Патент USA US2274227код для вставки
Feb. 24, 1942. l.. E. wlLLARD ' 2,274,227 SHOCK' vmasomaING» SYSTEM Filed sept. 1'7, 1940 ATTORNEYS Patented Feb. 24, 1942 2,274,227 UNITED. STATES PATENT [OFFICE 2,274,227 snoei; ABsoRBING, SYSTEM Louis E. Willard, Long Islandî City,.N. Y., assigner to (Ilharles.` Zimmer, Brooklyn, N.. Y.` Application September 17, 1940; Serial‘No. 357,079 3 claims. The present invention relates to shock absorb ing systems adapted for use particularly in con junction with suspension springs,` . chassis or (Cl. 267-8) serves> as an auxiliary spring to compensate for loss of efliciency of the main spring resulting from use and wear of the latter. It is a. further object of' this invention to` pro vide a, novel shock absorber system which is frames and axles of automobiles,` wagons and. other vehicles, and also may be used for doorchecks and the like. In many shock absorber systems in use today, utilizing a shock absorbery of the type in which a liquid is forced from onel place to another by noiseless in operation, simple _in construction, comparatively cheap in cost, easy to install and a piston, the liquid serves as the resisting me sorber system which will operate properly under dium for cushioning the shock. These systems generally have such a shock absorber mounted on the longitudinal side bars of the main frame or chassis near each wheel. The shock absorber is what is known generally as a wing or vane. easy tofreplace or repair. It is a further object to provide a shock ab all weather conditions, i. e., be capable of all weather performance. To the accomplishment of the foregoing and such other objects as may hereinafter appear, this invention consists in the` novel construction and arrangement` of parts hereinafter described and- then sought to be defined in the appended claims,l reference being had to the accompany shock absorber housing are secured to a portion ing drawing forming a part hereof and which of the piston in the chamber and oscillate with 20 show, merely for the purposes of illustrative dis it. An operating lever or- crank arm is rigidly closure„ preferred embodiments of the invention, fixed or formed onl the outwardly extending porit being expressly understood, however, that var tion of the piston. This j lever is connected ious changes may be made in practice within the through linkages and articulated, linkage joints scopeof the claims without digressing from the to the axle of the ,wheel withV which the shock 25 inventive. idea. .absorber is designed to function. ' In the accompanying drawing, in which simi Systems embodying this construction have lar reference characters denote corresponding many disadvantages. They are noisy in opera parts: , tion because of the articulated joints> and sub Fig.> l is a side elevation, partly in section, of type and is provided with an outwardly extend ing portion of its piston. The» Varies'` or wings which function in the operating chamber of, the ject to criticisms and rejection by the` vehicle ' user for this reason alone. 'I'hey are costly be, cause of the number of parts necessary for in a portion of the, chassis or frame, the axle and a' suspension spring for one wheel of an automo bile equipped with my improved shock absorber stallation, and because of the time and labor in system~ showing the system in its neutral or volved in their installation and/or replacement,< normal position. Being connected by articulated joints and link-` 35 Fig. 2 is` a vertical cross> section. taken along ages these systems are extremely subject to fail line` 2-2 of Fig. 1 andl viewed in the direction ofure at critical times. ¿Each articulated jointre the arrows. ' quires frequent lubrication or rubber cushions Fig. 3 is a> view similar to Fig. l on a smaller and on modern vehicles a. connection to` the. lu y scale showing the position of parts of the system bricating system with the resultant increasedl 40 after the axle has. been subjected to shock, i. e., cost of production of the vehicle. It is an object. of this invention to provide a shock absorber system in which the shock ab sorber lever or crank arms, linkages and articu on the upthrow of the axle. . Fig. 4 is a View similar to Fig. 1 also on a re duced scale showing the position of parts of the system on recoil of the suspension spring, i. e., lated linkage joints arey entirely eliminated and 45 on the downthrow of the axle. ` in which a jointless positive drive for the pis Fig. 5 is a view> similar to Fig. 1 illustrating a tons of the shock absorbers in the system> is ef modified form of shock absorbing system, and fected. Fig. 6 is al View similar to Fig. 1 illustrating It is also an object of this invention to pro a further modified form of shock absorbing sys vide a shock absorber system free of articulated 50 tem utilizing the principles of my invention. joints utilizing a helper spring in conjunction Referring to the drawing, I0 designates a, 1on with the main spring of the Vehicle. This helper gitudinal side bar >of av main frame or chassis spring serves as a positive drive for the shock ab which mayy be a portion` of an automobile chassis sorber piston,` replacing; the shock absorber arm and. usual link and articulated joint. It` also or other vehicleu chassis.r H y is a suspension spring having its central part secured in usual J 2,274,227 2 manner as by shackle or U-bolts I2 or in other suitable way to the support or axle I3. The ends of the spring are connected suitably at I4 and I5 to the side bar I0 to sustain the load carried by said side bar. A shock absorber denoted generally by the reference numeral 2i) is suitably supported at 2|’ from the side bar I3, and a second similar type of shock absorber 20a is supported by the shackle or U-bolts 22’ or in other suitable man ner from the spring II in the region directly shock absorber 2D. In similar manner, arm 33 has its end ñxed as by welding at 35 to the `op erating portion 25a oí the piston of the shock ab sorber 20a. Other suitable means for ñxedly at taching the arms to the operating portion 25, 25a of the pistons may be employed. In prac tice welding is the simplest and eliminates extra parts. The coil portion of the spring is suspended in the space between the side bar Iû and the main suspension spring II being supported there sole above the axle I3. This second shock absorber ». . ly` by the connection of its rigid arms 32 and 33 with the piston extensions 25 and 25a of the two 20a may be supported directly from the axle I3 . shock absorbers 20 and 20a. This system operates generally as follows: On the upthrow of the axle I3 caused by a vehicle the agency of shackle or U-bolts I2, Ythe shock Y’ passing over a bump, the suspension spring II absorber 20a is in effect supported by the axley I3. moves upwardly too. This upward movement be Both shock absorbers 23 and Zlla, inthe em cause of the rigid connection of the rigid arms bodiment shown, are of the wing or vane type Well known in the art and exemplified, for ex 20 32 and 33 to the piston extensions 25 and 25a causes torsion of the spring 30. The reaction of ample, by those described and shown in my own spring 30 to the torsional force imparted to it in previous patents numbered 2,149,129 issued Feb turn through the arms 32 and 33 causes rotation ruary 28, 1939, and2,158,645 issued May 16, 1939. of the piston extensions 25, 25a of the two shock Brieiiy a shock absorber of this type comprises an outer casing 2| which is provided with suit '.15 absorbers 2U and 20a and consequently rotates the vanes or wings 23, 23a of the shock absorbers able means for securing the same to a part of if desired. Inasmuch as there is rigid connec tion between the spring II and axle> I3 through the vehicle. The casing is provided with awork ing chamber 22 in which the vanes, blades or Wings 23 of an oscillatable piston 24 operate. from their neutral positions shown in Fig. _l to positions illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 3. During such movement the well known retardina- The piston may have an operating portion 25 30 functioning of the shock absorbers 20 and 29a occurs, so that the shock imparted to the axle is which extends externally of the casing and which not transmitted to the chassis or frame side may be suitably rotated to effect functioning of the shock absorber. In well known manner, as for example that described in my Patent No. bar I0. ' ' The rebound of the suspension spring II, and downthrow of the axle I3 as illustrated in Fig. 4 on an exaggerated scale, causes torsion of the spring 30 in the opposite direction to that of the 2,158,645, means (not shown) are provided in ternally of the casing for supplying fluid through suitable valving (also not shown) to the working upthrow just described and consequently causes chamber 22 to cause the well known operation rotation of the vanes or wings 23, 23a in opposite of this type of shock absorber. It is to be under stood that any other suitable wing, cam-actu 40 direction to the positions shown diagrammatic ly in said Fig. 4. During such rotational move ated cylinder or vane type fluid-containing shock ment, of course, the shock absorbers 2B, 20a func absorber having an externally extending operat tion in their well known retarding manner so ing piston portion or shaft may be used. that the rebound of the suspension spring II is In the embodiment shown, the operating por not felt in the chassis frame. tion 25 of the piston of the chassis of frame At all times as well as during both upthrow mounted shock absorber 2B is directly intercon and downthrow of the axle I3, the spring 36 also nected with the operating portion 25a of the acts as a ride suspension helper spring for the piston of the axle mounted or supported shock main suspension spring II. This helping action absorber 20a by a connection which is free of , articulated joints. To this end, a helper or aux iliary spring 3U is provided. This spring may be is more marked and effective when the efficiency of the main suspension spring has deteriorated after long use. a spiral coil spring having a few turns 3|. The It is to be understood that the strength of number of turns, strength of the spring, its ma spring 30, and the length of the rigid arms 32 terial and other physical characteristics are all and 33 thereof are the determining factors in dependent upon the size and weight of the ve 55 the extent of rotation of the wings or vanes of hicle with which it is to be used. Two integrally the two shock absorbers and that the spring 3D formed rigid arms or extensions 32 and 33 are used must be such as to give the required action provided, one at each end >of the spring 3U. for any particular Vehicle. In practice, for ex These arms extend laterally in angular rela ample, the spring 30 used in a shock absorbing 60 tionship from the coil surface, being spaced apart system for a heavy vehicle must be of heavier by the number of turns of the coil and crossing each other in scissor-fashion as shown in Figs. 1 construction than one for a light car. These factors are well understood by men skilled in the and'2. The _relative length and angular disposi art. tion of the arms is such that when they are joined A modiñed form of shock absorbing system to the pistons 25 and 25a. in the manner herein 65 embodying principles of my invention is shown in Fig. 5. In this system the helper spring has after to be described, the center of rotation of been eliminated. The two shock absorbers 20 and the pistons 25 and 25a and the center of the coil 20a are interconnected through the agency of a in the neutral position of parts are located ap third shock absorber 2017. This shock absorber proximately at the apices of a triangle. In the 20h is preferably of the same type as shock ab embodiment shown this triangle is equi-lateral. sorbers 20 and 22a, and has parts corresponding Other triangles are contemplated, thereto similarly numbered and bearing the sub In the embodiment shown, arm 32 has its end script ’b. Its casing 2lb has a rigid arm 401 ñxed as by welding at 34 to the operating por tion 25 of the piston of the frame supported 75 welded or otherwise permanently iixed to it at 4I. The opposite end. of’tliis arm '40 is welded or otherwise permanently ñxedat`42 to the ex tendingv portion 25a of the ‘piston of theaxle supported shock absorber '29m The .extending portion 25h of the piston of the shock> absorber 5 Zlib has a rigid arm 43 welded or otherwise suit ably securedto it at 4.4. The opposite end of of an equi-lateral triangle, Other angular ar rangements are, however, contemplated. The shock absorber 20h is suspended in the space between the side bar I0 and the main suspension stalled in an older car the counteracting fre main suspension spring or springs and eliminate > of the frame supported shock absorber 2U. Arms 10y extending portions 25, 25a, 25h of the pistons 24, 24a, 24h are located substantially at the apices the vehicle. If; for example,ïone ofthe systems herein disclosed embodying helper springs is in quencies of the'new helper spring or springs will tendlto vdestroy thelnatural resonance of the old arm 43 .is welded to or otherwise suitably ñxed at 45 to the extending portion 25 of the piston 40 and 43 are so proportioned in length that pref erably in the neutral position of all parts as shown in Fig. 5, the centers of oscillation of the when the main suspension springs have begun to lose theirl efficiency through use andÁ wear of sources of unwanted vibration. _ All the systemsy herein disclosed in effect pro vide a knee-action ride for front and rear of any vehicle. ' ' While specific types of wing or vane type shock absorbers have been described, it is to be under 15 stood that other types of suitable shock absorb ers may be incorporated in the systems. Other modifications embodying theprinciples of this invention are contemplated. II‘here is no intention of limitation to the exact details shown spring Il, being supported there solely by the 20 and described. coupling arms or bars 40 and 43. I claim: In operation of this system, shock imparted to 1. In combination, a vehicle chassis or frame, the axle I 3 will cause positive drive of the pistons an axle, a chassis supported shock absorber, an of all three shock absorbers through the agency axle supported shock absorber, and means for of the rigid arms 40 and 43, resultingin a very 25 directly coupling said two yshock absorbers in op smooth vriding vehicle. Since all the shock` ab erative relationship, said coupling means com sorbers are entirely noiseless in operation and y prising a spring having portions thereof directly since no swivel joints are used for interconnec and rigidly connected to each shock absorber and tion, all noise is entirely eliminated in the action said spring being suspended solely yby said con of this shock absorbing system. The entire sys 30 nected portions thereof, and constituting with its tem may be quickly replaced after wear if nec arms a positive drive connection between the pis essary, or individual shock absorbers, or parts tons of said shock absorbers which is free of ar thereof, replaced simply and quickly should re ticulation at all connections between arms and pair become necessary. shock absorber portions, and serving both as a . It is to be noted that this system may be modi 35 helper suspension spring between said chassis or ñed if desired to include the helper spring sys frame and said axle and as a retarder of the tem of Figs. l-4 inclusive simply by the substitu transmission of motion from said axle to said tion for either or both arms 40 and 43 of helper ` shock absorbers. springs similar to the helper spring 30 of Fig. 1. 2. In combination, an unsprung part of a ve A further modiñed form of my invention is 40 hicle, a sprung part of said vehicle supported shown in Fig. 6 wherein only one shock absorber from said unsprung part, spring suspension is used. In this form, the single shock absorber means carried by said unsprung part and con 20d is suitably supported from the side piece l0 nected to said sprung part for supporting said of the frame and the arm 32c of helper spring sprung part from said unsprung part, a shock 30o welded or otherwise suitably attached at 34e he. Ul absorber attached to said sprung part and hav to the piston extension 25d. The free end of the ing an operating member extending therefrom, a other arm 33e of the helper spring is jointed or second shock absorber carried by said unsprung otherwise suitably attached at 35c to the shackle part andY having an operating member extending or U-bolt I2b, which attaches the suspension therefrom, a coiled. auxiliary spring having spring llb to the axle I3b._ The arm 33e mayy 50 crossed integral arms extending therefrom, each be directly jointed or otherwise suitably attached of said arms being welded directly to one of said to the axle Hb or to any other part conveniently operating members whereby the connection be and rigidly associated With the axle. The spring tween said shock absorbers and said auxiliary 30e functions both as an auxiliary or helper to spring is free of all articulated joints and the the suspension spring IIb and as a direct one 55 system of shock absorbers and coil spring is joint coupling member between the axle |317 and noiseless in operation, the said auxiliary spring the extending portion 25d of the shock absorber lying ,between said sprung and unsprung parts piston 24d. and serving both as a helper spring for said In two of the systems abovev described, all ' spring suspension means and as a retarder in the articulated linkage joints have been eliminated transmission of motion of the unsprung part to and essentially noiseless operation of the shock 60 the said two shock absorbers. absorbing system achieved. 3. In combination, an unsprung part of a ve For convenience, the chassis or frame l0 and , y hicle, a sprung part of said vehicle supported parts carried on it may be referred to as the from said unsprung part, spring suspension sprung parts of the vehicle and the axle I3 may 65 means carried by said unsprung part and con be referred to as the unsprung part of the ve nected to said sprung part for supporting the hicle. latter Vfrom said unsprung part, a shock ab-' In the systems embodying helper springs 30, sorber rigidly attached to said sprungpart and 30a or 30h and 30e, an additional advantage has having an oscillating piston and an operating been introduced by the utilization of such 70 member attached to said piston and extending springs. These helper springs introduce a coun-~ outwardly of said absorber, a second shock ab- y teracting frequency into the system which tends sorber rigidly connected with said unsprung part to destroy the natural period of resonance of the main suspension springs. This tendency is of also having an oscillating piston and an oper ating member attached to its piston, a coiled marked advantage and effective particularly 75 auxiliary spring having integral crossed arms'. 4 2,274,2:2': extending'f'rom its ends', each‘of said arms being directly welded to onev of said operating members so that said auxiliary spring lies between said sprung and unsprung parts and whereby the in terconnection of said shock absorbers and said 5 auxiliari7 spring is free of all articulated joints and the 'system of sho'ck absorbers and coil spring is noiseless in operation, the said coil spring serving as a helper spring for said spring sus pension means and as a retarder of the trans mission of motion of the unsprung part to the said pistons of said shock absorbers. LOUIS E. WILLARD.