Патент USA US2263971код для вставки
Nov. 25, 1941. - -'.1. E. KING ETAL I ` 2,263,971 -sITEREoscoPIc PLOTTER ' - Filed June 17, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet l lo ___gl_____| v. I_ _ _ _ _ _ _______.._` . I INVENTORS »JASPER E. KING JOHN W. ELLIOTT BY ' Y -f PHILIP B. KAIL @y ATTORNEYS Nov. 25, 1941. ` 1E, KING E‘TAL 2,263,971 STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER Filed June 17, ‘1941 . - 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Il ,1 115 @V151 15221" 15e »1 @NW1-- K - [email protected] ' v 1NvENToRs` JASPER E. KING JOHN w.1-:1_L10TT BY PHIL; B. KAU ~ m . MMM-J á? ÄTTOR N EYS Nov. 25, 1941. ' J. E. KING Erm. 2,263,971 STEREOSOOPIO‘ PLOTTER Filed June 17, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 m N mm vm mmv INVENTORS Nm JASPER E. KING JOHN w. ELLIOTT BY PH1L|PF`B. KAN. .91 .ff-_?a.. ¿I? ATTORNEYS Nov. 25, 1941. J. E. KING ETAL 2,263,971 l _ STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER Filed June 17, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 NN INVENTORS JASPER E. KING JOHN W. ELLIOTT BY A. TQRNEYS - Nov. 25, 1941. J, E Kmq; ¿E+ AL. 2,263,971 STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER Filed June 1'7, 1941 5 Shee'lis-Shee‘ìl 5 25 \Nv_ENT_oRs JASPER EKING 24 JOHN w,ELl_|oTT_ Pp-HUP B.|<A|L 70( 2,263,971 UNITED ls'lm‘iezs , PATENT oFF ICE-> Patented Nov. 25, 1941 > 2,283,971 'STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER Jasper E. King, John W. Elliott, and Philip B.` Kaìl, Denver, Colo., assignors to Claude R. Wickard, as Secretary of Agriculture oi' the United States of America, and his successors in oñice Application June 17, 1941, sel-1an No. 398,442 13 Claims. (ci. SL24» ‘ (Granted under the act oi' March 3, 1883, as ` amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) This application is made under the4 act of any plane surface upon which the instrument may rest. » _ ‘ March 3, `1883, as amended by theact of. April 30, 1928, and the invention herein described and Within the housing 2| there is mounted near the top a mirror stereoscope comprising -the usual claimed, if patented, may be manufactured and eye pieces 21 -and 28 and eye piece mirrors 28 used by or for the Goverment of‘the United States of America for governmental purposes and 30 and wing minors 3| and 32. The -mir without the payment to us of any royalty thereon. rors 3| and 32 are mounted on a. pair of parallel This invention relates to photogrammetry gen-` bars 33 and 34, whichbars are horizontally ñxed, erally and the principal object is the provision one above the other, to the end walls 22 and 23 of an instrument in which vertical photographs 10 of the housing. The mirrors 28 and 38 are» co can be viewed stereoscopically and maps fabri mounted with the eye pieces 21 and 28 in a frame cated giving the topography and planimetry of 35 on a bracket 38 having a sleeve 31 slidable the model viewed. Such instruments are gen on the upper bar 33. Head rests 38 and 38 above erally referred to as stereoscopic plotters. the eye pieces 21 and 28 are adJustably secured The general object of this invention is the 15 to the bracket 38. ‘ provision of an instrument of the type men An abutment screw 48 is threaded through tioned which is simple and inexpensive in con the bracket 38 to abut the lower bar 34. By adjusting the position oi' this screw, the frame struction as compared to instruments of a similar nature for accomplishing a similar objective. Another object of .this invention is the provi 35 can be tipped around the bar 33 for the pur 20 pose of leveling the leye piece mirrors 28 and 38. Adjustment of the frame 35 along the bar 33 rication of maps of the type mentioned directly is accomplished by means of a rider 4| on the from the instrument on `any plane surface with bars 33 and 34, adjustably clamped on the bar out intermediate transference of any kind. 33 by means of a set screw 4|A, which rider A further object of this invention is the provi 25 carries a micrometer Vscrew 42 parallel to the sion of an instrument of the type mentioned bar 33. One end of the screw 42 carries a sion of an instrument which will permit the fab- . which is portable .and which can be placed over any plane surface for mapping. The following description, considered together thumb grip 43, the other end being threadedly" engaged with the bracket 38. I The wing mirrors 3| and 32 are mounted on with the accompanying drawings, will more fully 30 brackets 48 and 41, said- brackets .being verti disclose this invention and further objects and ad cally pivoted to sleeves 48 and 48, said sleeves vantages thereof will be apparent. being slidably mounted on the bar 33. Sleeves In the drawings: 48 -and 49 carry arms 58 and 5|, which arms Figure 1 is a front elevational view illustrating carry adjustable abutment screws 52 and 53 the general arrangement of -parts of an embodi 35 which abut the bar 34 and thereby permit a lev ment of our invention, partly broken away. eling adjustment of these mirrors about the Figure 2 is a section along the line 2-2 of Fig bar 33. ~ _ ure 1 with parts in the background broken away. Beneath the wing mirrors 3| and 32 there are Figure 3 is a plan view. disposed phototables 54 and 55 for |mounting the Figure 4 is a plan section along the line 4-4 40 stereoscopic pictures comprising platens 58 and of Figure 1, ’ ' l51, at the center of which short upright pins 58 Figure 5 is a section along the line 5--5 of and 53 are fixed to engage pivotally the centers Figure 4. of the photographic prints. Each of these plat ' Figure 6 is a section along the line 8-‘8 of ens is fixed to convex runners 80 and 8| disposed Figure 4. in vertical parallel planes, which are supported Figure 7 is a plan view of _the index marks and 45 on corresponding concave shoulders 82 and 83 supporting bar. of a block 84 and held in position by abutments _ , Figure 8 is a section along the line 8-8 of Figure 2|. ' f Referring with more particularity to the draw ings in which like numerals designate likev parts, the embodiment illustrated comprises a suitable housing 2|, including end walls 22 and 23, a base 24, and a rear wall 25. A removable cover (not shown) for the remaining exposed portion of 55 ,the housing may be provided to completely en close the instrument therein when not in use. A portion 28 of the base 24 is cut away to permit the ‘tracing implement of the instrument to be 85 and 86 integral with the block 84 and bearing against the inner sides oi the runners 88 and 8|. The inner sides of the runners are provided with notched grooves and the sides of the abutments contacting the runners have projections 85A and 88A complementary with said grooves, thereby holding the runners down against the shoulders 82 and 83. » r The bottom of the block 84 is provided with convex runners 81 and 88 similar to the runners 88 and 8| which are disposed in vertical planes 90° to the runners 80 and 8|. These runners`8`|v ` lowered in contact with and to be moved over 60 and 88 are similarly seated on concave shoulders 2 . n - _. - _ _ ' 2,263,971 69 and 10 of a base 1|, against which shoulders they are held by means of tapered abutments 12 and 13 similar to the abutments 65 and 66. -The base 1| of one of the phototables- 55 is fixed to the phototables 54 and 55 to move upwardly to-' Í gether, and rotation in_ the opposite direction of said hand wheel causes the phototables to move downwardly. The weight of the phototables and the horizontal arm 14 of an angle bracket 15 Vand Ul of the parts movable therewith are counter balanced by means of coil springs ||5 and ||6 the base 16 of the other phototable 54 is fixed which are mounted for tensioningaround shaft to the horizontal arm 16A of a similar angle ‘« bracket 11. The brackets 11 and 15 carry ver tical sleeves 16 and 19 which ride on vertical posts -80 and 8| fixed adjacent the end walls 22 and 23 within the housing 2|. The sleeves 18 and 19 are provided with anti-friction rollers 82 and 83 which contact and roll on posts 80 and , 8|.` In order to lock the phototables in different positions along the` posts 80 and 8|, clamps 84 ‘ and 85 attached to the brackets 15 and 11 are provided. y An arced rack 86 is fixed to the bottom of each |06 adjacent the ends of sleeve ||0~. One of the ends of springs ||5 and |,I6 is fixed to sleeve ||0 and the other end anchored to a fixed point of the instrument. , - ~ Between the wing mirrors 3| and 32 and the phototables 54 and 55 there are disposed index marks of any >suitable design, but preferably simple dots ||1 and ||8 inscribed, etched, or otherwise provided on glass discs ||~9-and |20, or other suitable transparent material. The discs ||9 and |20 are mounted i-nl frames |2| 'and |22, which frames are ñxed to brackets |23 and |24 60 and 6| and 'engages a worm 81 which is fixed 20 slidable on the ends of a horizontal bar |25 which is in a vertical plane parallel to the line of cen to the end of a shaft 88 rotatablyV mounted on ters of the platens 56 and 51. Set screws |26 and the block 64. The other end of said shaft pro ` |21 are provided through the brackets |23 and jects outwardly and is provided with a knurled |24 for clamping them in different positions ` knob 89 to facilitate manual rotation. Similarly, a curved rack 90 is integral with the 25 along the bar |25. On one end of the bar |25 a collar |28 is adjustably clamped, which carries bottom ofthe block 64 parallel to the runners 61 a micrometer screw |29 having on one end a x and 68 'and engages a worm 9| fixed to one end of a shaft 92, said shaft being rotatably m'ounted ‘ knurled head |30 for manually rotating it, the on the base-member 1|. The other end 0f said ' other end being threadedly engaged with the ad shaft projects outwardly and is provided with a 30 jacent index mark bracket. The bar |25 is sup ported parallel to phototables 54 and 55 on the knurled knob 93 to facilitate manual rotation ~top of stanchions |3|. These stanchions are'car thereof. The centers of curvature of runners 60 ried on a support |32 which is movable over the and 6| are‘at a distance above the plane of the of the platens 56 and'51 parallel to the runners centers of curvature of the runners 61 and 68 are cut-out portion 26 of the base of the instrument. The support |32 is pivoted to a vertical pin '|33 fixed to the fork branches |34' and |35 of thebi at the same distance above the platens. furcated end of Aan arm |36, said branches strad platens equal to the-focal point of the stereo scopic pictures to be used o_n the instrument. The dling the support |32, substantially as shown. The phototables 54 and 55 are held rigidly to The other end of the arm |36 is pivoted to a ver gether by means of a stiff bar 94 fixed to the bases ltical pin |31 which pin is fixed to fork branches 1| and 16. Illuminating lamps 95v and 96 are mounted on the bar 94 to illuminate photographs . |38 and |39 of the bifurcated end of another arm |40. The other end of the arm |40 is pivoted to a placed on the platens 56 and 51.` However, these pin |4| vertically fixed to a bracket |42 on the lamps may be mounted at any other suitable' place in the housing. > . The ph ototables 54 and 55 are movedvertically along the posts 80 and 8| by a hand wheel 91 on > one side of the instrument which` is fixed to one end . base of the instrument. u ' The pin |31 extends through the lower branch |39 of the arm |40 _and is fixed to the center of a horizontal cross arm or X-shaped member |43, one.pair of opposite arms |44 and |45 of said of 'a rotatable shaft 98 mounted through a bearing member being in a vertical plane parallel to the 99 in one of the end- walls 22 or „23 depending on whether the machine is to be used by a right 50 bar |25. The outer ends of the arms -| 44 and |45 are pin-connected to the ends of a pair of links handed operator or a left-handed operator. The |46 and |41 of equal length, the point of connec other end of the shaft 99 is fixed to a spiral gear tion on sa‘d arms |44 and |45 beingequidistant |00 which 'meshes with another spiral gear |0| from lthe axis of pin |31. The other end of_the to which there is fixed one end of a-shaft |02 links ~|46 an'd |41 is pin-connected to the sup - extending rearward within the housing 2|. ' The port |32 on opposite sides of and equidistant from gears |00 and |0| are housed in a gear box` |03. the pin |33 to form a parallelogram linkage. The rearward end of the shaft |02 is fixed to a The other arms |48 and |49 of the member |43 worm |04 which meshes with a. Worm gear |05 on also have theirV outer ends pin-connected to the the end of a horizontal shaft |06. The gears |04 and |05 are housed by gear box |01. The shaft 60 ends of a pair of links |50 and |5| of equal length, ' the points of connection on said arms |48 and |49 |06 is rotatably mounted in bearings |08 and |09 being equidistant from the axis of the pin_ |31. on the end walls 22 and 23. About the shaft' |06 'I'he other ends of the links |50 and |5| are pin-. a sleeve ||0 is disposed, to the ends of which there ‘ connected to the bracket |42 on opposite sides of are fixed arms ||| and ||2. The shaft |06 and ~and equidistant from the pin |4| to form an -sleeve ||0 -are made co-actable by means of a pin other parallelogram linkage. Byl these means the | I3 midway between the arms || | and | I2, driven bar |25 and index marks ||1 and | I8 are con through'both the sleeve ||0 and shaft |06. In strained to move in a~ horizontal plane -p_arallel this manner torque displacement is distributed to the line of centers of the platens 56 and 51. equally to both arms ||| and ||2 when the shaft 70' A pencil, pen, stylus, or other tracing imple |06 is rotated. . . ment |52 is attached to the bottom of a post ‘ The outer ends of theV arms ||| and ||2 are |53 whichpost is slidably and rotatably mount »_pivoted to one of the ends of links ||3 and Ä||4, ed through the bracket |32 and carries a weight 'the other end of' each link being pivoted to its |54 at the top to press the tracing implement corresponding sleeve 18 and 19. By-these means rotation of hand wheel 91 in one direction causes 16 against the working plane. The operator moves 3 2,263,971 mapping surface. the tracing implement by means of a handle 154A horizontally hinged to the post |53. The tracing implement is A vertical scale |55 is mounted adjacent to one of the posts 80 and 8l, say the` post 80, and then moved so that the “_ñoating mark’.’ at the height setting of the phototables constantly con tacts the model at each change of position. In come elongated and depressed, the graduations setting of the phototables is changed by turn this manner the “iioating mark” follows a line a pointer |56 movable over the scale |55 is fixed of constant elevation which is traced on the to the bracket 11. In view of the fact that the viewing distance of the instrument varies in L. map table by the tracing implement. When one contour line has` been mapped, the height operation and thereby causes the model to be of the scale |55 are not uniform but represent 10 ing the hand wheel 91 until the pointer |56 is opposite the point on the scale |55 indicat the relation between intervals of ground ele ing the next contour elevation desired and the vation and intervals of movement of the `.photo ' procedure is repeated. tables corresponding to the same ground inter vals. either empirically or by mathematical calcu lation. The entire instrument is supported on cast This is done for each contour until the map is completed. These graduations can be ' determined 15 ers |51 to permit easy movement over a map ping surface |58. Having thus described our invention, we claim: 1. A mapping instrument comprising a port able housing movable on a mapping surface, said housing containing a pair of tables for mounting stereoscopic pictures, means for mov The instrument is operated as follows: A pair 20 ing said tables vertically, a stereoscope over said tables for stereoscopically viewing pictures on of vertical photograph prints having a stereo said tables, index marks supported for horizon scopic overlap is mounted on the platens 56 tal movement between said tables _and said stereo and 51 with the center of each print over the scope in the field of stereoscopic vision, means center of each platen. The prints are heldin this position by forcing the pins 58 and 59 25 constraining _the movement of said marks in a horizontal plane parallel to the line of centers through the center of the print. The prints are of said tables', and a- tracing implement co then oriented about the pins until they are in movable with said index marks for tracing lines v stereoscopic `correspondence and then clamped on said mapping surface in accordance with the to platens by clips, Scotch tape, or any other suitable means. , 30 movements of said yindex marks. 2. A mapping instrument comprising a port The stereoscopic model is. then horizontalized . able housing movable on a mapping surface, in the usual mannerby the use of basic refer said housing containing a pair of tables for ence points obtained from ground control, 'the mounting stereoscopic pictures, means for mov adjustments being made by tipping and tilting the platens with the knobs 89 and 93, the while 35 ing said tables vertically, means for independ ently tipping and tilting said tables about a maintaining stereoscopic correspondence. vIn us point thereabove, a stereoscope over said tables ing the instrument for -planimetry, it is not essential to horizontalize the model, although Yfor stereoscopically viewing pictures on said tables, index marks supported forv horizontal it is preferred. The instrument is then ad justed for a selected scale by spreading the in 40 movement between said tables and said stereo dex marks to a position where the movement of their fused images as seen through the stereo scope, commonly referred to as the “floating mar ”,' between two given points on the model is equal to the movement of the tracing imple ment |52 between the same two points plotted to the desired scale on the mapping surface |58. In making planimetrie maps, the index marks scope in the field of stereoscopic vision, means constraining the movement of said marks in a horizontal plane parallel lto the line of centers of said tables, and a- tracing implement co movable with vsaid index marks for tracingv lines on said mapping surface in accordance with the movements of said index marks. 3. A mapping instrument comprising a port able housing movable on a mapping surface, are moved to a position where the “floating mark” appears to contact the surface of the 50 said housing containing a ‘pair of tables for mounting stereoscopic pictures, means for mov model at a point on the extreme end of a ing said tables -vertically, a pointer vertically planimetric line, such as a drainage' line, and co-movable with said tables and a vertical scale the tracing implement is put in contact with adjacent said pointer designating intervals of a mapping surface over which the instrument is placed. The tracing implement is then moved 55 ground elevation corresponding to the vertical movement of said tables, a stereoscope over said so that the “floating mark” follows the selected tables for stereoscopically viewing pictures on planimetrie line of the~ model, the while con said tables, index marks supported for horizon tinually changing the elevation of the photo tables by turning the hand wheel 91 to cause - ’tal movement between said tables and said stereo the “floating mark” to appear to contact the 60 scope in the ñeld of stereoscopic vision, means constraining the movement of said marks in a surface of the' model at every point along the horizontal plane parallel to the line of centers planimetrie line traversed. When this traverse of said tables, and a tracing implement co-mov is completed, the tracing implement is elevated able with said index marks for tracing lines and another planimetric line is selected for on said mapping surface in accordance with the which the same procedure is followed. This is movements of said index marks. 4 repeated for -every desired planimetrie line of 4. A mapping instrument comprising a portable the stereoscopic model to complete the map. housing supportable on a mapping surface, said To use the instrument for making contour housing containing a pair of 'tables ffor mounting maps, the same preliminary adjustments are stereoscopic pictures; means for co-moving said made as indicated above, including horizontal ization of the model. The phototables are then set at a height so that the “floating mark” ap pears to contact the model at a point on a se lected contour elevation thereof and the trac ing implement is placed in contact with the tables vertically, a stereoscope forA viewing pic- > tures on said tables, a'pair of index marks above said table in the ñeld of view of said stereoscope, said marks being spaced in the direction of the line of centers of said tables and at a fixed dis 4 2,263,971 tancevbelow said stereoscope, means for adjusting the spaced relation of said marks, means sup 9. In a plotting device having tables for mountì ‘ ing stereoscopic pictures and a stereoscope for porting said marks for horizontal co-»movement and constraining said movement so that every viewing pictures on said tables, index marks co movable in a horizontal plane between the stere position of said -marks is parallel to every other 5 oscope and the tables, a tracing implement mov position, and a tracing implement co-movable able with said index marks, means for raising with' said index marks for tracing lines on said and lowering said tables, lamps co-movable- with' surface in accordance with the movement of said said tables for illuminating pictures mounted marks. thereon, and means for constraining. the 'move 5. In a- mapping instrument of the character. 10 ments of said index marks so that every position described having in a portable housing a pair of tables ~for mounting stereoscopic pictures, ver tical center pins for engaging said pictures as a pivot, means for independently tipping and tilt- » ` of said marks is parallel to every other position thereof. I ` 10. Ina stereoscopic plotting instrument of y the character described, said instrument being ' ing said tables, means for coemoving said tables 1,5 contained in a portable housing, said housing vertically, a pair of index- marks above said being mounted on casters so that the entire in tables, a `stereoscope for viewing said pictures strument can be supported on a mapping surface and said marks stereoscopically at the same time, and moved thereover, said instrument having a supporting means for said marks and a linkage tracing instrument adapted to contact the map for constraining the movement of said marks in 20 ping surface upon which the> instrument is a horizontal plane so that every position of said supported. ' marks is parallel to every other position, and _a ` 11. In combination with a mapping surface, a tracing implement co-movable with said marks housing movable bodily over said surface, tables within said housing for mounting stereoscopic for tracing lines on a surface -in accordance with the movement of said marks. 25 pictures, a stereoscope for viewing pictures on' 6. In a mapping device of the character de said tables, a support movable over said map-scribed having in a portable housing a pair of ping surface relative to said housing, means con tables for mounting stereoscopic pictures, brack straining the movements of said supportl so that ets supporting said tables, vertical posts slidably every position'thereof is parallel to every other engaging said brackets, means for holding said 30 position, means carried by said support for scan brackets in substantially the same horizontal ning the stereoscopic model viewed through the -plane, a horizontal shaft rotatably mounted _in stereoscope, and a tracing implement movable the housing, a sleeve about said shaft, means with said support for tracing the movements of said support on said mapping surface. connecting the center of said shaft with the center of said sleeve, arms secured to the ends 35 12. In combination with a mapping surface, a of said sleeve projecting toward said brackets, links connecting the outer ends of said arms with said brackets, springs mounted for tensioning housing movable bodily over said surface. tables within said .housing for mounting stereoscopic pictures, a. stereoscope for viewing pictures on said tables, means for adjusting said ltables to about said shaft between the ends of said sleeve and said housing to counterbalance the weight 40 compensate for photographic tilt and tip, a sup of said tables and parts movable therewith, and port movable over said mapping surface relative means for rotating said shaft to raise and lower to said housing, means constraining the move said tables. ments of said support so that every position 7. In a mapping device having a table for thereof is parallel to every other position, means mounting a stereoscopic picture, said table com 45 carried by said support for scanning-the stere prising a platen for mounting the picture, a ver oscopic model viewed through'the stereoscope, tical pin on said platen for pivotally engaging and a tracing implement movable with said sup the picture, curved runners secured to. said plat port for tracing the movements of said support .on said mapping surface. en, said runners being in parallel- vertical planes, a block having shoulders complementary to said 50 13. .In combination with a mapping surface, a runner, means for holding said runner in slid housing movable bodily over said surface, tables able engagement with said shoulders, similar within said housing for mounting stereoscopic curved runners secured to said block in parallel pictures, a stereoscope for viewing pictures on vertical planes perpendicular to the planes of said tables, said tables being mounted for verti said first-mentioned runners, a base support hav 55 _cal co-movement, means for moving said tables ing shoulders complementary to said block run vertically, releasable means for securing said ta ners, means for _holding said block runners in ‘ bles at different heights within the housing, a slidable relation with said base support shoul support movable over said mapping surface rela ders, and means for controllably actuating all tive to said housing, means constraining the of said runners on their corresponding shoulders 60 movements of said support so-that every posi so as to tip and tilt said platen. . tion thereof is parallel to every other position, 8. In a plotting device having tables for mount means carried by said support for scanning the ing -stereoscopic pictures and a stereoscope for, stereoscopic model viewed through the stereo viewing pictures on said tables, index marks co escope, and a tracing implement movable with movable in a horizontal plane between the- stere 65 said support for tracing the movements of said oscope and the tables, a tracing implement mov support on said mapping surface. able with said index marks, means for raising and lowering said tables, and means for constraining JASPER E. KING. the movements of said index marks so that every position of said marks is parallel to every other 70 JOHN W. ELLIO'I'I'. position thereof. 'PHILIP BIKAIL.