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Патент USA US2263971

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Nov. 25, 1941.
- -'.1. E. KING ETAL
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2,263,971
-sITEREoscoPIc PLOTTER
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Filed June 17, 1941
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INVENTORS
»JASPER E. KING
JOHN W. ELLIOTT
BY
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PHILIP
B. KAIL
@y ATTORNEYS
Nov. 25, 1941.
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1E, KING E‘TAL
2,263,971
STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER
Filed June 17, ‘1941 .
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JASPER E. KING
JOHN w.1-:1_L10TT
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Nov. 25, 1941.
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J. E. KING Erm.
2,263,971
STEREOSOOPIO‘ PLOTTER
Filed June 17, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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INVENTORS
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JASPER E. KING
JOHN w. ELLIOTT
BY
PH1L|PF`B. KAN.
.91 .ff-_?a..
¿I? ATTORNEYS
Nov. 25, 1941.
J. E. KING ETAL
2,263,971 l
_ STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER
Filed June 17, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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INVENTORS
JASPER E. KING
JOHN W. ELLIOTT
BY
A. TQRNEYS -
Nov. 25, 1941.
J, E Kmq; ¿E+ AL.
2,263,971
STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER
Filed June 1'7, 1941
5 Shee'lis-Shee‘ìl 5
25
\Nv_ENT_oRs
JASPER EKING
24
JOHN w,ELl_|oTT_
Pp-HUP B.|<A|L
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2,263,971
UNITED ls'lm‘iezs , PATENT oFF ICE->
Patented Nov. 25, 1941 >
2,283,971
'STEREOSCOPIC PLOTTER
Jasper E. King, John W. Elliott, and Philip B.`
Kaìl, Denver, Colo., assignors to Claude R.
Wickard, as Secretary of Agriculture oi' the
United States of America, and his successors
in oñice
Application June 17, 1941, sel-1an No. 398,442
13 Claims. (ci. SL24»
‘
(Granted under the act oi' March 3, 1883, as
` amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
This application is made under the4 act of
any plane surface upon which the instrument
may rest.
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March 3, `1883, as amended by theact of. April
30, 1928, and the invention herein described and
Within the housing 2| there is mounted near
the top a mirror stereoscope comprising -the usual
claimed, if patented, may be manufactured and
eye pieces 21 -and 28 and eye piece mirrors 28
used by or for the Goverment of‘the United
States of America for governmental purposes
and 30 and wing minors 3| and 32. The -mir
without the payment to us of any royalty thereon.
rors 3| and 32 are mounted on a. pair of parallel
This invention relates to photogrammetry gen-`
bars 33 and 34, whichbars are horizontally ñxed,
erally and the principal object is the provision
one above the other, to the end walls 22 and 23
of an instrument in which vertical photographs 10 of the housing. The mirrors 28 and 38 are» co
can be viewed stereoscopically and maps fabri
mounted with the eye pieces 21 and 28 in a frame
cated giving the topography and planimetry of
35 on a bracket 38 having a sleeve 31 slidable
the model viewed. Such instruments are gen
on the upper bar 33. Head rests 38 and 38 above
erally referred to as stereoscopic plotters.
the eye pieces 21 and 28 are adJustably secured
The general object of this invention is the 15 to the bracket 38.
‘
provision of an instrument of the type men
An abutment screw 48 is threaded through
tioned which is simple and inexpensive in con
the bracket 38 to abut the lower bar 34. By
adjusting the position oi' this screw, the frame
struction as compared to instruments of a similar
nature for accomplishing a similar objective.
Another object of .this invention is the provi
35 can be tipped around the bar 33 for the pur
20 pose of leveling the leye piece mirrors 28 and 38.
Adjustment of the frame 35 along the bar 33
rication of maps of the type mentioned directly
is accomplished by means of a rider 4| on the
from the instrument on `any plane surface with
bars 33 and 34, adjustably clamped on the bar
out intermediate transference of any kind.
33 by means of a set screw 4|A, which rider
A further object of this invention is the provi 25 carries a micrometer Vscrew 42 parallel to the
sion of an instrument of the type mentioned
bar 33. One end of the screw 42 carries a
sion of an instrument which will permit the fab- .
which is portable .and which can be placed over
any plane surface for mapping.
The following description, considered together
thumb grip 43, the other end being threadedly"
engaged with the bracket 38.
I
The wing mirrors 3| and 32 are mounted on
with the accompanying drawings, will more fully 30 brackets 48 and 41, said- brackets .being verti
disclose this invention and further objects and ad
cally pivoted to sleeves 48 and 48, said sleeves
vantages thereof will be apparent.
being slidably mounted on the bar 33. Sleeves
In the drawings:
48 -and 49 carry arms 58 and 5|, which arms
Figure 1 is a front elevational view illustrating
carry adjustable abutment screws 52 and 53
the general arrangement of -parts of an embodi 35 which abut the bar 34 and thereby permit a lev
ment of our invention, partly broken away.
eling adjustment of these mirrors about the
Figure 2 is a section along the line 2-2 of Fig
bar 33.
~
_ ure 1 with parts in the background broken away.
Beneath the wing mirrors 3| and 32 there are
Figure 3 is a plan view.
disposed phototables 54 and 55 for |mounting the
Figure 4 is a plan section along the line 4-4 40 stereoscopic pictures comprising platens 58 and
of Figure 1,
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l51, at the center of which short upright pins 58
Figure 5 is a section along the line 5--5 of
and 53 are fixed to engage pivotally the centers
Figure 4.
of the photographic prints. Each of these plat
'
Figure 6 is a section along the line 8-‘8 of
ens is fixed to convex runners 80 and 8| disposed
Figure 4.
in vertical parallel planes, which are supported
Figure 7 is a plan view of _the index marks and 45 on corresponding concave shoulders 82 and 83
supporting bar.
of a block 84 and held in position by abutments _
,
Figure 8 is a section along the line 8-8 of
Figure 2|.
'
f Referring with more particularity to the draw
ings in which like numerals designate likev parts,
the embodiment illustrated comprises a suitable
housing 2|, including end walls 22 and 23, a base
24, and a rear wall 25.
A removable cover (not
shown) for the remaining exposed portion of 55
,the housing may be provided to completely en
close the instrument therein when not in use.
A
portion 28 of the base 24 is cut away to permit
the ‘tracing implement of the instrument to be
85 and 86 integral with the block 84 and bearing
against the inner sides oi the runners 88 and 8|.
The inner sides of the runners are provided with
notched grooves and the sides of the abutments
contacting the runners have projections 85A and
88A complementary with said grooves, thereby
holding the runners down against the shoulders
82 and 83.
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The bottom of the block 84 is provided with
convex runners 81 and 88 similar to the runners
88 and 8| which are disposed in vertical planes
90° to the runners 80 and 8|. These runners`8`|v
` lowered in contact with and to be moved over 60 and 88 are similarly seated on concave shoulders
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2,263,971
69 and 10 of a base 1|, against which shoulders
they are held by means of tapered abutments 12
and 13 similar to the abutments 65 and 66. -The
base 1| of one of the phototables- 55 is fixed to
the phototables 54 and 55 to move upwardly to-'
Í gether, and rotation in_ the opposite direction of
said hand wheel causes the phototables to move
downwardly. The weight of the phototables and
the horizontal arm 14 of an angle bracket 15 Vand Ul of the parts movable therewith are counter
balanced by means of coil springs ||5 and ||6
the base 16 of the other phototable 54 is fixed
which are mounted for tensioningaround shaft
to the horizontal arm 16A of a similar angle ‘«
bracket 11. The brackets 11 and 15 carry ver
tical sleeves 16 and 19 which ride on vertical
posts -80 and 8| fixed adjacent the end walls 22
and 23 within the housing 2|. The sleeves 18
and 19 are provided with anti-friction rollers 82
and 83 which contact and roll on posts 80 and
, 8|.` In order to lock the phototables in different
positions along the` posts 80 and 8|, clamps 84
‘ and 85 attached to the brackets 15 and 11 are
provided.
y
An arced rack 86 is fixed to the bottom of each
|06 adjacent the ends of sleeve ||0~. One of the
ends of springs ||5 and |,I6 is fixed to sleeve ||0
and the other end anchored to a fixed point of
the instrument.
, -
~ Between the wing mirrors 3| and 32 and the
phototables 54 and 55 there are disposed index
marks of any >suitable design, but preferably
simple dots ||1 and ||8 inscribed, etched, or
otherwise provided on glass discs ||~9-and |20, or
other suitable transparent material. The discs
||9 and |20 are mounted i-nl frames |2| 'and |22,
which frames are ñxed to brackets |23 and |24
60 and 6| and 'engages a worm 81 which is fixed 20 slidable on the ends of a horizontal bar |25 which
is in a vertical plane parallel to the line of cen
to the end of a shaft 88 rotatablyV mounted on
ters of the platens 56 and 51. Set screws |26 and
the block 64. The other end of said shaft pro
` |21 are provided through the brackets |23 and
jects outwardly and is provided with a knurled
|24 for clamping them in different positions `
knob 89 to facilitate manual rotation.
Similarly, a curved rack 90 is integral with the 25 along the bar |25. On one end of the bar |25
a collar |28 is adjustably clamped, which carries
bottom ofthe block 64 parallel to the runners 61
a micrometer screw |29 having on one end a x
and 68 'and engages a worm 9| fixed to one end
of a shaft 92, said shaft being rotatably m'ounted ‘ knurled head |30 for manually rotating it, the
on the base-member 1|. The other end 0f said ' other end being threadedly engaged with the ad
shaft projects outwardly and is provided with a 30 jacent index mark bracket. The bar |25 is sup
ported parallel to phototables 54 and 55 on the
knurled knob 93 to facilitate manual rotation
~top of stanchions |3|. These stanchions are'car
thereof. The centers of curvature of runners 60
ried on a support |32 which is movable over the
and 6| are‘at a distance above the plane of the
of the platens 56 and'51 parallel to the runners
centers of curvature of the runners 61 and 68 are
cut-out portion 26 of the base of the instrument.
The support |32 is pivoted to a vertical pin '|33
fixed to the fork branches |34' and |35 of thebi
at the same distance above the platens.
furcated end of Aan arm |36, said branches strad
platens equal to the-focal point of the stereo
scopic pictures to be used o_n the instrument. The
dling the support |32, substantially as shown.
The phototables 54 and 55 are held rigidly to
The other end of the arm |36 is pivoted to a ver
gether by means of a stiff bar 94 fixed to the bases
ltical pin |31 which pin is fixed to fork branches
1| and 16. Illuminating lamps 95v and 96 are
mounted on the bar 94 to illuminate photographs . |38 and |39 of the bifurcated end of another arm
|40. The other end of the arm |40 is pivoted to a
placed on the platens 56 and 51.` However, these
pin |4| vertically fixed to a bracket |42 on the
lamps may be mounted at any other suitable'
place in the housing.
>
.
The ph ototables 54 and 55 are movedvertically
along the posts 80 and 8| by a hand wheel 91 on >
one side of the instrument which` is fixed to one end .
base of the instrument.
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The pin |31 extends through the lower branch
|39 of the arm |40 _and is fixed to the center of a
horizontal cross arm or X-shaped member |43,
one.pair of opposite arms |44 and |45 of said
of 'a rotatable shaft 98 mounted through a bearing
member being in a vertical plane parallel to the
99 in one of the end- walls 22 or „23 depending
on whether the machine is to be used by a right 50 bar |25. The outer ends of the arms -| 44 and |45
are pin-connected to the ends of a pair of links
handed operator or a left-handed operator. The
|46 and |41 of equal length, the point of connec
other end of the shaft 99 is fixed to a spiral gear
tion on sa‘d arms |44 and |45 beingequidistant
|00 which 'meshes with another spiral gear |0|
from lthe axis of pin |31. The other end of_the
to which there is fixed one end of a-shaft |02
links ~|46 an'd |41 is pin-connected to the sup
- extending rearward within the housing 2|. ' The
port |32 on opposite sides of and equidistant from
gears |00 and |0| are housed in a gear box` |03.
the pin |33 to form a parallelogram linkage.
The rearward end of the shaft |02 is fixed to a
The other arms |48 and |49 of the member |43
worm |04 which meshes with a. Worm gear |05 on
also have theirV outer ends pin-connected to the
the end of a horizontal shaft |06. The gears |04
and |05 are housed by gear box |01. The shaft 60 ends of a pair of links |50 and |5| of equal length,
' the points of connection on said arms |48 and |49
|06 is rotatably mounted in bearings |08 and |09
being equidistant from the axis of the pin_ |31.
on the end walls 22 and 23. About the shaft' |06
'I'he other ends of the links |50 and |5| are pin-.
a sleeve ||0 is disposed, to the ends of which there
‘ connected to the bracket |42 on opposite sides of
are fixed arms ||| and ||2. The shaft |06 and
~and equidistant from the pin |4| to form an
-sleeve ||0 -are made co-actable by means of a pin
other parallelogram linkage. Byl these means the
| I3 midway between the arms || | and | I2, driven
bar |25 and index marks ||1 and | I8 are con
through'both the sleeve ||0 and shaft |06. In
strained to move in a~ horizontal plane -p_arallel
this manner torque displacement is distributed
to the line of centers of the platens 56 and 51.
equally to both arms ||| and ||2 when the shaft
70' A pencil, pen, stylus, or other tracing imple
|06 is rotated.
.
.
ment |52 is attached to the bottom of a post
‘ The outer ends of theV arms ||| and ||2 are
|53 whichpost is slidably and rotatably mount
»_pivoted to one of the ends of links ||3 and Ä||4,
ed
through the bracket |32 and carries a weight
'the other end of' each link being pivoted to its
|54 at the top to press the tracing implement
corresponding sleeve 18 and 19. By-these means
rotation of hand wheel 91 in one direction causes 16 against the working plane. The operator moves
3
2,263,971
mapping surface.
the tracing implement by means of a handle
154A horizontally hinged to the post |53.
The tracing implement is
A vertical scale |55 is mounted adjacent to
one of the posts 80 and 8l, say the` post 80, and
then moved so that the “_ñoating mark’.’ at the
height setting of the phototables constantly con
tacts the model at each change of position. In
come elongated and depressed, the graduations
setting of the phototables is changed by turn
this manner the “iioating mark” follows a line
a pointer |56 movable over the scale |55 is fixed
of constant elevation which is traced on the
to the bracket 11. In view of the fact that the
viewing distance of the instrument varies in L. map table by the tracing implement. When
one contour line has` been mapped, the height
operation and thereby causes the model to be
of the scale |55 are not uniform but represent 10 ing the hand wheel 91 until the pointer |56
is opposite the point on the scale |55 indicat
the relation between intervals of ground ele
ing the next contour elevation desired and the
vation and intervals of movement of the `.photo
' procedure is repeated.
tables corresponding to the same ground inter
vals.
either empirically or by mathematical calcu
lation.
The entire instrument is supported on cast
This is done for each
contour until the map is completed.
These graduations can be ' determined
15
ers |51 to permit easy movement over a map
ping surface |58.
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
1. A mapping instrument comprising a port
able housing movable on a mapping surface,
said housing containing a pair of tables for
mounting stereoscopic pictures, means for mov
The instrument is operated as follows: A pair 20 ing said tables vertically, a stereoscope over said
tables for stereoscopically viewing pictures on
of vertical photograph prints having a stereo
said tables, index marks supported for horizon
scopic overlap is mounted on the platens 56
tal movement between said tables _and said stereo
and 51 with the center of each print over the
scope in the field of stereoscopic vision, means
center of each platen. The prints are heldin
this position by forcing the pins 58 and 59 25 constraining _the movement of said marks in a
horizontal plane parallel to the line of centers
through the center of the print. The prints are
of said tables', and a- tracing implement co
then oriented about the pins until they are in
movable with said index marks for tracing lines
v stereoscopic `correspondence and then clamped
on said mapping surface in accordance with the
to platens by clips, Scotch tape, or any other
suitable means.
,
30 movements of said yindex marks.
2. A mapping instrument comprising a port
The stereoscopic model is. then horizontalized .
able housing movable on a mapping surface,
in the usual mannerby the use of basic refer
said housing containing a pair of tables for
ence points obtained from ground control, 'the
mounting stereoscopic pictures, means for mov
adjustments being made by tipping and tilting
the platens with the knobs 89 and 93, the while 35 ing said tables vertically, means for independ
ently tipping and tilting said tables about a
maintaining stereoscopic correspondence. vIn us
point thereabove, a stereoscope over said tables
ing the instrument for -planimetry, it is not
essential to horizontalize the model, although Yfor stereoscopically viewing pictures on said
tables, index marks supported forv horizontal
it is preferred. The instrument is then ad
justed for a selected scale by spreading the in 40 movement between said tables and said stereo
dex marks to a position where the movement
of their fused images as seen through the stereo
scope, commonly referred to as the “floating
mar ”,' between two given points on the model
is equal to the movement of the tracing imple
ment |52 between the same two points plotted
to the desired scale on the mapping surface |58.
In making planimetrie maps, the index marks
scope in the field of stereoscopic vision, means
constraining the movement of said marks in a
horizontal plane parallel lto the line of centers
of said tables, and a- tracing implement co
movable with vsaid index marks for tracingv lines
on said mapping surface in accordance with
the movements of said index marks.
3. A mapping instrument comprising a port
able housing movable on a mapping surface,
are moved to a position where the “floating
mark” appears to contact the surface of the 50 said housing containing a ‘pair of tables for
mounting stereoscopic pictures, means for mov
model at a point on the extreme end of a
ing said tables -vertically, a pointer vertically
planimetric line, such as a drainage' line, and
co-movable with said tables and a vertical scale
the tracing implement is put in contact with
adjacent said pointer designating intervals of
a mapping surface over which the instrument
is placed. The tracing implement is then moved 55 ground elevation corresponding to the vertical
movement of said tables, a stereoscope over said
so that the “floating mark” follows the selected
tables for stereoscopically viewing pictures on
planimetrie line of the~ model, the while con
said tables, index marks supported for horizon
tinually changing the elevation of the photo
tables by turning the hand wheel 91 to cause - ’tal movement between said tables and said stereo
the “floating mark” to appear to contact the 60 scope in the ñeld of stereoscopic vision, means
constraining the movement of said marks in a
surface of the' model at every point along the
horizontal plane parallel to the line of centers
planimetrie line traversed. When this traverse
of said tables, and a tracing implement co-mov
is completed, the tracing implement is elevated
able with said index marks for tracing lines
and another planimetric line is selected for
on said mapping surface in accordance with the
which the same procedure is followed. This is
movements of said index marks.
4
repeated for -every desired planimetrie line of
4. A mapping instrument comprising a portable
the stereoscopic model to complete the map.
housing supportable on a mapping surface, said
To use the instrument for making contour
housing containing a pair of 'tables ffor mounting
maps, the same preliminary adjustments are
stereoscopic pictures; means for co-moving said
made as indicated above, including horizontal
ization of the model. The phototables are then
set at a height so that the “floating mark” ap
pears to contact the model at a point on a se
lected contour elevation thereof and the trac
ing implement is placed in contact with the
tables vertically, a stereoscope forA viewing pic- >
tures on said tables, a'pair of index marks above
said table in the ñeld of view of said stereoscope,
said marks being spaced in the direction of the
line of centers of said tables and at a fixed dis
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2,263,971
tancevbelow said stereoscope, means for adjusting
the spaced relation of said marks, means sup
9. In a plotting device having tables for mountì
‘ ing stereoscopic pictures and a stereoscope for
porting said marks for horizontal co-»movement
and constraining said movement so that every
viewing pictures on said tables, index marks co
movable in a horizontal plane between the stere
position of said -marks is parallel to every other 5 oscope and the tables, a tracing implement mov
position, and a tracing implement co-movable
able with said index marks, means for raising
with' said index marks for tracing lines on said
and lowering said tables, lamps co-movable- with'
surface in accordance with the movement of said
said tables for illuminating pictures mounted
marks.
thereon, and means for constraining. the 'move
5. In a- mapping instrument of the character. 10 ments of said index marks so that every position
described having in a portable housing a pair
of tables ~for mounting stereoscopic pictures, ver
tical center pins for engaging said pictures as
a pivot, means for independently tipping and tilt- »
` of said marks is parallel to every other position
thereof.
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10. Ina stereoscopic plotting instrument of y
the character described, said instrument being '
ing said tables, means for coemoving said tables 1,5 contained in a portable housing, said housing
vertically, a pair of index- marks above said
being mounted on casters so that the entire in
tables, a `stereoscope for viewing said pictures
strument can be supported on a mapping surface
and said marks stereoscopically at the same time,
and moved thereover, said instrument having a
supporting means for said marks and a linkage
tracing instrument adapted to contact the map
for constraining the movement of said marks in 20 ping surface upon which the> instrument is
a horizontal plane so that every position of said
supported.
'
marks is parallel to every other position, and _a
` 11. In combination with a mapping surface, a
tracing implement co-movable with said marks
housing movable bodily over said surface, tables
within said housing for mounting stereoscopic
for tracing lines on a surface -in accordance with
the movement of said marks.
25 pictures, a stereoscope for viewing pictures on'
6. In a mapping device of the character de
said tables, a support movable over said map-scribed having in a portable housing a pair of
ping surface relative to said housing, means con
tables for mounting stereoscopic pictures, brack
straining the movements of said supportl so that
ets supporting said tables, vertical posts slidably
every position'thereof is parallel to every other
engaging said brackets, means for holding said 30 position, means carried by said support for scan
brackets in substantially the same horizontal
ning the stereoscopic model viewed through the
-plane, a horizontal shaft rotatably mounted _in
stereoscope, and a tracing implement movable
the housing, a sleeve about said shaft, means
with said support for tracing the movements of
said support on said mapping surface.
connecting the center of said shaft with the
center of said sleeve, arms secured to the ends 35
12. In combination with a mapping surface, a
of said sleeve projecting toward said brackets,
links connecting the outer ends of said arms with
said brackets, springs mounted for tensioning
housing movable bodily over said surface. tables
within said .housing for mounting stereoscopic
pictures, a. stereoscope for viewing pictures on
said tables, means for adjusting said ltables to
about said shaft between the ends of said sleeve
and said housing to counterbalance the weight 40 compensate for photographic tilt and tip, a sup
of said tables and parts movable therewith, and
port movable over said mapping surface relative
means for rotating said shaft to raise and lower
to said housing, means constraining the move
said tables.
ments of said support so that every position
7. In a mapping device having a table for
thereof is parallel to every other position, means
mounting a stereoscopic picture, said table com 45 carried by said support for scanning-the stere
prising a platen for mounting the picture, a ver
oscopic model viewed through'the stereoscope,
tical pin on said platen for pivotally engaging
and a tracing implement movable with said sup
the picture, curved runners secured to. said plat
port for tracing the movements of said support
.on said mapping surface.
en, said runners being in parallel- vertical planes,
a block having shoulders complementary to said 50
13. .In combination with a mapping surface, a
runner, means for holding said runner in slid
housing movable bodily over said surface, tables
able engagement with said shoulders, similar
within said housing for mounting stereoscopic
curved runners secured to said block in parallel
pictures, a stereoscope for viewing pictures on
vertical planes perpendicular to the planes of
said tables, said tables being mounted for verti
said first-mentioned runners, a base support hav 55 _cal co-movement, means for moving said tables
ing shoulders complementary to said block run
vertically, releasable means for securing said ta
ners, means for _holding said block runners in ‘
bles at different heights within the housing, a
slidable relation with said base support shoul
support movable over said mapping surface rela
ders, and means for controllably actuating all
tive to said housing, means constraining the
of said runners on their corresponding shoulders 60 movements of said support so-that every posi
so as to tip and tilt said platen. .
tion thereof is parallel to every other position,
8. In a plotting device having tables for mount
means carried by said support for scanning the
ing -stereoscopic pictures and a stereoscope for,
stereoscopic model viewed through the stereo
viewing pictures on said tables, index marks co
escope, and a tracing implement movable with
movable in a horizontal plane between the- stere 65 said support for tracing the movements of said
oscope and the tables, a tracing implement mov
support on said mapping surface.
able with said index marks, means for raising and
lowering said tables, and means for constraining
JASPER E. KING.
the movements of said index marks so that every
position of said marks is parallel to every other 70
JOHN W. ELLIO'I'I'.
position thereof.
'PHILIP BIKAIL.
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