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Патент USA US2268439

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Patented Dec. 30, 1941
2,268,439
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,268,439
'
VEHICLE SUSPENSION
John D. Beebe, Silver Lake, Ohio, assignor to §l‘l1ev
B. F. Goodrich Company, New York, N. Y., a
corporation of New York
Application October 7, 1937, Serial No. 167,767
12 Claims. (Cl. 105-197)
This invention relates to vehicle’suspensions
and is suitable especially for railway vehicles al;
though many- of its features are applicable also
to suspensions for other vehicles such, for ex
ample, as motor trucks, buses and passenger
automobiles.A
Í
'
l
In railway-.vehicle suspensions heretofore the
Il» so that the latter may swing about a hori
zontal transverse am's at I9. At their lower ends
the links I8, I8 are pivoted on horizontal fore
and aft axes upon two rods 20, 20, these rods
being mounted in the lower ends of four ver
tically extending straps 2|, 2| mounted at'their
upperv ends upon two pivot rods 22, 22 extend
springs have been stiff and heavy, usually of the
ing fore and aft, which rods are mounted at
compression type, constructed> and arranged to
support heavy loads and' to provide adequate 10_ their front and rear ends in a bolster frame I6.
This/provides a universal swinging movement of
lateral stability with, however, a sacriñce in the
lthe center plate in thebolster.
v
total amount of available deflection and with a
If desired, as shown in Fig. 3, rubber bushings
lack in many ca'ses of a satisfactory softness in
23, 23 and 24, 24, may be interposed between
the riding qualities of the suspension.
’
The chief objects of the present invention are 15 rods 22, 22 at their connectionswith the bolster
frame I 9 and at their connections with the straps
to provide an improved vehicle suspension, to
2 I, 2 I. Each of these rubber bushings may com
provide an improved suspension suitable espe
prise an annular body of rubber mounted upon
cially for railway vehicles, -to provide for a large
a rod 22 and preferably adhered thereto by
amplitude of cushioning movement, to provide
vulcanization.
the outer surface of the rub
softness in the riding qualities, to provide im 20 ber body may At
be provided a circumferentially
proved lateral stability,v to provide for eiîectivell7
discontinuous metallic sleeve structure so that
cushioning impact shocks, and to provide sturdi
the bushing may be inserted in an eye of the
ness and simplicity of structure. g
surrounding part with the sleeve structure and
These and further objects will be apparent
from the following description, reference being 25 rubber held radially compressed toward the end
element 22. Side to side swinging movement of
had to the accompanying drawing> in which:
the center plate «Il will be resisted resiliently by
Fig. l is a side elevation of a railway truck
torsional stress of these rubber bushings so that
frame and suspension constructed according to
such movement will be cushioned `and the damp
and embodying the invention.
l
ening
of such movement will be assisted some
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the structure of Fig. 1,
what by hysteresis energy loss in the rubber.
with parts broken away and sectioned.
The bolster I6 is supported at its four cor
Fig. 3 is a section of a modiiied form of the
ners upon the truck frame I0 in vertically spaced
invention taken along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
relation thereto by four linkage> assemblies, each
. Fig. 4 is a view like Fig. 1 but showing a fur
ther modiñed form of construction.
A .
The invention includes among other things a
railway suspension comprising rubber bushings
comprising a pair of upper links 26, 26 and at
least one lower link 2l. The upper links 26, 26
are pivoted to the bolster and the lower links
21, 2‘I/are pivoted to the truck frame. and the
mounted to transmit supported load by torsional
links 26, 21 are pivoted to each other by means>
stress on the rubber, the bushings preferably be
ing mounted in the pivots of a linkage connec 40 of a rod 28 which may extend only part way
across the truck frame. Load is transmitted
tion in which the links are pivoted in series be
resiliently
by means of one or more torsion bush
tween the wheel assembly and the supported
ings in each linkage assembly at the pivotal con
structure.
nections. Two such rubber bushings are pro
Referring to the embodiment illustrated in Fig.
1, a, wheel assembly comprising a truck frame I0 45 vided in each linkage assembly in the embodi
ment of Fig. 1 at 2S and 30. These rubber bush'
and wheels |I and I2 with through-axles I3 -and
ings may be of identical construction and a de
I4 arranged for travelling upon rails I5 is
scription of the upper one, 29, will suiiice.
shown. A bolster I6, which as seen from above
The link. 2,6 is rigidly connected at the upper
in Fig. 2 and from the side as in Fig. 1 is in the
form of a hollow rectangular frame, has mounted 50 end to a rod 3| extending inwardly of the truck
frame and constituting the inner element of the
ipon it a center plate I'I, the mounting pref
rubber bushing assembly. Upon the rod 3| is
zrably being effected by means of a swing-hanger
disposed an annular, cylindrical body of rubber
inkage in which two side links I 8, I8 are piv-~
32 upon which is mounted a metallic sleeve 33,
)ted at their upper ends to studs I9, I9 on â
iownwardly extending portion of the center plate 55 preferably of circumferentially discontinuous
form which may be provided by one or more slits
2,268,439
2
structure, means connecting said wheels and
.structure including interposed springing means
throughout the length of the sleeve, so that the
bushing may be mounted within supporting
therefor, said connecting means comprising a
plurality of pivotally mounted arms extending
brackets 34, 35 which are attached to the bolster,
in such relation that the sleeve 33 and the body
32 of rubber are held radially compressed upon
generally forwardly and rearwardly of said struc
ture, and springing torsion bushings in at least
the inner element 3i within the -'brackets 3|, 35.
`Preferably the rubber is adhered both to the
some of the pivotal connections oi said arms;`
said bushings including bodies of resilient rub
sleeve 33 and the rod 3| as by means of vul
canized adhesion, and the sleeve 33 may be keyed
ber-like material mounted to effect substantially
in the brackets, so that no slippage of the parts 10 all vertical springing of said ystructure with re
spect to said wheels by torsional 'stress on the
will occur and load will be transmitted from
rubber-like material through upand down move
the bolster to the link\and supported by tor- ,
ment of said arms.
sional stresses on the rubber, the load being di
vided among the eight bushings of the four link
~
3.' A railway vehicle truck comprising a car-- i
supporting structure including means for mount
15
age assemblies.
__
,
ing the car thereon for relative pivotal move
' The load is thus transmitted resiliently by tor
ment of the car and structure about a vertical
sional stress on the rubber bushings and these
axis, a plurality oi` wheels i'ore and aft of' said
bushings serve also to» cushion the structure un
structure, means' connecting said wheels andV
der impact shocks in all directions.
including interposed springing means
By this construction. soft springing may be 20 structure
therefor', said connecting means comprising a
obtained while sustaining heavy loads through
' plurality of pivotally mounted arms extending
out a large available deñection range, there be
generally forwardly and rearwardly of said struc- ‘
ing required no compression springs or other
ture, and springing torsion bushings in at least
structure interposed directly between the bolster
some of the pivotal connectionsot said arms,
and the truck frame to limit such movement
said bushings each comprising an inner element `
and at the saineA time the construction provides
and an outer circumferentially discontinuous
good lateral stability. 'I'he deilection range may
J sleeve with an interposed body of resilient rub
be increasedfby providing a suitable recess 36
ber-like material and means holding thediscon
in the truck frame into which the lower-most
tinuous sleeve and said rubber-like material
parts of the bolster assembly may descend.
pressed radially inward toward said inner ele
The embodiment of Fig. 4 is like that of Fig. l
ment to eiîect substantially all vertical springing
except that rubber torsion bushings are provided
oi said structure with respect to said wheels by
only in the pivots of the links to each other at
torsional stress on the Arubber-like material
4l and 4I, which bushings and their manner of
through up and down movement of said arms.
mounting may be the same as those described
4.,. A railway vehicle truck comprising a car
for Fig. l.
.
'
body supporting structure including means for
It is preferred, for thesake oi sturdiness and
mounting the body thereon forA relative pivotal
movement oi'7 the body and ystructure about' a
stability,A to use pairs of upper links and pairs
of lower links at each bushing so that the inner
element o! the bushing will be connected at each
of its ends, although in some cases one link at
one end of each bushing will be adequate.
The load may be resiliently supported
vertical axis, a plurality of wheels fore and ait
of said structure, means connecting said wheels
and structure including interposed springing
means therefor, said connecting means compris
by tor- I
ing a plurality of hingedly mounted arms extend
sional stress on the rubber bushing whether one
ing generally forwardly and rearwardly of said
or a plurality of bushings are provided in each 45 structure, and springing elements in at least
linkage assembly and whether the bushings are
some of the hinge connections of said arms, said
disposed in the pivots of the links where they
connect each other, or in the pivots of the links
where they connect with the bolster frame, or.
in the pivots at the truck' frame. L'. desired the 50'
load may be divided by the provision of torsion
bushings at all the pivots.
.
i _
to said wheels by torsional stresses on the rubber
like material through up and down movement oi'
the outer ends of said arms.
5. A railway vehicle truck comprising a car
Variations may be made without departing
from the scope of the invention as it is defined in
the following claims.
elements including bodies of resilient rubber-like
material mounted to effect substantially all ver
tical springing of said structure with respect
body supportingl structure including means for
mounting the body thereon for relative pivotal
movement ofsaid body and said structure about
a vertical axis, aplurality 0,1 „wheels fore and aft
or said structure, means connecting said wheels
and said structure including main vehicle spring-_
_
I claim:
1. A railway vehicle suspension comprising a
truck, a bolster, a supporting and guiding link
age connecting said truck and bolster, said link
age comprising sets of links extending outwardly
at opposite sides of the bolster, and pivoted to
said bolster and to said truck `andïto1one an
other and adapted to3 accommodate vertical
movement or the bolster and truck one withl
Arelation to the other by swinging movement of
the links, and rubber torsion bushings in at least
some vof the pivotal connections of the links
mounted to support the load by resisting the
ing means and comprising a plurality oi arms
~each hingedly connected to said structure. and
springing elements of elastic plastic material by
which said arms are connected to said structure,
said lelements being constructed and arranged to
transmit substantially all vertical springing of
said'structure with respect to said wheels by tor
sional stresses in said springing elements through
swinging movement oi.' the links substantially en- ^`
ro
tirely by torsional stress on the rubber.
2. A railway vehicle truck comprising a car
supporting structure including means' for mount
ingthe car thereon for relative pivotal move- l
ment of the car and structure about a vertical
mils,- a plurality of wheels fore and~ aft of said 7l
arcuate up and down movement of said arms.
6. A railway truck comprising wheels and axles
having journal bearings, a center bearing con
struction, a trame upon which lsaid center bear
-ing construction is mounted, means connecting
said frame to said journal bearings comprising
hingedly yconnected arms extending fore and aft
2,268,439
from the vicinity of the respective front and rear
corners o! said frame, substantially cylindrical .
springing elements of elastic plastic material
3
aft from the vicinity of the respective front and
rear corners of said frame, substantially cylin
drical springing elements of elastic plastic mate
serving as the means for hingedly connecting said
rial serving as the means for hingedly connecting ~
arms and adapted to effect substantially all ver Cil said arms, said frame being capable of rocking
tical springing of said frame with respect to said
and tilting movements with respect to a plane ì
wheels.
_
containing the axes of said axles, said elements
7. A railway truck comprising wheels and axles
of elastic plastic material constituting resilient
having journal bearings, a center bearing con
means through which all forces incident to said
struction, a trame upon which said center bear 10 tilting and rocking are transmitted from said
ing construction is mounted, means connecting '
said frame to said journal bearings comprising
arms extending fore and aft from the vicinity of
frame to said wheels.
’
1l. A railway truck comprising wheels and
axles having journal bearings, a center bearing
the respective iront and rear corners of said
construction,A a frame unit upon which said -cen
frame, a substantially cylindrical mass of rubber 15 ter
bearing construction is mounted, means con
like material hingedly connecting each of said
y arms to said frame and serving as the sole means
necting said frame unit and said journal bear
ings comprising a plurality of arms each hingedly
for transmitting all relative movements there
connected to said frame unit and extending gen
between.
.
erally fore andaft of said frame unit, the means
8. A railway truck comprising wheels and axles 20 for hingedly connecting said arms and frame
having journal bearings, a center bearing con
unit comprising rubber-like elements adapted to
struction, a frame upon which said center bear
resist substantially all vertical movements of said
ing construction is mounted, means connecting
frame finit with respect to said wheels by tor
said frame to said journal bearings comprising
sional
shear stresses, and additional rubber-like
hingedly connected arms extending fore and aft
elements between said arms and said journal
from the vicinity of the respective front and rear
bearings adapted to ’resist all relative vertical and
corners of said frame, substantially cylindrical
horizontal movements between said4 arms and
springing elements of elastic plasticïmaterial
said journal `?earings.
serving as the means for hingedly connecting
12. A railway truck comprising wheels and
said arms and adapted to effect substantially all 30 axles having journal bearings, a center bearing
vertical springing of said arms with respect to
constru i n, a swing bolster upon which said
said frame and also to resist all relative horizon
center earing construction is mounted, a frame
tal motions therebetween.
unit on which said swing bolster is pivotally
9. A railway truck comprising wheels and axles
mounted, means connecting said frame unit and
having journal bearings, a center bearing con
said journal bearings comprising a plurality of
struction, a frame upon which said center bear
arms each hingedly connected to said frame unit
ing construction is mounted, means connecting
and extending generally longitudinally of said
said frame to said journal bearings comprising
frame unit, the means- for hingedly connecting
hingedly connected arms extending longitudi
said arms and frame unit comprising masses oi
nally of said frame from the vicinity of the re 4 O elastic plastic material adapted to- resist sub
spective front and rear corners of said frame,
stantially all up and down swinging movements
elastic plastic material serving as the means for
of the outer ends of said arms by torsional shear
hingedly connecting said arms and’ adapted to
stresses and adapted to resist elastically sub
eiïect substantially all vertical springing of said
stantially all relative horizontal movements of
arms with respect to said frame by torsional , said arms with respœt to said frame unit, and
shear stresses.
`
additional masses of elastic plastic material be
l0. A railway truck comprising wheels and. tween the outer ends of said arms and said jour
axles having journal bearings, a center bearing
nal bearings constructed and arranged to allow
construction, a frame upon which said center
vertical springing movement of said journal bear
bearing construction is mounted, means connect 50 ings with respect to the outer ends of said arms.
ing said frame to said journal bearings compris
ing hingedly connected arms extending fore and
JOHN D. BEEBE.
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