Патент USA US2258307код для вставки
Oct. 7, 1941. H_ F, y|cKERs 2,258,307 ‘ Filed Nov. 18, 1938 18 ¢ INVENTOR HARRY E VlCKERS %@ zW ATTORN EY 0a. 7, 1941. ' H_ F, VICKERS ‘ 2,258,307 POWER TRANSMI SS I'ON Filed Nov.‘ 18, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR HARRY F. VICKERS BY , A A /M ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 7, 1941 2,258,307 ‘ UNITED ‘STATES~ PATENT “OFFICE 2,258,307 ‘ rowan TRANSMISSION Harry F. Vickers, Detroit, Micln, assignor to Vickers Incorporated; Detroit, Mich, a corpora-' tion oi Michigan I ‘Application November 18, 1988, Serial No. 241.215 12 Claims. (Cl. 192—3i a power transmission system comprising a pump III which may be operated by a suitable prime mover such as an electric motor l2 and which more ?uid pressure energy translating devices draws fluid from a tank i4 through a suction con one of which may function as a pump and another 5 duit l0 and delivers the same to a delivery con as a ?uid motor. duit II. A suitable relief valve 20 of conven This invention is particularly adapted for This invention relates to power transmissions, particularly to those of the type comprising two or . transmitting power to a load device such as a tional construction is: provided. for bypassing ?uid from the line It to the tank through a re turn line 22 whenever the pressure in line is ex direction the force of which the power trans 10 ceeds a predetermined safe value. The pressure line l8 extends to the pressure port 24 of an open mission may be required to overcome. In devices center four-way valve 28 of conventional con of this nature it is sometimes desirable to provide struction. as, for example, the type illustrated in alternative power sources for operating the load Munger Patent 1,292,013 or Francis Patent device, one of which may be a ?uid power trans mission system while the other may be a hand 15 1,716,881. The tank ports 28 of valve 28 connect with the conduit 22 by a conduit 30. The con drive or other standby operating mechanism. In trolled ports 32 and 34 connect by conduits 38 certain applications it is necessary that the load and 38 with a rotary ?uid motor 40 which may device he maintained stationary against the force be of any suitable construction. of gravity whenever the load device is not being The mechanism'thus far described is typical positively driven from one or the other source 20 of one class of hydraulic power transmission de of power. It is also desirable that any mecha vice to which the present invention may be nism analogous to a ratchet for holding the load adapted and per se forms no part of the present device stationary be releaseable so as to permit invention. 1, , backward movement of the load device and that such release be made "automatically whenever 2-5 The motor 40 is connected by a shaft 4| to drive a load device indicated by the hoist drum 42 power is applied from either source in the reverse hoist or other machine wherein there is a gravity or other load or bias acting in one or the other . direction. It is an object of the present invention to pro on which a cable 44 may be wound or unwound to raise or lower a load indicated diagram matically at 46. At the opposite side of the drum vide a power transmission system in which the 30 42 a brake and clutch unit '48 is‘connected to the above requirements are satis?ed and which is oi’ drum by a shaft .66 and has a shaft 50 which simple and durable construction and reliable in operation. » A further object is to provide a power trans mission system of this character wherein a drive released brake is associated with the load device together'with a drive-released clutch for the pur pose of maintaining the load device stationary while permitting positive driving of the same in connects to a manual power source such as the hand crank I52. A branch conduit 54 connects from the conduit id to the unit 48 for a purpose 5 later to be described. ' Referring now to Figures 2 and 3, the unit 48 ‘ comprises a generally cylindrical casing 56 hav ing its ends closed by caps 58 and 60. The shaft 50 projects through the cap 60 in which it is Further objects and advantages oi the present 40 journalled on bearings 62 and is provided with an oil seal 64. The cap 58 carries the shaft 66 invention will be apparent from the following j‘ournalled on bearings 68. The shaft 66 carries description, reference being had to the accom at its inner end a clutch generally designated as panying drawings wherein a preferred form of 10 which may be of any suitable type and in the present invention is clearly shown. In the drawings: 45 the present embodiment is shown as a multiple plate friction clutch having a series of plates 12 Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of a ‘power slidably keyed to the shaft 68 and a series of transmission system embodying a preferred form plates 14 rreely rotatable relative to the shaft 86. of the present invention. Suitable pressure plates 16 and 18 are mounted Figure 2 is a longitudinal cross section of a drive-released brake and drive-released clutch 50 on the shaft 68, the latter being slidable axially thereon and the former being retained thereon by mechanism incorporated in‘ the mechanism of a collar is secured to the reduced end 80 of the Figural. shaft 66 by a nut 82. The collar 18 also forms Figure 3 is a cross section on line 3-4 of Fig either direction from either of two power sources. ure 2. an inner race for an anti-friction bearing 84 on Referring now to Figure 1, there is illustrated 55 which is journalled an intermediate member 88. 2 2,258,802‘ The member ‘89 is provided with a cup-like por tion 88 in which the plates ‘I4 are slidably keyed, whereby the shaft 99 may be selectively con nected to or disconnected from the intermediate member 89 by axial‘ movement of the pressure shaft 99, is held stationary by the engagement of clutch ‘I9 which connects shaft 99 with the in termediate member 89 which is locked to the ring I94 and casing 59 by the rollers I92. The clutch ‘I9 is maintained in engagement, of course, be plate "I8. For the purpose of shifting the pressure plate cause of the lack of pressure in conduits 54 and 99 whereby the spring 98 forces the sleeve 99 down wardly in Figure 2‘ to press the clutch plates ‘I2 ‘I8 a sleeve 89 is slidably mounted in a cylinder 92 formed in the casing 59. The sleeve 99 is and ‘I4 together. I pressed downwardly against the pressure plate 18 10 If it is desired to drive the load device in the by a spring 99 and has an anti-friction thrust direction tending to raise the load 49, the valve bearing 94 interposed at its lower end between 29 may be shifted, say, to the right causing the it and the pressure plate. The lower end of the g motor 49 to rotate in the direction winding in ' cylinder ‘92 forms a pressure chamber to which the cable 44. As soon as the valve is shifted, the fluid pressure may be admitted through a con pump I9 is no longer bypassed and pressure builds up in the conduit I8 and branches 54 and 99 caus duit 99 which connects with the conduit 54 of . Figure 1. Whenever sumcient pressure is ad ing» the sleeve 99 to raise, releasing the clutch ‘I9 mitted to the conduit 99 the sleeve 99 is raised , and thus disconnecting shaft 99 from the inter - against theforce oi' the spring 93 releasing the member 89. The motor 49 can then, clutch ‘I9. When this pressure is relieved, the 20 mediate drive .the drum 42. spring again forces the pressure plate 18 down If a resisting load is applied to the motor shaft, ward engaging the clutch ‘I9. ' the pressure in conduit I8 will be exactly propor tional to the magnitude of that load resistance. It is this latter fact which vis utilized for the pur The intermediate member 89 is provided with a ?ange portion 98 having cam surfaces I99 there on (Fig.8) with which a pair of rollers I92 are 25 pose of making the clutch ‘I9 release in response ’ adapted to coact. The rollers I92 also engage the , to the application of a given driving effort. Thus inner cylindrical ‘surface of-a hardened steel ring the clutch ‘I9 can never be‘ released until a prede I94 rigidly mounted in the casing 59. Suitable spring plungers I99 constantly urge the rollers I92 outwardly into wedging engagement between 30 the cam surfaces I99 and the inner surface of the ring I94, thus constituting a two-way acting roller brake for preventing movement or the in termediate member 89 relative to the casing 99 whenever both rollers are in looking position. 35 The member 89 carries a pilot projection I98 on which is journalled a releasing and driving mem ber II9 formed integrally with the shaft 59. ‘The member II9 comprises a generally circular ?ange I I 2 with which is integrally formed an upstanding cup-like portion I I4 extending around approxi mately three-fourths of the periphery of the ?ange I I2. The portion H4 is approximately co extensive in an axial direction with the ?ange 98 and is provided with toe portions II9 adapted to engage one or the other of the rollers I92. to force the same inwardly against the spring plungers I99 and release them from locking position. "The member I I4 also has heel portions II8 adapted to abut the sides of the ?ange portion 98 and cause the latter to be driven by the member II 4. _ The mechanism centering around the ?ange 98, rollers I92, ring I94, and member II4 repre- sents one type of drive-released brake suitable for use in the present invention, although it will be . understood that other equivalent types of con struction performing the same function may be a- termined driving effort is applied at the motor 49. During lowering operationthe load 49 tends to drive the motor 49 in the lowering direction which tendency is resisted, however, by the clutch ‘III which looks the shaft 99 to the intermediate member 88 which in turn'is locked to the sta tionary ring I94. Thus with the clutch. ‘I9 en gaged, the motor shaft H is effectively locked to the stationary part of the mechanism. Accord ingly, when pressure ?uid is admitted to conduit 38 for reverse operation of motor 49, the latter cannotturn immediately, and since the oil being delivered by pump I9 must have somewhere to go, pressure immediately builds up in conduits I8, 88 and 54. This rise in pressure is determined - by the degree of resistance to rotation imposed at shaft 4I.~ Thus the pressure will rise until the clutch spring 98 is overcome sui?ciently to permit shaft H to turn under the torque exerted by motor 49 at, that particular hydraulic pressure. When the valve 29 is again shifted to its center position the pump is again bypassed and the pressure in lines I8, 54, and 86 falls so that sleeve 99 is again moved down to engage the clutch ‘I9. This provides a strong braking action causing the load device to stop almost instantly without sub stantial over travel... ‘ Should it be desired to rotate the load device‘ 42 in the opposite direction, the valve 29 is shifted to the left to cause reverse rotation of the motor used with equal facility. This drive-released brake mechanism functions to maintain the in termediate member 89 locked to the casing 59 at all times except when the shaft 59 is rotated to release the locking engagement of either of the rollers I92 and by further movement, engaging the ?ange 98 at the heel portion I I8, to positively resistance to turning imposed by clutch ‘I9 causes pump I9 through the conduit I8 and is bypassed back to the tank I4 through the open-center _although still providing enough _ braking 99. Under these conditions,‘ even though the gravity pull of load 49 be sufficient to cause re verse movement of drum 42 independently of the motor 49', it is necessary that the clutch 19 be released before such movement can occur. This pressure to build up in the line I9 sumcient drive the same in either direction. 6-5 to at least partly raise the sleeve 99 to relieve the - In operation, with the parts in the position illustrated in Figure 1,, ?uid is delivered by the ~ pressure on the pressure plate ‘I8 until a point is reached where the clutch ‘I9 will begin to slip valve 29 and conduits 39 and 22. Under these conditionsl?uid circulates through this path at substantially no pressure.“ It will be noted also‘ ' that the ?uid motor 49 is likewise bypassed should I the same be caused to operate for any reason. The load device 42, being directly connected to 75 effect to maintain this pressure in the conduit I8. It will be obvious that a condition of equili brium is reached such that the braking effect or drag of the clutch ‘I9 is just su?icient to produce the required load on the motor 49 for maintaining enough pressure in the line I8 to hold the clutch ‘I9 released by this " amount. In stopping after 3 2,958,307 movement in the reverse direction the same braking efIect is again produced at clutch 10. If the valve 28 be maintained at its center position with the pump l0 and the motor 40 bypassed, or if the hydraulic transmission sys tem be disabled for any reason, the load device may be operated by means of the hand crank 52. Under these conditions no pressure will exist in 4. In a power transmission system for driving a load device in either direction and from either of two power sources, one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination with a shaft connected to the load device and to said ?uid motor of a two-way drive-released brake having its driving end connected to the other power source, a clutch connected between the driven and of the brake and said shaft, ?uid pressure responsive means the conduits 54 and SI so that the clutch ‘I0 will be fully engaged by the action of spring 93. 10 for disengaging the clutch whenever power is applied from said ?uid motor, and means en “When the shaft .50 is thus turned, one of the toes Eaging the clutch automatically when driving ill, will engage its roller “I! to force the same from said ?uid motor is discontinued. inwardly out of wedging engagement and either 5. In a power transmission system for drivins permit the load device to rotate in an unwinding \a load device from either of two power sources, _ direction under the urge of the load 46 or, if the one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination _ hand wheel be turned in a raising direction, the with a shaft connected to the load device and to continued movement of member lllwill engage said ?uid motor of a drive-released brake having the heel H8 with the ?ange 98, thus forming a its driving end connected to the other power _ It will be seen that the present invention pro 20 source, a clutch connected between the driven end of the brake and said shaft, ?uid pressure vides a power transmission system wherein the responsive means for disengaging the clutch load device is always locked against movement in either direction by any external force applied ‘whenever power is applied from said ?uid motor, means engaging the clutch automatically when to or by the load device and yet complete free dom of movement in either direction is permit 25 driving from said ?uid motor is discontinued, and means for bypassing the ?uid motor when ted whenever power is applied from either the driving is discontinued therefrom. ?uid motor 40 or the hand wheel 52. It will be 6. In a power transmission system for driving understood that the advantages of the present a load device from either oi’ two power sources invention may also be derived without the two way action at the drive-released brake mecha 80 the combination of a drive-released brake and a clutch connected in series relation between one nism. of said power sources and the load device, and While the form of ‘embodiment of the inven means connecting the other power source to the tion, as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood that other forms - . load device independently of said clutch, said might be adopted, all coming within the scope of 35 brake being connected for release by one of said power sources and the clutch being connected the claims which follow. for release by the other power source. What is claimed is as follows: v 7. In a power transmission system for driving 1. In a power transmission ‘system for driving a load device in either direction from either of a load device’ from either- 01" two‘power sources, the combination with a shaft connected to the 40 two power sources the combination of a two-way drive-released brake and clutch connected in se load device and to one of said power sources of a drive-released brake having its driving end_ ries relation between one of said power sources and the load device, and means connecting the‘ connected to the other power source, a clutch .other power source to the load device independ connected between the driven end of the brake positive driving connection at this point. , and said shaft, means for disengaging the clutch whenever power is appliedvfrom the ?rst men tioned power‘ source, and means engaging the ently of said clutch. said brake being connected for release by one of said power sources and the clutch being connected for release by the other clutch automatically when driving from the ?rst power source. shaft connected to the load device and to one series relation between one of said power sources , ' 8. In a power transmission system for driving power source is discontinued. 2. In a power transmission system for driving bl a load device from either of two power sources, one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination of a load device in either direction and from either a drive-released brake and a clutch connected in of two power sources the combination with a and the load device, and means connecting the leased brake having its driving end connected to 65 other power source to the load device independ ently of said clutch, said brake being connected the other power source, a clutch connected be for release by one of said power sources and tween the driven end' of the brake and said shaft, the clutch being connected for release by said means for disengaging the clutch whenever‘ ?uid motor. - ' . power is applied from the ?rst mentioned power 9. In a power transmission system for driving source, and means engaging the clutch auto 60 of said power sources, of a two-way drive-re matically when driving from the ?rst power source is discontinued. 3. In a power transmission system for driving a load device from either of two power sources, one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination with a shaft connected to the load device and to said ?uid motor, of a drive-released brake having its driving end connected to the other power source, a clutch Fonneoted between the driven end of the’ brake and said shaft. ?uid pressure responsive means for disengaging the clutch whenever power is applied from said ?uid motor, and means engaging the clutch auto matically when driving from said ?uid motor is discontinued. ’ a load device from either of two power sources, one of which is a ?uid motor, the combination of a drive-released brake and a clutch connected in series relation between one of said power sources and the load device, ~means connecting the other power source to the load device inde pendently of said clutch. said brake being con nected for release by one of said power sources and the clutch being connected for release by said fluid motor, and means for bypassing the ?uid motor ‘when driving is discontinued there from. ' ‘ 10. In a power transmission system for driving a load device from either a ?uid motor or a 75. hand crank the combination of an intermediate 4 9,958,807, member, automatic means for locking the inter-_ I ‘i means and‘ drivinz the load ‘device, and means mediate member against, movement, means’oper controlled by'the ?uid motor for disconnecting ated by the hand crank for releasing the locking the load device from the locking means when means and driving the intermediate member. re " ever the ?uid motor is‘ energized with‘a tend leasable means for connecting the intermediate member to the load device and ?uid‘ motor, and means responsive to a driving e?ort imparted to I the ?uid ‘motor for means. ‘ releasing the last mentioned ‘ ‘ - 11; In a power transmission system forv driv-V in ing a load device from either a-?uid motor or’ a hand crank the combination or means for locking the load device against movemenhmeans oper ated by the hand crank for releasing said’ locking ency to drive the load device. 12. In a power transmission system for driv ing a load device from either oi.’ two power sources the combination of means for locking the load device against movement, and means se lectivelv operable by either power source and responsive to the application of power to either source for releasing the locking means. HARRY I". VICKERS.