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Патент USA US2278701

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April 7, 1942.
2,2 78,701
Filed OCT.. 3, 1940
H | sfAT‘roRNEY.
Patented Apr. 7, 19,42
Aurea D. xm, Newark, N. J., assigner to
Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, N. Y., a
. corporation ot New Jersey
Application October 3, 1940, Serial No. 359,510
s claims. v(ci. ais-27)
This invention relates to a Vacuum moistening
apparatus, and, more particularly, to an appara
tus for processing grain, and >the like, by remov
ing ñuids and moisture entrained in»the grain
and moistening the grain.
apparatus which is simple and economical to op
erate and requires a minimumof attention.
, These and other objects will appear from the
following description of which the drawing forms
As a part of the manufacture of certain grain
> products, it is desirable to treat the grain in its
natural state to remove' iiuids, kill -or _remove
In the drawing, the bin, or hopper, I is designed
to receive the grain to be processed from a grain
Y elevator or a continuous belt.
Directly belowthe
harmful bacteria, fungi, and the like, and to
bin I is a primary evacuating chamber 3 to which
moisten the grain. This is accomplished by wet 10 the
bin is connected by the throat 5.
ting the grain and subjecting it to a lowl absolute
'Extending through the wallV of the throatis `a
pressure to remove air and inherent moisture in
damper, or gate 1, provided ,with a handle 9.
'_ the grain, heating the grain to dnve of: any vair . This damper serves to control the rate of flow `
remaining and kill living organisms and further
of the grain from the hopper I to the primary
Y moisten the grain so that it will have a prede
termined desired moisture content.
Apparatus for processing grain in this man
15 evacuating chamber 3 and the -distance'that it ’
extends into the throat 5 is slidably adjustable.Surrounding thethroat at _a point below the
ner may be divided into two general types, the
damper is an annular casing 2 which communi
batch type and the continuous type. In the batch
cates with the interior of the throat through the
type the grain must be inserted in the apparatus 20 orifices 4 formed in the wall of the throat. Water
while theapparatus is inactive and, after proc
is supplied to this casing through the water sup
essing, the apparatus must be rendered inactive
-ply line 6 and the rate of ilow is governed by the
before the> grain can be removed. In the con-4
valve ‘3. With this varrangement it is _possible to
tinuous type of apparatus, the grain is processed
spray the grain iiowing through the throat with
as it _ñows through the apparatus. In this form 25 water.
the grain is continuously fed to the apparatus for
At one side of the primary evacuatlng chamber
processing and is continuously being discharged
3 is the conduit II opening into _the chamber.
from the apparatus after processing. This latter
A lip I3 is formed in this chamberso as to protect
’ type of apparatus, needless to say, will handle a
the conduit l I and prevent any grain from falling
greater quantity, of grain for a given period of
into this conduit. At the other end of the Acon'
time and requires much less attention to operate.
duit is the steam evacuator Il. The steam evac
The present invention relates to the continuous
uator is shown as discharging to the atmosphere
type of apparatus and an object of the invention
but. if it is desirable, it may discharge to an after-v
is to provide such -apparatus in which the grain
condenser' (not shown).
is processed as it iiows therethrough.
Steam to actuate the evacuator I1 is supplied
Another object is to provide a grain processing
through the pipe I9 which is connected to the
apparatus of the continuous ñow type wherein
steam> supply conduit 2|. Appropriate valves 23
Y the grain is subjected to a vacuum.
and 25 are provided“ respectively in the steam
A further object is to provide a grain Proc
conduit 2|. and the pipe I9 so that the
. essing apparatus of the continuous flow type
wherein the medium employed to heat the grain
» assists in the movement'of the -grain through
the apparatus.
Still another object is to provide a grain proc
Yilowv ofvsteam therethrough may be controlled. The evacuator Il serves to remove air and some
' moisture in the primary evacuating chamber. and
may be of such design that 'the pressure in the
chamber 3 will be constantly main-> '
essing apparatus wherein the force of gravity s45 evacuating
tained at 15" of mercury absolute pressure. .
utilized to -move the grain through the apparatus.
The second throat 21 connects the primary
Yet another object is to provide a grain proc
v4evacuating chamber 3 with the secondary evacè
essing apparatus of the _continuous ñow type
uating chamber 29. .Atrestriction 3| formedby
wherein the grain is sprayed with water before
an annular depression in the wall of thei throat
it is subjected to a low absolute pressure, or while 50 21 serves -to keep the throat full of grain _and
it is under a low absolute pressure, and is then
heatedA and moistened before being subjected to
t , atmospheric pressure prior to discharge from the
' _Another object is to provide a grainprocessing 5
retard the leakage of air from primary evacuating
chamber 3 to evacuating chamber 29. Within the
secondary evacuating> chamber 29 are placed
baiiles 33 to lengthen the path of the grain
through the chamber.
4 The chamber 2l is provided with a lip 3l cor
balies 33 are so designed as to prevent any pos
sibility of the grain entering the conduit 31 that
steam evacuator I i .
The steam evacuator 4i has
21 and il between their respective connected
evaporating chambers as the grain ñows there
responding to the lip i3 in chamber 3 and the
opens into the chamber at one side thereof.
The conduit 31 is connected to a secondary
will be no substantial leakage through throats
through, thus preventing any tendency toward
equalization of pressures in the evaporating
During operation of the apparatus the evacu- '
ators 'are constantly removing iluid from the
a supply pipe 43 and control valve 4B through
evaporating chambers and, as the pressure in
which steam is conducted from the steam supply
each successive chamber is lowerthan the pres
conduit Ziand to which it is connected.
. ‘ '10.„sure of the preceding chamber, a portion of
'I'he discharge from the secondary evacuator
the surface moisture on the grain is evaporated
Il is directed to animer-condenser 41 supplied
whenever the grain, in its flow through the ap
with water through pipe 49 having a regulating
paratus, reaches a zone of low pressure, that is, Y
valve 5i and discharging the water and con
when the vapor pressure of the surface moisture
densate from the tail-pipe, or drain, 53 to a 15' exceeds the vapor pressure existing in such zone,
sump or sewer line (not shown).
evaporation of a portion of the surface moisture
Obviously, there will be some non-condensable
occurs and equalizes the vapor pressure of the
gases discharged to the inter-condenser I1 and,
surface moisture with the vapor pressure of the
in order to remove these gases. the steam ejector ‘
Evaporation of this moisture results in
Il is appropriately connected at one side to the 201 zone.
cooling the surface of the grain but this cooling
inter-condenser. Steam is supplied to actuate
does not affect the interior of the grain particles
this ejector through the pipe l1 connected di
due to the insulating properties of the grain.
rectly with the steam supply conduit 2i.
The surface moisture evaporation will continue
A _third or tertiary evacuating chamber '59 . until the temperature has been lowered to such
lies belowl the secondary evacuating chamber 29
an extent that vapor pressure is materially de
and is connected thereto by the throat 3i hav
creased. When this occurs, practically none of
ing a restriction 63 similar to the restriction 3l
in the throat 21.
This chamber is provided
the remaining water on the grain surfaces can
be evaporated or removed. 'Howeven through
out the process, the lowering of the tempera
manner as the secondary evacuating chamber so. ture of thewater on the grain surfacehas no
Il. It also has acommunicating conduit 3l
material effect on the temperature of the inher
,which corresponds to the -conlduits Il and 31
ent moisture in the grain which is at a higher
?toîiojiinect the chamber with a tertiary steam
temperature. Consequently, the inherent mois-l
evacuator 1i corresponding to evacuators i1
ture will ñash and escape-from the grain and
and 4i. Steam is supplied to actuate the evacu
will carry with it any air present ln the kernels
ator 1| through pipe 13 and the ñow there
with a lip B5 and baille plates $1 in the same
through is controlled by an appropriate valve 1l. -
The condenser 11 receives the discharge fromv
the evacuator 1I and the condenser is cooled
>by cooling water 4supplied through the cooling
water supply line 13 having a control valve 3l.
condensate and `cooling water are discharged
from the condenser 11 through the tail, or dis
charge pipe, 32. The non-condensable gases in
the condenser 11 are removed therefrom by the
secondary steam evacuator 4I which communi
cater directly therewith by means of the pipe 33.
With this arrangement the grain flows by
gravity from the bin I through the throat i
to the primary evacuating chamber 3. The rate
of iiow, as above pointed out, is regulated by
the damper 1 and, as the grain ilows through
the throat, it is moistened by the water sprayed
thereon from the orifices I.' The reason for 1
spraying water `on the grain is to moisten the
` ‘grain` so that water will fill the interstices be
tween the individual grains and minimize. iiuid
' leakage through the grain as it passes through
throat I from a zone oi >high pressure (atmos
phere) to a zone of lower pressure (chamber 3).
'In other words. the grain is moistened> and the
damper provided in order to have an “air lock"
' between the bin i and the chamber 3 which‘is
merely a means to prevent the flow of air there
’ between through the -throat~ l. 'Ot course. an!
. form of flow' controlling device such as rotary
vvaries (not shown) may be used and the damper
is only one illustration. If this were not done,
As a result, when the grain is finally discharged
from the tertiary evacuating chamber practically
' all of the air and some ot the inherent moisture
'in the'grain will have beenremoved but some
, of the moisture on the grain surfaces will re-.
During the above procedure the grain will have
Vbeen moved through the' apparatus by gravity,
assisted by the difference in pressure existing be
tween the successive evaporating chambers, but,
as will be seen from the drawing, at the dis
charge end of the tertiary evacuating chamber
a steam nozzle 3l is provided in the steam ejector,
generally indicated at I3, to which steam is led
by the conduit 31. in order-to continue the move
ment ot the grain.
An appropriate regulating
valve 33 controls the introduction of steam into
the grain and the _ steam propels the grain
through the throat Il to the inlet of the steam
ejector, generally indicated at 33. ,
The steam ejector 33 comprises a nozzle~ Il,
appropriately supplied with steam through the
pipe 31 and valve 3l, and the throat, or dii
rusor, lli. The discharge end o! the steam ejec
tor 33 communicatesdirectly witlra steam cham- -
a ber |03 having baiiies ill to lengthen the path
’ of travel of the grain therethrough. Inthis man..
ner the. nozzle Il directs steam into the grain and
carries it to the steam ejector 13, which in turn
propels the grain, while moistening it. into the
steaming chamber |33. Thus,_ the-pteam-not only
moves the grain through theap?a'ratus, but it
there would be acontinual fluctuation oi' pres
sure in chamber 3 since air at atmospheric pres 70 also serves to drive the surface moisture into
the grain in order that the desired. moisture con
sure would enterV with the grain.
tent may be obtained.
_ ` 1‘
As the grain flows through chamber 3 a cer
_ Near the lower portionof
tain amount of this surface moisture will evap
orate and be removed, but suiiicient, surface mois
_ ture will remain on the grain so that there
ber |33 is a connection Ill-opening into the
condenser „ist4
.which the steaming'
chamber communicates with the condenser |09.
of a plurality of chambers arranged ver
(_J‘ooling water is supplied Vto the condenser |09 by > blnatlon
series for continuously moving the grain
the inlet ||| and is removed with the condensed
means to reduce the pressure in
liquids through the tail-pipe H3 to an appro
priate sump (not shown). At the top of the con
, denser is a steam ejector ||-5 to remove non
condensable gases and discharge them to the >at
mosphere in the same manner as the‘ejector 55.
When the grain leaves the tertiary evacuator
'e chamber it is at a low absolute
pressure, _and
although the addition of the steam supplied.
through nozzles 05 and 95 will tend to increase
this pressure, the pressure in the steam chamber
each chamber to a lower pressure than the press
ureA of the preceding chamber of said series,
a steaming chamber for moistening the grain,
steam ejector means to remove the'grain from
the last said chamber of said series and discharge
it to said steam chamber, a discharge chamber,
and means to remove the grain from the steam -
chamber and discharge it to the discharge cham
ber wherein the grain is subjected to atmospheric
_ |03 will notl increase to atmospheric pressure.
3. In a grain moistening apparatus, the com.
'I'he pressure or vacuum in the steam chamber 15
bination of a series of vertically arranged cham
may be increased or decreased by adjusting valve
||0 in the air bleed pipe ||1 provided at the top
of condenser |09. ' Thus, the amount of vacuum
' ' in the steaming chamber may be constantly
bers for continuously moving the grain there
through by gravity, evacuators for the chambers,
an ejector to remove said grain from the final>
chamber of said series, a grain moistening cham20 ber to receive the grain removed from said series
of chambers by the ejectors, a motivating ejector
Upon Y reaching the bottom of the steaming
to remove the grain from the moistening cham
chamber |03, the grain has been thoroughly mois
ber, and a delivery chamber to receive the grain
tened and, since the excess steam not necessary
the motivating ejector and subject itA to
for moistening is removed to the condenser |09,
atmospheric pressure.
the grain is now ready to be discharged _from
4. In a grain moistening apparatus, the com
the apparatus. At this point the grain being. at
bination of a grain hopper, a primary evacuating
a low absolute pressure must be re-subjected
chamber arranged to receive grain from the hop
to atmospheric pressure before discharging it
from the apparatus. To this end the ejector |20 30 per, a, secondary evaporating chamber arranged
to receive grain from the Iprimary evaporating
having a nozzle |2| is located at the bottom of
chamber, a tertiary evapdrating chamber ar
the steaming chamber |00 and is arranged to
ranged to receive grain from the secondary evap
direct its exhaust through a throat |23 and dif
orating chamber, evacuators to reduce the pres-.
fusor |25.
Instead of actuating the ejector |20 by -steam 35 sure in each said chamber adapted to reduce the
pressure in said secondary ejector to a pressure
which would further meisten and overheat the
less than the pressure in the primary chamber
grain, the nozzle l2| issupplied with a iluld
and in the tertiary chamber‘to a pressure less
such as air under pressure by the pipe |21 con
trolled by the valve |20. 'I'he air under pressure - than the pressure inthe secondary chamber, a
steaming chamber
moisten the grain. ‘steam
discharged from _the nozzle will force the grain 40 ejectors
grain from the tertiary
through the throat |23 and diifusor |25 into the
chamber and discharge it to the steam cham
atmospheric chamber |30. 'I'he _expansion of the
ber, a 'discharge chamber vented to atmospheric
compressed air through nozzle I2| will result in
pressure, and an air actuated ejector to remove
œonsiderable reductionof temperature, which in
turn will cool the grain and prevent undue loss 45 grain from the steam chamber, cool it and dis
charge it to the discharge chamber wherein the
of moisture during and after ejection. At the
grain is subjected -to atmospheric pressure before
top of this chamber is an air vent line |35 and
controlled so that the pressure of the steam nec
essary to meisten the grain may be attained.
within the chamber are plates |32 so disposed -
removal therefrom.- '
5. In a grain moistening apparatus, the com
that any grain blown out of the diilusor into the
chamber cannot be blown up into this air vent 50 bination of a plurality of chambers arranged in series to receive the grain. evacuators to reducev
to be lost, or> retard the discharge of air. I
the pressure in each chamber Ato a pressure lower
The bottom of the atmospheric chamber |30
than the pressure of the preceding chamber of
gradually converges into a rthroat or discharge
said series, a steam chamber, a pair'of steam ac
pipe lll having a regulating damper |33 similar
in construction and function to the damper l. 55 tuated ejectors to remove the grain from the last
chamber of the series and discharge it to the
With this arrangement, therefore, the grain
steam chamber wherein the grain is moistened,
may be moistened to any particular degree by
-controlling the amount of steam to which it is ^
subjected by the design of the steam entry noz
a discharge chamber open to atmosphere-and an
Aair actuated ejector to remove the grain from the
' zles 85 and 0_5 and by regulation of» the pressure 60 steam chamber, cool it and discharge-it to the ,
in chamber |03, and when the grain is removed
from the system it is adequately moistened and
discharge chamber wherein the grain is sub
jected to atmospheric pressure before -removal
at atmospheric presure.
I claim:
Vl. In a grain moistening apparatus, the com
bination of a plurality of chambers arranged ver
tically in series for continuously moving the grain
therethrough by- gravity, meansto evacuate each
6. In a grain moistening apparatus, the com
65 bination of a plurality of chambers arranged
, vertically in series for- continuously moving the
grain therethrough by gravity, means to wet the
surface of the grain before entry into the cham
bers, means to evacuate each chamber to a pro
chamber to progressively lower pressures,` means
including a steam ejector to discharge and mois 70 gressively lower pressure than the preceding
ten the grain from the ñnal chamber of said
chamber- to remove ñuid from the grain passing
series, and fluid lpressure operated means to re
therethrough, means including a steam ejector
to discharge and meisten the grain after dis
charge from the final chamber of said series, and
move the grain from the last means and subject
the grain to atmospheric pressure.
2. In ag’rainmoistening apparatus, the cbm
means to remove the grain from the last means
and subject the grain to atmospheric pressure I
beiore discbarae from the apparatus.
'1. In a grain moistening apparatus, the cœu
bination of a plurality of chambers arranged in
series to receive the grain. means to wet the sur
and the secondary evaporating chamber to re
strict the now of grain. a tertiary evaporating
chamber arranged to receive grain from äse aec
face of the grain before entry into the nrst
chamber of the series. means between adjacent
chambers of the series to restrict the flow of
grain, evacuawrs to reduce the pressure in each
chamber to a pressure lower than the pressure
ot the preceding 'chamber of said series to remove
uuid from- the grain passing therethrough, a
steam chamber, a pair of steam actuated ejec
ber, a secondary evaporating chamber to receive
grain from the primary evaporatlng chamber.
means between the primary evacuating chamber
ondary evaporating chamber, means between the
second evaporating chamber' and the tertiary Y
evaporating chamber to restrict the now ot grain.
lò evacuators to reduce the'presnlre in each said
tors to remove the grain from the last chamber
- of the series and discharge it to the steamcham
ber wherein `the grain is'moistened, a discharge
chamber open to atmosphere, and an air actu
ated ejector to remove the grain from the steam
ing chamber, cool it and discharge it to the dis
charge chamber-.wherein the grain is subjected
to asmospheric pressure before removal there
a grain moistening apparatus.l the com-‘ `
bination o! a grain hopper, a primary evacuat
ing chamber arranged to receive grain from the
before entry into the primary evacuating cham- v
pressure in the primary chamber and in the
sure in the _secondary chamber to remove
chamber to moisten the grain,steameiectorato
remove the grain from the tertiary chamber and
discharge it to the steaming chamber, a discharge
chamber vented to atmospheric pressure. and an
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