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Патент USA US2282292

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May 5, 1942.
Filed July 10, 1957'
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Patented May 5, 1942
r ‘2,282,292?
Ernest V. Amy and Julius Gourgues Aceves,
- New York, N. Y.
Application July 10, 1937, Serial No. 152,884 ‘
6 Claims.
(01. 250-33)
Our invention relates to antenna systems for 'i
use with radio receivers and more particularly
to a system whereby optimum antenna condi
tions are automatically obtained for each of a
given frequency, it follows that it will have a
very 'Doorpick-up fora signal of twice this fre
quency, (or one-halfof the wave length). Ac
cordingly, it would be a desirable improvement if
plurality of selected frequency bands.
The application‘ is a continuation-in-partjof '7
our copending application for United States
Letters Patent Serial No. 758,234, filed December
the antenna length could be automatically ad
justed to-optimum value, in practice at least, for
the more important frequency bands or channels
19, 1934.
~ It is one ‘object of our invention to provide
to be received.
Our invention is especially applicable to an
the‘ antenna ‘with frequency-selective means to
tenna systems of the .so-called dipole ‘type, '
whether symmetrical or unsymmetrical, ‘and
of the antenna for each of two or more frequency
whether comprising one or more arms, as well
adjust automatically the electrical effective length
as to dipole antenna systems that are also capable
It‘ is another object of our invention to pro
of operation as T-antennas, such as shownvin 15 vide an antenna capable of operating as a ‘dipole
said application Serial No. 758,234.
The inven- '
or doublet antenna‘and providing maximum‘ sig
tion is also applicable to the so-called “spider" or
nal pick-up for two or more frequency bands. ,
multiple type of antenna.
It-is still another object of our inventionto
Radio receivers of the so-called “all-wave’? type
provide an antenna system, forlthe reception of
are provided with appropriate circuits and fre 20 standard radio broadcast signals, which includes
quency or wave band selectors enabling the proper 1‘
therein one or more means to limit the effective
reception of signalsbroadcast on short waves
(very high frequencies) and long waves (lower
frequencies known as the American broadcast
band) as well as in the intermediate channels.
Fora signal of a given frequency there is an
optimum length of antenna that will‘ deliver
‘length of the'antenna for most ef?cient recep
‘tion' of one or more short-wave bands.
“It is'a further object of our'invention to‘ pro
vide an antenna system composed of a plurality
of ‘series arranged antenna s'ections‘con'nected to
radio receiving apparatus'by means of a single
maximum signal voltage to the radio receiving
transmission line. .
For reception of signals of the lower frequency
bands (longer wave lengths) it is most practical
to use an ordinary L or T type of antenna. At
higher frequencies, quarter-wave antennae. or
It is a still further object of our invention to
provide. an‘ antenna system having, means therein
for 'se'ctionaliz'ing the antenna and blocking the
passage ‘of selected frequency'iba'nds but'allow
ing other frequencies to pass without substantial
for maximum signal pick-up. For the greatdi 35'. It is an even furtherv object of our invention to
versity of frequencies corresponding to. wave
provide an antenna system comprising a single
lengths of several hundred meters to a fraction
doublet'and a two‘ wire‘ transmission line with
of a meter, different lengths of antenna are neces
means'to give the effect'of a plurality of doublets
sary for maximum response at any selected wave
“connected to a radio receiver.
length. In general, it is not practical to have a
'It'is" an even further object of our invention
half wave dipole type antennae are preferable
plurality of antennae of different lengthsfor -
each of these frequency bands, andif only one
to’ provide in a symmetrical or asymmetrical
doublet ‘any number‘ of automatic dividers for sec
itionalizing one or both arms of the said doublet.
antenna is used, it follows that the e?iciency of
signal energy pickup will be impaired for certain
HThe term” “divider” as employed herein refers
frequencies. This is especially true in the case‘ 45 to an impedance placed at some point or points
of antennae of the dipole type, in connection ‘
in the arm or'arms of a doublet, or any other
with which this invention will be described by
‘type of antenna, whichhas the effect of adjust
way of example.
ing the electrical length of said antenna by virtue
For this type of antenna, when the total length
of changes of said'impedance with frequency.
of the dipole is an odd multiple of one-half of 50 _ Other ‘and further objects of. our invention will
the wave length to be received, reception is a
maximum. Likewise, for an even multiple of
half-wave lengths, reception or response is a
If one dipole is adjusted to receive efliciently a ‘55
be apparent to those skilled in the art and will,
in part, be developed in the following speci?ca
tion'takenin conjunction‘ with the, accompanying
drawing in which,‘
Eigure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a
quency-selective impedance, one form of which
symmetrical doublet or dipole antenna, each arm
of which has two effective lengths;
is indicated at I6, is connected therein as shown.
The distance of 1.25 meters is chosen as this is
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of an
the proper length in an arm of a half-wave
length doublet most e?ective for reception in d
asymmetrical doublet, in which only onearm has
provision for limiting the effective length thereof;
the ?ve meter channel, corresponding to one
quarter wave length of ?ve meters, of 60 mega
Fig, 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of a
doublet, each of the arms of which comprises a
cycles. Thus constructed, the doublet will give
pluralitywof sections ‘each responsive to a par
maximumlresponse for both'of the bands.
ticularwave band.
I ‘1
. d‘ I
Fig. 4" is a diagrammatic illustration of‘an 10 " ;Of course, the dividers or ?lters "may be de
signed to be anti-resonant for any selected fre
asymmetrical doublet with a modi?ed form of
" quency desired. The proper selection of elec
Fig. 5 is a’ diagrammatic: illustration of a _ . trical constants --in the design of the divider,
‘doublet, provided with another modi?ed form of _ namely: the inductance, capacity and resistance,
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic
Tat-ill‘? determine the broadness of the band for
illustration 'of' a‘v ’
doublet with still‘ another modified form of;v divider
‘which the divider acts as an antenna length
. limiting device.’
Figure 2 shows an asymmetrical doublet with
only‘o‘ne arm provided with an automatic length
_ tenna
The in)
the several
of the‘?gures
the drawing
type of'iani
is by 20 limiting device, or “divider.”.~_In.this?gure, the
to provide a broader selectivity.
arm 2|, is of some chosen length suitable‘ for re
way of examplefonly, butui't'shouldbe noted that
ception of say43‘megacycles (7 meters approxi
in, van rantenna' capable pig-acting as either. a
mately) while arm 22. may be ,muchlonger, for
doublet or; as-‘a ‘T_ type of, antenna,- the. auto
example 12.5‘ meters for best reception of 50
matic'gdividers ‘hereinafter’. described do notv in- \ metersignals
(?megacyclesy. A divider 2610f
terfere with the e?ectivetransferof energy from
voltages. developedQbetween the rantennahiand
proper constants inserted in arm ‘:22 at 1.75 me-_
ground, or a counterpoise. Likewiseitshould be
ters. (‘A wave length of 7. meters or 43 megacy
noted,,;that,one;or,;more radio receivers; each
wirejat this point, and thus constitute a second
cles) ‘will have the same effect as severing'the
tuned toreceiveithe same or even different fre
quencies,‘ f-may:~ jbe foperated from the - same‘ -an-. 30 arm of a dipole for“ 7 metersthe other one ‘of
which-is ‘arm. 2|. In this example, the divider
has an anti-resonant frequency of 43 megae
tenna having our, present invention incorporated
.,~ ..
Referring ,now ‘to Fig. 1,.th'e doublet comprises
apair of arms ‘I I’ and.l2'_connected to apair of
conductors I33 and I4 constituting a transmission
.antennaprovides maximum response for several
line orlead-in to whichthe radio receiving; ap- .
different selected frequencies. ‘The, antenna is
paratus'is to;.be ‘connected ; in any well .known ' shown .as comprising the arms-3| and 32 sepa
manner, neitherntheapparatus nor'the connec
tions being indicated .anywhere in-these 'draw- -' ‘ rated by gap'fi35', althoughdthe. dipole~ may be of
40 theacontinuous .wiretype '1 without .a gap, as is
well, knowninfthe art.v At the appropriate dis
tance, from the gap, electrical or physical, . each
arm has-inserted'therein a ‘divider having “in
» No particulai'iyiormpf transmissiondine or
lead-in is described. _. Thelead-in may-be“ either
the, parallel conductor type.‘ or the twistedfpair
‘type or; the ztwowconductorztype with one wire . '
grounded.- .r‘Alsof'well :known noise reducingar
rangements-may beused in the antenna system.
?nite”_ impedance at a chosen frequency, say 60
meg'acycles ‘(5 meters} tor example, but low im
’ .pedance to both lower'fand higher.v frequencies.
Thus the section from the gap each of'the
'Each of the antenna arms is~providedwith a
divider l6: iThe dividers l6‘ are alike'in this case,
dividers 36' is electrically equivalent to a length
of 1.25 meters, or one: quarter. wave, for maxi
and‘ each 10116" comprises an inductor I‘! l and a A‘ l
condenser T l’8 {in parallel ; or loop circuit i arrange‘ 50 mum response forw‘?ve meters. ) Also at the ap
propriate distance. from. the gap each antenna
.arm._3l and .32 has jinserted therein a second di
~merltwwith .e’achiothenytThe‘unit is designed to
be anti-‘resonant at a‘particular frequency, in
this example, 60 megacycles (5 meters)‘,v ‘so that
it has an “in?nite” impedance at that frequency it .
anditherefore: will .produce the same e?ect as an 55
insulator oral-blocking element placed- at‘ the
points 16 (Fig-e1)" for'signals of a frequency of
60 megacycles. At .30 .megacycles, ,- however, the
impedance of the-divider is very low andthere
actsubstantially as a solid ‘conductor 60
closing thejgaps-at points I6 and allowingthe
vider 36a ‘having high impedance J at a chosen
frequency, for example, ‘to 30 'megacycles ‘(10.
,It has already. been explained that the di
viders do not interfere'lwith thepassage of fre
quencies other than the. narrow band for vwhich
it is designed to be effective as allimiting device;
hence-in Fig. 3 the jantennafrom the gap to the
dividers 36a willrespond tol frequencies in; the
ten .meter band as if_,_there were. no dividers at
36. The antenna of Fig.» '3. in. its full length may
whole length oft-the doublet to be effective to pick
,up‘ electromagnetic waves of this frequency, or in
be especially adaptediorv reception‘ of a third
'Vact, Vofany other ‘frequency notclose to the anti- - ‘
frequency band, as for»; the twenty-?ve meter
resonant ‘frequency of the divider.-;
v; . .
hand.’ Accordingly, thereis :provided. thevfull
an; example ofdeterrniningthe location of
eifect of a plurality of separate dipole antennae
a divider,- assuming that theover-all length of
.using5only one pair of wires andonetransmis
each~of the arms-y-Llg-y-and. I2 is to give-maximum
response to signals in [the ten meter band-(30
As an _ examplerthe
._... ~.constants
megacycles), and it: is desired to alsoreceive with " units 36 which we have found satisfactory for use
maximum. response signals in‘ the .?veirneter
inthe, system of Fig. ‘3, are a coil havinganin
band (60 megacycles) ; then according to our’ in;
ductance‘ of 0.265 microhe‘nry‘and .a' shunting
vention at a distancev approximately 1.25- meters
from the gap-i5 of‘ the doublet both-theantenna II. condenser with.v a capacity of 26.5 microémicrol
wires H and I2 are severed ‘and a divider, or fre-I
farads. At 60 megac‘y'cl'es (?ve meters) each di- '
vider will have an impedance of 10,000 ohms if
the effective resistance of the unit is one ohm,
corresponding to a value of “Q” of 100 where
“Q” is the ratio of reactance to resistance, as is
well known in the art.
Dividers 36a, designed to make the antenna
section therebetween responsive most emciently
‘ 3
effect of the location of the dividers in the an
Figure 5 shows still other forms ‘of dividers.
In this ?gure the antenna comprises arm 52 and
an associated transmission line 53 and 54.
Spaced appropriately from the gap 55 are two
dividers 56 and 56a. designed for maximum and
minimum impedance characteristics.
to 30 megacycles (ten meter band) , may be made
of an inductance of 0.53 microhenry and a ca
Unit '56
comprises a parallel circuit in one leg of which
pacity .of 53 micro-microfarads, so that the unit '10 is inductance 51 and condenser 51a and in the
other leg of which is a condenser 58. Unit 56a
will have an impedance of about 10,000 ohms to
also comprises a parallel circuit but in- this case
30 megacycles (ten meters) if the resistance is
one ohm. In both cases the impedance is negli
‘one leg has inductance 59 and condenser 59a
gible at the longer wave lengths or lower fre
therein while the other leg includes inductance
quencies. For example, at 10 megacycles the " 60. These units may be designed for special
impedance is approximately 38 ohms, whereas
cases where one or more bands should be re
at 30 megacycles it was 10,000 ohms.
ceived with particularly high ef?ciency.
As stated above, the properties of electrically
Figure 6 illustrates a modi?ed form of divider,
in which there is a coupled circuit for the pur
pose of broadening the width .of the band af
fected by the divider. It comprises an inductor
61 shunted by a condenser 63, having in mutual
inductive relation thereto another inductor 61a
shunted by condenser 68a. Both primary and
secondary circuits are tuned to substantially the
same frequency, but when the coupling is loos
which the inductor and condenser are connected
ened the band is narrower than when the cou
in series with each other. Although in this ?g
pling is tightened, as is well known in the art.
ure only one arm of the doublet is provided with
If desired, the coupling may be arranged to be
divider, as would be the case of an asymmetrical
doublet, the use of dividers onboth arms is un 30 adjustable by the radio receiver user.
derstood to be expedient, as in the asymmetrical
Of course, if the inductor coil is of such di
mensions that its distributed capacity is Sllf?
dipoles. The divider 46 is composed of an in
cient for the purposes hereinbefore set forth, no
ductor 41, with a condenser 48 in series with it
separate condenser will be required.
and both constituting a unit placed at the cor
As is also known in this art, when
rect distance from the gap 45. In this case,
an antenna is adjusted to deliver maximum
the condenser and inductor are such that their
voltage at a particular frequency, the same
combined reactance is very low, or actually zero
antenna will ‘respond satisfactorily for a
for the frequency for which the whole length of
narrow range of frequencies on either side of
the doublet is designed to operate, whereas for
limiting the length of an antenna wire by means
of frequency selecting units, such as those pre
viously described or subsequently disclosed, are
not limited to dipole antennae. They may be
used in Zeppelin or Marconi or other type aerials
without modi?cation of the principles involved.
Figure 4 shows another form of divider in 25
some other predetermined frequency or fre 40 the particular frequency, but for frequencies be
yond that narrow band there is a noticeable drop
quencies, the reactance of the inductor and con
in efficiency of the antenna. The present inven
denser is su?iciently high so as to effectively limit
tion enables the antenna to be arranged to give
the length of the arm to the distance 45 to 46.
maximum response at the selected frequencies
A number of dividers of this type may be used
in the same arm or arms of a doublet in the
same manner as described in connection with
Fig. 3, and in both arrangements there may be
an unequal number of dividers in the respective
arms as would be the case with an asymmetrical
- beyond the narrow hand.
For example, the ordinary doublet used for the
reception of signals from certain important
foreign stations has been found to be most satis
factory when having a length in the neighbor
50 hood .of 30 feet on a side, but such an antenna
does not give the best response for television
If with the system of Fig. 4 it be required, for
signals such as are broadcast on‘ other fre
example, to receive very efficiently a frequency of
12 megacycles and with a fair degree of efli
quencies. However, with dividers in one or both
arms of such an antenna so that the length of
ciency some neighboring frequencies, such as 15
megacycles, and 60 megacycles was also an im- -" the antenna is properly adjusted, the same can
be made sharply responding for television, or
portant frequency to be received, then if the
other signals.
constants of the inductor 41 and condenser 48
It may be pointed out that the principles here
are such that their respective reactances at 12
inbefore set forth are also applicable to other
megacycles are equal to each other and to 200
ohms, the combined reactance of the divider 60 commercial uses such as the reception of
facsimile transmission signals.
would be 90 ohms at 15 megacycles, which is a
Thus from the foregoing examples it will be
low value to permit reception at this frequency
with a fair degree of e?iciency, but its value at
60 megacycles would be 960 ohms which will ef
seen that we have provided an antenna which
may be used with a maximum ef?ciency at
fectively limit the length of the arm for this fre
quency to the distance from the gap to the di
vider, which in this example should be 1.25
meters. As is well known in this art, the actual
the lengths of parts of the antenna so that sig
nals will induce substantially the same voltage
length of the antenna wire is subject to a slight _
correction because of the differences in veloci
ties of a radio wave in space and in a wire, end
effects, etc. The length of the wire is also af
fected to some extent by the presence of an in
sulator and the same principle may apply to the
several frequency bands by electrically limiting
as if the wire was actually severed at the point
where the blocking units are located. On the
other hand, these frequency selective antenna
dividers have substantially no effect on frequency
bands su?iciently separated from those for which
they are intended to act as such.
Other modi?cations may be made in the con
struction and arrangement of parts and the cir
w 4
stantially one-quarter wave length of the mid
cuits shown within the spirit and scope of our
invention, and such modi?cations are intended
to be covered by the appended claims.
vfrequency’ of said selected. band from the connec
tion of the lead-in to ‘said dipole, so that the
antenna also provides maximum response for
said selected frequency band.
We claim:
1. An antennasystem comprising an antenna
5. An antenna system for use with radio re
ceivers arranged to receive a number of di?erent
capable of operating as a dipole antenna, a lead
in, and means connected to the system for ren
dering a portion of said antenna effective. to
deliver maximum signalling voltages for a par
radio frequency bands greater than ?fteen hun
dred kilocycles, said system comprising a dipole
ticular frequency, said means comprising a series 10 antenna normally having maximum response for
certain bands of said frequencies, a pair of lead
arranged capacitor and inductor shunted by a
' in conductors connected thereto and to a radio
2. An, antenna system comprising an antenna
capable of operating as a dipole antenna, a lead
in, and means connected to the system for ren
dering a portion of said antenna effective to
deliver maximum signallingvoltages for a par
ticular frequency, said means comprising a series
arranged capacitor and inductor shunted by an
receiver, and a ?lter section comprising an in
ductance and a capacity arranged to be anti
resonant for a selected narrow band of said fre
quencies intermediate the’ bands for which the
antenna normally provides maximum response,
the ?lter section being connected in each arm
of said dipole at a point substantially one-quarter
wave length of the mid-frequency of said selected
band from the connection of the lead-in to said
dipole, so that that portion of the dipole between
said ?lter sections also provides maximum re
an adjustable means connected in circuit with
sponse for said selected frequency band.
said antenna and arranged to render a portion
thereof effective to deliver maximum signalling 25 .6. An- antenna system for use with radio re
ceivers arranged to receive a number of different
voltages for a particular frequency,‘ said means "
radio frequency bands greater than ?fteen hun
comprising a pair of tuned circuits with means
dred kilocycles, said system comprising an an
for adjusting the coupling therebetween.
tenna of the dipole type, a pair of lead~in con
4. An antenna system for use with radio re
ceivers arranged to receive a plurality of differ 30 ductors connected thereto and to a radio receiver,
and a ?lter section connected. in each arm of
ent radio frequency bands greater than ?fteen
the antenna between the lead-in connection and
hundred kilocycles, said system comprising a
the terminus of each arm, said section compris
dipole antenna normally having maximum re
ing an inductance and a capacity element ar
sponse for certain bands of said frequencies, a
ranged in resonant relationship and so that the
pair of lead-in conductors connected thereto and
antenna provides maximum response for sepa
to a radio receiver, and a ?lter section compris
rate frequency bands other than the frequency
ingv an inductance and a capacity arranged to
bands for which the entire antenna normally
have a high impedance for a selected narrow
provides maximum response. _
band of said frequencies intermediate to the
3. An antenna system comprising an antenna
capable of acting as a dipole antenna, a lead-in,
bands for which the antenna normally provides 40
maximum response, the ?lter section being con
nected in each arm of said dipole at a point sub
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