
A /M
ATTORNEY
Patented Oct. 7, 1941
2,258,307 ‘
UNITED ‘STATES~ PATENT “OFFICE
2,258,307
‘ rowan TRANSMISSION
Harry F. Vickers, Detroit, Micln, assignor to
Vickers Incorporated; Detroit, Mich, a corpora-'
tion oi Michigan
I
‘Application November 18, 1988, Serial No. 241.215
12 Claims.
(Cl. 192—3i
a power transmission system comprising a pump
III which may be operated by a suitable prime
mover such as an electric motor l2 and which
more ?uid pressure energy translating devices
draws fluid from a tank i4 through a suction con
one of which may function as a pump and another
5
duit l0 and delivers the same to a delivery con
as a ?uid motor.
duit II. A suitable relief valve 20 of conven
This invention is particularly adapted for
This invention relates to power transmissions,
particularly to those of the type comprising two or
.
transmitting power to a load device such as a
tional construction is: provided. for bypassing
?uid from the line It to the tank through a re
turn line 22 whenever the pressure in line is ex
direction the force of which the power trans 10 ceeds a predetermined safe value. The pressure
line l8 extends to the pressure port 24 of an open
mission may be required to overcome. In devices
center four-way valve 28 of conventional con
of this nature it is sometimes desirable to provide
struction. as, for example, the type illustrated in
alternative power sources for operating the load
Munger Patent 1,292,013 or Francis Patent
device, one of which may be a ?uid power trans
mission system while the other may be a hand 15 1,716,881. The tank ports 28 of valve 28 connect
with the conduit 22 by a conduit 30. The con
drive or other standby operating mechanism. In
trolled ports 32 and 34 connect by conduits 38
certain applications it is necessary that the load
and 38 with a rotary ?uid motor 40 which may
device he maintained stationary against the force
be of any suitable construction.
of gravity whenever the load device is not being
The mechanism'thus far described is typical
positively driven from one or the other source 20
of one class of hydraulic power transmission de
of power. It is also desirable that any mecha
vice to which the present invention may be
nism analogous to a ratchet for holding the load
adapted and per se forms no part of the present
device stationary be releaseable so as to permit
invention.
1,
,
backward movement of the load device and that
such release be made "automatically whenever 2-5 The motor 40 is connected by a shaft 4| to
drive a load device indicated by the hoist drum 42
power is applied from either source in the reverse
hoist or other machine wherein there is a gravity
or other load or bias acting in one or the other
. direction.
It is an object of the present invention to pro
on which a cable 44 may be wound or unwound
to raise or lower a load indicated diagram
matically at 46. At the opposite side of the drum
vide a power transmission system in which the
30
42 a brake and clutch unit '48 is‘connected to the
above requirements are satis?ed and which is oi’
drum by a shaft .66 and has a shaft 50 which
simple and durable construction and reliable in
operation.
»
A further object is to provide a power trans
mission system of this character wherein a drive
released brake is associated with the load device
together'with a drive-released clutch for the pur
pose of maintaining the load device stationary
while permitting positive driving of the same in
connects to a manual power source such as the
hand crank I52. A branch conduit 54 connects
from the conduit id to the unit 48 for a purpose
5 later to be described.
' Referring now to Figures 2 and 3, the unit 48
‘ comprises a generally cylindrical casing 56 hav
ing its ends closed by caps 58 and 60. The shaft
50 projects through the cap 60 in which it is
Further objects and advantages oi the present 40 journalled on bearings 62 and is provided with
an oil seal 64. The cap 58 carries the shaft 66
invention will be apparent from the following
j‘ournalled on bearings 68. The shaft 66 carries
description, reference being had to the accom
at its inner end a clutch generally designated as
panying drawings wherein a preferred form of
10 which may be of any suitable type and in
the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:
45 the present embodiment is shown as a multiple
plate friction clutch having a series of plates 12
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of a ‘power
slidably keyed to the shaft 68 and a series of
transmission system embodying a preferred form
plates 14 rreely rotatable relative to the shaft 86.
of the present invention.
Suitable pressure plates 16 and 18 are mounted
Figure 2 is a longitudinal cross section of a
drive-released brake and drive-released clutch 50 on the shaft 68, the latter being slidable axially
thereon and the former being retained thereon by
mechanism incorporated in‘ the mechanism of
a collar is secured to the reduced end 80 of the
Figural.
shaft 66 by a nut 82. The collar 18 also forms
Figure 3 is a cross section on line 3-4 of Fig
either direction from either of two power sources.
ure 2.
an inner race for an anti-friction bearing 84 on
Referring now to Figure 1, there is illustrated 55 which is journalled an intermediate member 88.
2
2,258,802‘
The member ‘89 is provided with a cup-like por
tion 88 in which the plates ‘I4 are slidably keyed,
whereby the shaft 99 may be selectively con
nected to or disconnected from the intermediate
member 89 by axial‘ movement of the pressure
shaft 99, is held stationary by the engagement of
clutch ‘I9 which connects shaft 99 with the in
termediate member 89 which is locked to the ring
I94 and casing 59 by the rollers I92. The clutch
‘I9 is maintained in engagement, of course, be
plate "I8.
For the purpose of shifting the pressure plate
cause of the lack of pressure in conduits 54 and 99
whereby the spring 98 forces the sleeve 99 down
wardly in Figure 2‘ to press the clutch plates ‘I2
‘I8 a sleeve 89 is slidably mounted in a cylinder
92 formed in the casing 59. The sleeve 99 is
and ‘I4 together.
I
pressed downwardly against the pressure plate 18 10
If
it
is
desired
to
drive
the
load
device
in
the
by a spring 99 and has an anti-friction thrust
direction tending to raise the load 49, the valve
bearing 94 interposed at its lower end between
29 may be shifted, say, to the right causing the
it and the pressure plate. The lower end of the g
motor
49 to rotate in the direction winding in
' cylinder ‘92 forms a pressure chamber to which
the cable 44. As soon as the valve is shifted, the
fluid pressure may be admitted through a con
pump I9 is no longer bypassed and pressure builds
up in the conduit I8 and branches 54 and 99 caus
duit 99 which connects with the conduit 54 of
. Figure 1.
Whenever sumcient pressure is ad
ing» the sleeve 99 to raise, releasing the clutch ‘I9
mitted to the conduit 99 the sleeve 99 is raised
, and thus disconnecting shaft 99 from the inter
- against theforce oi' the spring 93 releasing the
member 89. The motor 49 can then,
clutch ‘I9. When this pressure is relieved, the 20 mediate
drive .the drum 42.
spring again forces the pressure plate 18 down
If a resisting load is applied to the motor shaft,
ward engaging the clutch ‘I9.
'
the pressure in conduit I8 will be exactly propor
tional to the magnitude of that load resistance.
It is this latter fact which vis utilized for the pur
The intermediate member 89 is provided with a
?ange portion 98 having cam surfaces I99 there
on (Fig.8) with which a pair of rollers I92 are 25 pose of making the clutch ‘I9 release in response ’
adapted to coact. The rollers I92 also engage the , to the application of a given driving effort. Thus
inner cylindrical ‘surface of-a hardened steel ring
the clutch ‘I9 can never be‘ released until a prede
I94 rigidly mounted in the casing 59. Suitable
spring plungers I99 constantly urge the rollers
I92 outwardly into wedging engagement between 30
the cam surfaces I99 and the inner surface of
the ring I94, thus constituting a two-way acting
roller brake for preventing movement or the in
termediate member 89 relative to the casing 99
whenever both rollers are in looking position. 35
The member 89 carries a pilot projection I98 on
which is journalled a releasing and driving mem
ber II9 formed integrally with the shaft 59. ‘The
member II9 comprises a generally circular ?ange
I I 2 with which is integrally formed an upstanding
cup-like portion I I4 extending around approxi
mately three-fourths of the periphery of the
?ange I I2. The portion H4 is approximately co
extensive in an axial direction with the ?ange 98
and is provided with toe portions II9 adapted to
engage one or the other of the rollers I92. to force
the same inwardly against the spring plungers
I99 and release them from locking position. "The
member I I4 also has heel portions II8 adapted to
abut the sides of the ?ange portion 98 and cause
the latter to be driven by the member II 4.
_
The mechanism centering around the ?ange
98, rollers I92, ring I94, and member II4 repre- sents one type of drive-released brake suitable for
use in the present invention, although it will be .
understood that other equivalent types of con
struction performing the same function may be
a-
termined driving effort is applied at the motor 49.
During lowering operationthe load 49 tends to
drive the motor 49 in the lowering direction
which tendency is resisted, however, by the clutch
‘III which looks the shaft 99 to the intermediate
member 88 which in turn'is locked to the sta
tionary ring I94. Thus with the clutch. ‘I9 en
gaged, the motor shaft H is effectively locked to
the stationary part of the mechanism. Accord
ingly, when pressure ?uid is admitted to conduit
38 for reverse operation of motor 49, the latter
cannotturn immediately, and since the oil being
delivered by pump I9 must have somewhere to
go, pressure immediately builds up in conduits
I8, 88 and 54. This rise in pressure is determined
- by the degree of resistance to rotation imposed
at shaft 4I.~ Thus the pressure will rise until the
clutch spring 98 is overcome sui?ciently to permit
shaft H to turn under the torque exerted by
motor 49 at, that particular hydraulic pressure.
When the valve 29 is again shifted to its center
position the pump is again bypassed and the
pressure in lines I8, 54, and 86 falls so that sleeve
99 is again moved down to engage the clutch ‘I9.
This provides a strong braking action causing the
load device to stop almost instantly without sub
stantial over travel...
‘
Should it be desired to rotate the load device‘
42 in the opposite direction, the valve 29 is shifted
to the left to cause reverse rotation of the motor
used with equal facility. This drive-released
brake mechanism functions to maintain the in
termediate member 89 locked to the casing 59 at
all times except when the shaft 59 is rotated to
release the locking engagement of either of the
rollers I92 and by further movement, engaging
the ?ange 98 at the heel portion I I8, to positively
resistance to turning imposed by clutch ‘I9 causes
pump I9 through the conduit I8 and is bypassed
back to the tank I4 through the open-center
_although still providing enough
_
braking
99. Under these conditions,‘ even though the
gravity pull of load 49 be sufficient to cause re
verse movement of drum 42 independently of the
motor 49', it is necessary that the clutch 19 be
released before such movement can occur.
This
pressure to build up in the line I9 sumcient
drive the same in either direction.
6-5 to at least partly raise the sleeve 99 to relieve the
- In operation, with the parts in the position
illustrated in Figure 1,, ?uid is delivered by the ~ pressure on the pressure plate ‘I8 until a point
is reached where the clutch ‘I9 will begin to slip
valve 29 and conduits 39 and 22. Under these
conditionsl?uid circulates through this path at
substantially no pressure.“ It will be noted also‘
' that the ?uid motor 49 is likewise bypassed should I
the same be caused to operate for any reason.
The load device 42, being directly connected to
75
effect to
maintain this pressure in the conduit I8.
It will be obvious that a condition of equili
brium is reached such that the braking effect or
drag of the clutch ‘I9 is just su?icient to produce
the required load on the motor 49 for maintaining
enough pressure in the line I8 to hold the clutch
‘I9 released by this " amount. In stopping after
3
2,958,307
movement in the reverse direction the same
braking efIect is again produced at clutch 10.
If the valve 28 be maintained at its center
position with the pump l0 and the motor 40
bypassed, or if the hydraulic transmission sys
tem be disabled for any reason, the load device
may be operated by means of the hand crank 52.
Under these conditions no pressure will exist in
4. In a power transmission system for driving
a load device in either direction and from either
of two power sources, one of which is a ?uid
motor, the combination with a shaft connected
to the load device and to said ?uid motor of a
two-way drive-released brake having its driving
end connected to the other power source, a clutch
connected between the driven and of the brake
and said shaft, ?uid pressure responsive means
the conduits 54 and SI so that the clutch ‘I0 will
be fully engaged by the action of spring 93. 10 for disengaging the clutch whenever power is
applied from said ?uid motor, and means en
“When the shaft .50 is thus turned, one of the toes
Eaging the clutch automatically when driving
ill, will engage its roller “I! to force the same
from said ?uid motor is discontinued.
inwardly out of wedging engagement and either
5. In a power transmission system for drivins
permit the load device to rotate in an unwinding
\a load device from either of two power sources, _
direction under the urge of the load 46 or, if the
one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination _
hand wheel be turned in a raising direction, the
with a shaft connected to the load device and to
continued movement of member lllwill engage
said ?uid motor of a drive-released brake having
the heel H8 with the ?ange 98, thus forming a
its driving end connected to the other power
_
It will be seen that the present invention pro 20 source, a clutch connected between the driven
end of the brake and said shaft, ?uid pressure
vides a power transmission system wherein the
responsive means for disengaging the clutch
load device is always locked against movement in either direction by any external force applied ‘whenever power is applied from said ?uid motor,
means engaging the clutch automatically when
to or by the load device and yet complete free
dom of movement in either direction is permit 25 driving from said ?uid motor is discontinued,
and means for bypassing the ?uid motor when
ted whenever power is applied from either the
driving is discontinued therefrom.
?uid motor 40 or the hand wheel 52. It will be
6. In a power transmission system for driving
understood that the advantages of the present
a load device from either oi’ two power sources
invention may also be derived without the two
way action at the drive-released brake mecha 80 the combination of a drive-released brake and a
clutch connected in series relation between one
nism.
of said power sources and the load device, and
While the form of ‘embodiment of the inven
means connecting the other power source to the
tion, as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred
form, it is to be understood that other forms - . load device independently of said clutch, said
might be adopted, all coming within the scope of 35 brake being connected for release by one of said
power sources and the clutch being connected
the claims which follow.
for release by the other power source.
What is claimed is as follows:
v 7. In a power transmission system for driving
1. In a power transmission ‘system for driving
a load device in either direction from either of
a load device’ from either- 01" two‘power sources,
the combination with a shaft connected to the 40 two power sources the combination of a two-way
drive-released brake and clutch connected in se
load device and to one of said power sources of
a drive-released brake having its driving end_ ries relation between one of said power sources
and the load device, and means connecting the‘
connected to the other power source, a clutch
.other power source to the load device independ
connected between the driven end of the brake
positive driving connection at this point.
, and said shaft, means for disengaging the clutch
whenever power is appliedvfrom the ?rst men
tioned power‘ source, and means engaging the
ently of said clutch. said brake being connected
for release by one of said power sources and the
clutch being connected for release by the other
clutch automatically when driving from the ?rst
power source.
shaft connected to the load device and to one
series relation between one of said power sources ,
'
8. In a power transmission system for driving
power source is discontinued.
2. In a power transmission system for driving bl a load device from either of two power sources,
one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination of
a load device in either direction and from either
a drive-released brake and a clutch connected in
of two power sources the combination with a
and the load device, and means connecting the
leased brake having its driving end connected to 65 other power source to the load device independ
ently of said clutch, said brake being connected
the other power source, a clutch connected be
for release by one of said power sources and
tween the driven end' of the brake and said shaft,
the clutch being connected for release by said
means for disengaging the clutch whenever‘
?uid motor. - '
.
power is applied from the ?rst mentioned power
9. In a power transmission system for driving
source, and means engaging the clutch auto 60
of said power sources, of a two-way drive-re
matically when driving from the ?rst power
source is discontinued.
3. In a power transmission system for driving
a load device from either of two power sources,
one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination
with a shaft connected to the load device and
to said ?uid motor, of a drive-released brake
having its driving end connected to the other
power source, a clutch Fonneoted between the
driven end of the’ brake and said shaft. ?uid
pressure responsive means for disengaging the
clutch whenever power is applied from said ?uid
motor, and means engaging the clutch auto
matically when driving from said ?uid motor is
discontinued.
’
a load device from either of two power sources,
one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination
of a drive-released brake and a clutch connected
in series relation between one of said power
sources and the load device, ~means connecting
the other power source to the load device inde
pendently of said clutch. said brake being con
nected for release by one of said power sources
and the clutch being connected for release by
said fluid motor, and means for bypassing the
?uid motor ‘when driving is discontinued there
from.
'
‘
10. In a power transmission system for driving
a load device from either a ?uid motor or a
75. hand crank the combination of an intermediate
4
9,958,807,
member, automatic means for locking the inter-_ I ‘i means and‘ drivinz the load ‘device, and means
mediate member against, movement, means’oper
controlled by'the ?uid motor for disconnecting
ated by the hand crank for releasing the locking
the load device from the locking means when
means and driving the intermediate member. re " ever the ?uid motor is‘ energized with‘a tend
leasable means for connecting the intermediate
member to the load device and ?uid‘ motor, and
means responsive to a driving e?ort imparted to
I the ?uid ‘motor for
means.
‘
releasing the last mentioned
‘
‘
-
11; In a power transmission system forv driv-V in
ing a load device from either a-?uid motor or’ a
hand crank the combination or means for locking
the load device against movemenhmeans oper
ated by the hand crank for releasing said’ locking
ency to drive the load device.
12. In a power transmission system for driv
ing a load device from either oi.’ two power
sources the combination of means for locking the
load device against movement, and means se
lectivelv operable by either power source and
responsive to the application of power to either
source for releasing the locking means.
HARRY I". VICKERS.
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