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Патент USA US2274227

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Feb. 24, 1942.
l.. E. wlLLARD '
Filed sept. 1'7, 1940
Patented Feb. 24, 1942
Louis E. Willard, Long Islandî City,.N. Y., assigner
to (Ilharles.` Zimmer, Brooklyn, N.. Y.`
Application September 17, 1940; Serial‘No. 357,079
3 claims.
The present invention relates to shock absorb
ing systems adapted for use particularly in con
junction with suspension springs,` . chassis or
(Cl. 267-8)
serves> as an auxiliary spring to compensate for
loss of efliciency of the main spring resulting
from use and wear of the latter.
It is a. further object of' this invention to` pro
vide a, novel shock absorber system which is
frames and axles of automobiles,` wagons and.
other vehicles, and also may be used for doorchecks and the like.
In many shock absorber systems in use today,
utilizing a shock absorbery of the type in which
a liquid is forced from onel place to another by
noiseless in operation, simple _in construction,
comparatively cheap in cost, easy to install and
a piston, the liquid serves as the resisting me
sorber system which will operate properly under
dium for cushioning the shock. These systems
generally have such a shock absorber mounted
on the longitudinal side bars of the main frame
or chassis near each wheel. The shock absorber
is what is known generally as a wing or vane.
easy tofreplace or repair.
It is a further object to provide a shock ab
all weather conditions, i. e., be capable of all
weather performance.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and
such other objects as may hereinafter appear,
this invention consists in the` novel construction
and arrangement` of parts hereinafter described
and- then sought to be defined in the appended
claims,l reference being had to the accompany
shock absorber housing are secured to a portion
ing drawing forming a part hereof and which
of the piston in the chamber and oscillate with 20 show, merely for the purposes of illustrative dis
it. An operating lever or- crank arm is rigidly
closure„ preferred embodiments of the invention,
fixed or formed onl the outwardly extending porit being expressly understood, however, that var
tion of the piston. This j lever is connected
ious changes may be made in practice within the
through linkages and articulated, linkage joints
scopeof the claims without digressing from the
to the axle of the ,wheel withV which the shock 25 inventive. idea.
.absorber is designed to function.
In the accompanying drawing, in which simi
Systems embodying this construction have
lar reference characters denote corresponding
many disadvantages. They are noisy in opera
tion because of the articulated joints> and sub
Fig.> l is a side elevation, partly in section, of
type and is provided with an outwardly extend
ing portion of its piston. The» Varies'` or wings
which function in the operating chamber of, the
ject to criticisms and rejection by the` vehicle '
user for this reason alone. 'I'hey are costly be,
cause of the number of parts necessary for in
a portion of the, chassis or frame, the axle and a'
suspension spring for one wheel of an automo
bile equipped with my improved shock absorber
stallation, and because of the time and labor in
system~ showing the system in its neutral or
volved in their installation and/or replacement,<
normal position.
Being connected by articulated joints and link-` 35 Fig. 2 is` a vertical cross> section. taken along
ages these systems are extremely subject to fail
line` 2-2 of Fig. 1 andl viewed in the direction ofure at critical times. ¿Each articulated jointre
the arrows.
quires frequent lubrication or rubber cushions
Fig. 3 is a> view similar to Fig. l on a smaller
and on modern vehicles a. connection to` the. lu
y scale showing the position of parts of the system
bricating system with the resultant increasedl 40 after the axle has. been subjected to shock, i. e.,
cost of production of the vehicle.
It is an object. of this invention to provide a
shock absorber system in which the shock ab
sorber lever or crank arms, linkages and articu
on the upthrow of the axle.
Fig. 4 is a View similar to Fig. 1 also on a re
duced scale showing the position of parts of the
system on recoil of the suspension spring, i. e.,
lated linkage joints arey entirely eliminated and 45 on the downthrow of the axle. `
in which a jointless positive drive for the pis
Fig. 5 is a view> similar to Fig. 1 illustrating a
tons of the shock absorbers in the system> is ef
modified form of shock absorbing system, and
Fig. 6 is al View similar to Fig. 1 illustrating
It is also an object of this invention to pro
a further modified form of shock absorbing sys
vide a shock absorber system free of articulated 50 tem utilizing the principles of my invention.
joints utilizing a helper spring in conjunction
Referring to the drawing, I0 designates a, 1on
with the main spring of the Vehicle. This helper
gitudinal side bar >of av main frame or chassis
spring serves as a positive drive for the shock ab
which mayy be a portion` of an automobile chassis
sorber piston,` replacing; the shock absorber arm
and. usual link and articulated joint. It` also
or other vehicleu chassis.r
H y is a suspension
spring having its central part secured in usual
manner as by shackle or U-bolts I2 or in other
suitable way to the support or axle I3. The ends
of the spring are connected suitably at I4 and
I5 to the side bar I0 to sustain the load carried
by said side bar.
A shock absorber denoted generally by the
reference numeral 2i) is suitably supported at
2|’ from the side bar I3, and a second similar
type of shock absorber 20a is supported by the
shackle or U-bolts 22’ or in other suitable man
ner from the spring II in the region directly
shock absorber 2D. In similar manner, arm 33
has its end ñxed as by welding at 35 to the `op
erating portion 25a oí the piston of the shock ab
sorber 20a. Other suitable means for ñxedly at
taching the arms to the operating portion 25,
25a of the pistons may be employed. In prac
tice welding is the simplest and eliminates extra
The coil portion of the spring is suspended in
the space between the side bar Iû and the main
suspension spring II being supported there sole
above the axle I3. This second shock absorber ». . ly` by the connection of its rigid arms 32 and 33
with the piston extensions 25 and 25a of the two
20a may be supported directly from the axle I3 .
shock absorbers 20 and 20a.
This system operates generally as follows: On
upthrow of the axle I3 caused by a vehicle
the agency of shackle or U-bolts I2, Ythe shock Y’
passing over a bump, the suspension spring II
absorber 20a is in effect supported by the axley I3.
moves upwardly too. This upward movement be
Both shock absorbers 23 and Zlla, inthe em
cause of the rigid connection of the rigid arms
bodiment shown, are of the wing or vane type
Well known in the art and exemplified, for ex 20 32 and 33 to the piston extensions 25 and 25a
causes torsion of the spring 30. The reaction of
ample, by those described and shown in my own
spring 30 to the torsional force imparted to it in
previous patents numbered 2,149,129 issued Feb
turn through the arms 32 and 33 causes rotation
ruary 28, 1939, and2,158,645 issued May 16, 1939.
of the piston extensions 25, 25a of the two shock
Brieiiy a shock absorber of this type comprises
an outer casing 2| which is provided with suit '.15 absorbers 2U and 20a and consequently rotates
the vanes or wings 23, 23a of the shock absorbers
able means for securing the same to a part of
if desired. Inasmuch as there is rigid connec
tion between the spring II and axle> I3 through
the vehicle. The casing is provided with awork
ing chamber 22 in which the vanes, blades or
Wings 23 of an oscillatable piston 24 operate.
from their neutral positions shown in Fig. _l to
positions illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 3.
During such movement the well known retardina-
The piston may have an operating portion 25 30 functioning of the shock absorbers 20 and 29a
occurs, so that the shock imparted to the axle is
which extends externally of the casing and which
not transmitted to the chassis or frame side
may be suitably rotated to effect functioning of
the shock absorber. In well known manner, as
for example that described in my Patent No.
bar I0.
' The rebound of the suspension spring II, and
downthrow of the axle I3 as illustrated in Fig. 4
on an exaggerated scale, causes torsion of the
spring 30 in the opposite direction to that of the
2,158,645, means (not shown) are provided in
ternally of the casing for supplying fluid through
suitable valving (also not shown) to the working
upthrow just described and consequently causes
chamber 22 to cause the well known operation
rotation of the vanes or wings 23, 23a in opposite
of this type of shock absorber. It is to be under
stood that any other suitable wing, cam-actu 40 direction to the positions shown diagrammatic
ly in said Fig. 4. During such rotational move
ated cylinder or vane type fluid-containing shock
ment, of course, the shock absorbers 2B, 20a func
absorber having an externally extending operat
tion in their well known retarding manner so
ing piston portion or shaft may be used.
the rebound of the suspension spring II is
In the embodiment shown, the operating por
in the chassis frame.
tion 25 of the piston of the chassis of frame
At all times as well as during both upthrow
mounted shock absorber 2B is directly intercon
and downthrow of the axle I3, the spring 36 also
nected with the operating portion 25a of the
acts as a ride suspension helper spring for the
piston of the axle mounted or supported shock
main suspension spring II. This helping action
absorber 20a by a connection which is free of
, articulated joints.
To this end, a helper or aux
iliary spring 3U is provided. This spring may be
is more marked and effective when the efficiency
of the main suspension spring has deteriorated
after long use.
a spiral coil spring having a few turns 3|. The
It is to be understood that the strength of
number of turns, strength of the spring, its ma
spring 30, and the length of the rigid arms 32
terial and other physical characteristics are all
and 33 thereof are the determining factors in
dependent upon the size and weight of the ve 55
the extent of rotation of the wings or vanes of
hicle with which it is to be used. Two integrally
the two shock absorbers and that the spring 3D
formed rigid arms or extensions 32 and 33 are
used must be such as to give the required action
provided, one at each end >of the spring 3U.
for any particular Vehicle. In practice, for ex
These arms extend laterally in angular rela
ample, the spring 30 used in a shock absorbing
tionship from the coil surface, being spaced apart
system for a heavy vehicle must be of heavier
by the number of turns of the coil and crossing
each other in scissor-fashion as shown in Figs. 1
construction than one for a light car. These
factors are well understood by men skilled in the
and'2. The _relative length and angular disposi
tion of the arms is such that when they are joined
A modiñed form of shock absorbing system
to the pistons 25 and 25a. in the manner herein 65 embodying principles of my invention is shown
in Fig. 5. In this system the helper spring has
after to be described, the center of rotation of
been eliminated. The two shock absorbers 20 and
the pistons 25 and 25a and the center of the coil
20a are interconnected through the agency of a
in the neutral position of parts are located ap
third shock absorber 2017. This shock absorber
proximately at the apices of a triangle. In the
20h is preferably of the same type as shock ab
embodiment shown this triangle is equi-lateral.
sorbers 20 and 22a, and has parts corresponding
Other triangles are contemplated,
thereto similarly numbered and bearing the sub
In the embodiment shown, arm 32 has its end
script ’b. Its casing 2lb has a rigid arm 401
ñxed as by welding at 34 to the operating por
tion 25 of the piston of the frame supported 75 welded or otherwise permanently iixed to it at
4I. The opposite end. of’tliis arm '40 is welded
or otherwise permanently ñxedat`42 to the ex
tendingv portion 25a of the ‘piston of theaxle
supported shock absorber '29m The .extending
portion 25h of the piston of the shock> absorber 5
Zlib has a rigid arm 43 welded or otherwise suit
ably securedto it at 4.4.
The opposite end of
of an equi-lateral triangle, Other angular ar
rangements are, however, contemplated.
shock absorber 20h is suspended in the space
between the side bar I0 and the main suspension
stalled in an older car the counteracting fre
main suspension spring or springs and eliminate
> of the frame supported shock absorber 2U. Arms 10y
extending portions 25, 25a, 25h of the pistons 24,
24a, 24h are located substantially at the apices
the vehicle. If; for example,ïone ofthe systems
herein disclosed embodying helper springs is in
quencies of the'new helper spring or springs will
tendlto vdestroy thelnatural resonance of the old
arm 43 .is welded to or otherwise suitably ñxed
at 45 to the extending portion 25 of the piston
40 and 43 are so proportioned in length that pref
erably in the neutral position of all parts as
shown in Fig. 5, the centers of oscillation of the
when the main suspension springs have begun
to lose theirl efficiency through use andÁ wear of
sources of unwanted vibration.
All the systemsy herein disclosed in effect pro
vide a knee-action ride for front and rear of
any vehicle. '
While specific types of wing or vane type shock
absorbers have been described, it is to be under
15 stood that other types of suitable shock absorb
ers may be incorporated in the systems.
Other modifications embodying theprinciples
of this invention are contemplated. II‘here is no
intention of limitation to the exact details shown
spring Il, being supported there solely by the 20 and described.
coupling arms or bars 40 and 43.
I claim:
In operation of this system, shock imparted to
1. In combination, a vehicle chassis or frame,
the axle I 3 will cause positive drive of the pistons
an axle, a chassis supported shock absorber, an
of all three shock absorbers through the agency
axle supported shock absorber, and means for
of the rigid arms 40 and 43, resultingin a very 25 directly coupling said two yshock absorbers in op
smooth vriding vehicle. Since all the shock` ab
erative relationship, said coupling means com
sorbers are entirely noiseless in operation and y prising a spring having portions thereof directly
since no swivel joints are used for interconnec
and rigidly connected to each shock absorber and
tion, all noise is entirely eliminated in the action
said spring being suspended solely yby said con
of this shock absorbing system. The entire sys 30 nected portions thereof, and constituting with its
tem may be quickly replaced after wear if nec
arms a positive drive connection between the pis
essary, or individual shock absorbers, or parts
tons of said shock absorbers which is free of ar
thereof, replaced simply and quickly should re
ticulation at all connections between arms and
pair become necessary.
shock absorber portions, and serving both as a .
It is to be noted that this system may be modi 35 helper suspension spring between said chassis or
ñed if desired to include the helper spring sys
frame and said axle and as a retarder of the
tem of Figs. l-4 inclusive simply by the substitu
transmission of motion from said axle to said
tion for either or both arms 40 and 43 of helper
` shock absorbers.
springs similar to the helper spring 30 of Fig. 1.
2. In combination, an unsprung part of a ve
A further modiñed form of my invention is 40 hicle, a sprung part of said vehicle supported
shown in Fig. 6 wherein only one shock absorber
from said unsprung part, spring suspension
is used. In this form, the single shock absorber
means carried by said unsprung part and con
20d is suitably supported from the side piece l0
nected to said sprung part for supporting said
of the frame and the arm 32c of helper spring
sprung part from said unsprung part, a shock
30o welded or otherwise suitably attached at 34e he. Ul absorber attached to said sprung part and hav
to the piston extension 25d. The free end of the
ing an operating member extending therefrom, a
other arm 33e of the helper spring is jointed or
second shock absorber carried by said unsprung
otherwise suitably attached at 35c to the shackle
part andY having an operating member extending
or U-bolt I2b, which attaches the suspension
therefrom, a coiled. auxiliary spring having
spring llb to the axle I3b._ The arm 33e mayy 50 crossed integral arms extending therefrom, each
be directly jointed or otherwise suitably attached
of said arms being welded directly to one of said
to the axle Hb or to any other part conveniently
operating members whereby the connection be
and rigidly associated With the axle. The spring
tween said shock absorbers and said auxiliary
30e functions both as an auxiliary or helper to
spring is free of all articulated joints and the
the suspension spring IIb and as a direct one 55
system of shock absorbers and coil spring is
joint coupling member between the axle |317 and
noiseless in operation, the said auxiliary spring
the extending portion 25d of the shock absorber
lying ,between said sprung and unsprung parts
piston 24d.
and serving both as a helper spring for said
In two of the systems abovev described, all '
spring suspension means and as a retarder in the
articulated linkage joints have been eliminated
transmission of motion of the unsprung part to
and essentially noiseless operation of the shock 60 the said two shock absorbers.
absorbing system achieved.
3. In combination, an unsprung part of a ve
For convenience, the chassis or frame l0 and , y hicle, a sprung part of said vehicle supported
parts carried on it may be referred to as the
from said unsprung part, spring suspension
sprung parts of the vehicle and the axle I3 may 65 means carried by said unsprung part and con
be referred to as the unsprung part of the ve
nected to said sprung part for supporting the
latter Vfrom said unsprung part, a shock ab-'
In the systems embodying helper springs 30,
sorber rigidly attached to said sprungpart and
30a or 30h and 30e, an additional advantage has
having an oscillating piston and an operating
been introduced by the utilization of such 70 member attached to said piston and extending
springs. These helper springs introduce a coun-~
outwardly of said absorber, a second shock ab- y
teracting frequency into the system which tends
sorber rigidly connected with said unsprung part
to destroy the natural period of resonance of the
main suspension springs. This tendency is of
also having an oscillating piston and an oper
ating member attached to its piston, a coiled
marked advantage and effective particularly 75 auxiliary spring having integral crossed arms'.
extending'f'rom its ends', each‘of said arms being
directly welded to onev of said operating members
so that said auxiliary spring lies between said
sprung and unsprung parts and whereby the in
terconnection of said shock absorbers and said 5
auxiliari7 spring is free of all articulated joints
and the 'system of sho'ck absorbers and coil spring
is noiseless in operation, the said coil spring
serving as a helper spring for said spring sus
pension means and as a retarder of the trans
mission of motion of the unsprung part to the
said pistons of said shock absorbers.
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