close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2285450

код для вставки
June 9, 1942.
2,285,450
H. J. MCCARTHY
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE LAMP AND STARTING DEVICE
Filed May 18, 1940
llllllllll nun-""1"."-“nn-nn-u-nnumnvununnnIn-unllnnnnnnnnn-.n.,
?nnu?ununununllnununununan‘:
u llll Illnllnl-IIIIIII
HENR] JHcCARTI/j
‘
INVENTOR,
MATTORNEY.
(
r
2,285,450
Patented June 9, 1942
UNITED STATES-PATENT OFFICE
2,285,450
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE LAMP AND
STARTING DEVICE
Henry J. McCarthy, Danvers, Masa, assignor to .
Hygrade Sylvania Corporation, a corporation of
Massachusetts
Application May 18, 1940, Serial No. 335,968
5 Claims. (Cl. 176-124)
The present invention relates to electric gase
ous discharge lamps and in particular to appa
ratus for starting and operating such lamps.
An object of the invention is to provide a start
wires n. The remaining ends n and n of each.
' ?lament may be connected together through the
resistance It. A condenser 9 may be placed
across the resistance It to cut down radio inter
ing apparatus for electric gaseous discharge C1 i'erence due to the operation 01 the switch and
' lamps which will allow the cathodes of the lamp
to be preheated before the discharge is started
between them.
Another object is to provide a starting appa
lamp. A condenser of .006 microfarad has‘
proven to be advantageous.
A bimetallic strip 20 is connected at one of its
ends to an end of the resistor l3. The other end
ratus which will be so timed in its action that no 10 of the resistor I3 is connected to a contact 25
placed near the other end of the bimetallic strip.
greater interval of time will be used for the pre
The direct circuit between the moving end of the
heating of the cathodes than is absolutely nec
essary.
bimetallic strip and the contact 25 is normally
_
A further object is to provide a switch which
will accomplish the above-mentioned objects and
at the same time function under all possible con
open. Another contact, however, is also con
nected to the same end of the resistor I! through
the additional resistance 3| and arranged to be
normally closed to the moving end of the bi
metallic strip. The resistance 3| is very small
compared to the resistance IS. The latter may
ditions of starting and restarting.
'A feature of this starting apparatus is that it
eliminates the unnecessary time lag present in
many switches during the starting and restart 20 be about 40,000 ohms while resistance 3| is only
about 1 to 5-ohms. The resistance 3| is placed
ing period.
in a position so as to heat the bimetallic strip,
Other objects, advantages and features will be
and is preferably made part of the contact 20 by
apparent from the following speci?cations taken
making the contact of carbon for example.
in conjunction with the accompanying drawing
Figures 2 and 3 show the arrangement of the
in which:
.
starting apparatus more in detail. A resistance
Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the ar
rod I3‘ is suspended between the two lead-in
rangement of apparatus according to the inven
wires l8 and I9. A supporting arm 2| extends
inwardly from lead-in wire I! and attached to
Figure 2 is a side view of the switching device
the
inward end thereof is a bimetallic strip 20,
according to the invention.
which is bent around the resistance rod. The
Figure 3 is a cross-section view of a part of the
resistance rod may have an insulating coating
switching device according to the invention.
tion.
'
-
Figure 4 is a side view of a method in which
the switching elements may be connectedwith
the lead-in strips.
Figure 5 is a side view of the preferred method
in. which the switching elements may be con
thereon of , for example, alumina and shellac, 29.
Two lead-in strips 23 and 24, one with a low
. resistance contact point, for example, silver 25
attached to its free end, and the other with a
high resistance contact point, for example, car
nected with the lead-in strips.
In Figure 1, an electric gaseous discharge lamp
bon or some other material 26, attached to its
free end, are ?xed at a common source 21 on the
4 sealed at each end. The glassenvelope may
direction of the free end of the bimetallic
strip 20.
The high resistance contact is normally in a
closed position in relation to the strip 20 and the
low resistance contact is in a normally open posi
' I has the glass envelope 2 with electrodes 3 ‘and 40 lead-in wire l9, and project upwardly in the
have a coating of ?uorescent material 5 on its
inner wall. The electrodes 3 and 4 may be coils
of tungsten wire coated with one or more of the
alkaline earth oxides to increase the electron
,emission, with the auxiliary electrodes 6 and '1
to aid in starting. An atmosphere of inert gas,
tion in relation to the strip 20.
-
The whole unit may be sealed into a container
28
of metal, glass, or the like. If the unit is
such as argon, and also a vapor, such as mercury,
sealed in a metal container, the lead-in wires
may be sealed in the glass envelope. A lead-in
wire 8 from one end of one ?lament may be con 50 must, of course, be insulated therefrom.
Since the high resistance contact is normally
nected to one end of the power line from which
in a closed position in relation to the bimetallic
the apparatus is operated. An end of the other
strip 20, the filaments 3 and 4 will start heating
?lament may be connected through a suitable
and the high‘reslstance contact 26 and the bi
ballast impedance, such as an inductance coil I0,
to the other end of the power line by the lead-in
metallic strip 20, with which it is in contact will
2
2,295,450
start ‘heating when the voltage is turned on.
' The high resistance contact point and the. bi
metallic strip are so proportioned that they will
become su?lciently hot to - break contact with
each other at about the same time that the ?la»
low resistance contact point 25 on the end of the
lead-in strip 23, thus short-circuiting the resist
ance rod and start the preheating of the ?la
ments of the lamp.
.
Figure 4 shows a manner in which the switch
ments are su?lciently heated to start the dis
ing elements may be. connected, wherein lead
charge across the lamp.
in strip 24, is, bent away” from its, extension along
. .
The contact point ‘26 is a high resistance con
tact, compared with the silver contact 25, but is
lead-in strip 23' from pointjl. A low, resistance
contact 30 is attached tothe free end vof the
of a low resistance say 1 to 5 ohms, as compared 10. strip 20 and contacts the point 25 when the aux
with the resistor l3, which may be 40,000 ohms.,
Thus with the carbon contact closed, the resistor
I3 is e?ectively short-circuited and the normal
iliary starting feature of the apparatus is em
ployed.
-
t
,
~
" Figure 5 shows the preferred manner in which
heating current ?ows through ?laments 3 and 4; ,
the‘ switching elements may be connected, where
but the carbon contact has nonetheless a resist 15 in theiree endfof lead-in strip 24 is bent back
ance su?icient to heat the bimetallic strip 20
for a short distance in a U-shaped manner so as
enough to cause it to break contact at the proper
to cause the high resistance contact 26 attached
time. My invention eliminates, the unnecessary
thereto to become located in contact with the
time lag present in other switches, namely the
‘bimetallic strip 20 at a point opposite contact 30.
time which elapses between the placing of the 20 The low resistance contacts 30 and 25 are re
line voltage across the lead-in wires and the
spectively located at the tip of the bimetallic
starting of the preheating of the ?laments. , In
strip 20 and on the side of the lead-in strip 24
my invention, by reason of the normally closed ‘
at a point opposite contact point 30. In the
position of the high resistance contact point in
present vmodi?cation, the lead-in strip 24 is it
relation to the bimetallic strip 20, the line voltage 25 self a bimetallic strip to compensate for ambient _
is immediately placed across this contact and as
temperature changes. The strip 24 is placed to
a result, the heating of the ?laments takes place
_ move with ambient temperature in the same di
immediately.
.
~
rection as the strip 20. The contacts 25 and 26
If, for any reason, the discharge does not take
then move with ambient temperature in the same
place across the lamp when the bimetallic strip 30 direction that the strip 20 moves, and if the length
20' breaks from its contact with the high resist
of the strip 24 is properly adjusted, they move
ance contact point 26, my invention provides a
out, not only in the same direction but also the
unique auxiliary starting apparatus. ‘ If the dis
same amount, so that the operation ofthe switch
charge fails to take place, the resistance rod l3
remains constant. ‘
will become heated as a result of receiving the
At the same time‘, the bent back portion of the
full line voltage. The heat from the rod will
strip 24 in the neighborhood of contact 26, being
heat the bimetallic strip 20, causing it to bend
bimetallic, moves oppositely to strip 20 when
towards the low resistance contact point 25 on
the end of the lead-in strip 23. ‘The low resist
ance contact 25 and the bimetallic strip 20 are 40
so spaced that contact will be made when a
voltage is placed across the rod I3. When this»
contact has been established the resistance rod
will be short-circuited, the rod and the strip will
start to cool and the ?laments of the lamp will
start to warm up. The contact 25 and the strip
20 are so proportioned that they will have cooled
to a point where they will break contact at about
the same time the ?laments are hot enough to '
start a vdischarge across the lamp. When this
contact is broken, the bimetallic strip will move
away from its contact with the low resistance
contact point.
Since there is about one-half line voltage across
' the resistance rod during the operation of the
lamp, the heat conducted to the bimetallic strip
by the rod will cause the strip to take a position.
1 during the actual operation of the lamp, at a
both are heated by passage of current through
the carbon 26, thus giving a quicker and cleaner
break in contact. Thus this construction of ele-_
ment 24 has a double advantage.
.
The resistance rod should have a high ~resist
ance, say 40,000 ohms. For this resistance, I
‘have, for example, used a graphite rod, 0.45 inch
long and 0.025 inch in diameter. For my high
resistance contact I have used carbon, having a
resistance of about 1 to 5 ohms. For my low re
sistance contact I have used silver, having a re
sistance of a fractional part of an ohm. Al
though I have used these particular materials,
my invention does not necessitate the use of
these exact same materials. It is sufllcient that
a high resistance contact point, a low resist
ance contact point and a high resistance rod be
used. .
Certain speci?cations with regard to the lamp
must be used in order to obtain the results in
the switch action described above. The lamp
point about one-half between its normally closed
position with the high resistance carbon contact, ' ‘ must have a gas pressure and electrode spacing,
and the low resistance contact point. Thus there 00 and a tube diameter such that when the elec
trodes are cold, no substantial discharge will
is no danger of the strip 20 cooling to a tem
take place between the electrodes at the line volt
perature where it would re-establish its contact
age used.
"
.
‘with the’ high resistance contact point, and thus
What
I
claim
is:
renew the starting operation.
65
1. In combination: an electric gaseous dis
If the current should be thrown off and im
charge lamp having at least two electrodes, one
mediately turned on again, without a su?icient
at least of said electrodes being of the ?lamene
time elapsing to allow the strip 20 to cool su?l
tary type; a ballast impedance in series with said
.ciently to re-establish' its contact with the high
resistance carbon contact point, the auxiliary 70 lamp; a resistor connecting one end of a ?la
mentary electrode to the other electrode, said
starting apparatus will act as the principal start
resistor having an impedance which is large com
ing apparatus, i. e., the line voltage would then
pared with that of the ballast impedance; a high
bev across the resistance rod and the strip 20
resistance contact; a low resistance contact; a
would be heated to such a temperature that it
would bend back and make contact with the 75 bimetallic strip electrically contacting said high
resistance contact when said resistor is unener
2,285,450
gized and in a position to be distorted by the
heat developed in said high resistance contact
when the latter passes current, and, to open said
contact when distorted sumciently; said bime
tallic strip also being so positioned as to be dis- ‘
torted by the heat developed in said ‘resistor when
the latter passes current and to short circuit said
resistor, by making contact with the low resist
ance contact, when distorted su?iciently.
_
3
contact being connected to said other end of said
resistor through a second resistor in proximity to
said bimetallic strip.
,
4. A relay for controlling the preheating of the
?laments of an electric gaseous discharge lamp,
said relay comprising: a resistor; a bimetallic
strip in position to be distorted by heat from said
resistor and having one end electrically con
nected to one end of said resistor; a low' re
2. The combination of claim 1 in which: The 10 sistance contact connected to the other end of
said resistor and near but out of contact with
ballast impedance is such that the operating
the other end of the bimetallic strip when said re
voltage of the lamp, after the electrodes have
sistor is unenergized; and a second contact closed
been heated, is much lower than the starting
to said other end of said bimetallic strip when
voltage when the electrodes are cold; and‘in - said
resistor is unenergized, said second contact
15
which the resistor connected between the lamp
being
connected to said other end of said resistor
electrodes is positioned so that the heat produced
through a second resistor'in proximity to said bi
in it by the operating voltage of the lamp is in
metallic strip.
‘
suf?cient to distort the bimetallic. strip, with
5. A relay for controlling the preheating of
which it is in‘ contact, enough to short-circuit
the ?laments of an electric gaseous discharge
said resistor, but so that the voltage necessary 20 lamp, said relay comprising: a resistor; a contact
for short-circuiting is nevertheless below the
of high resistance material such as carbon: a
starting voltage of the lamp when the ?lamen
contact of material having a resistance low rel
tary electrode is cold; _
v
I
'
ative to the resistance of carbon; 9, bimetallic
3. In an electric gaseous discharge lamp circuit
strip electrically contacting said contact of high
having a ballast impedance in series with a two
resistance material when said resistor is unen
?lament discharge lamp: a resistor connecting
ergized and in a position to be distorted by the
one end of one ?lament to one end of the other
heat developed in said contact of high resistance
?lament, said resistor having an impedance large
material when the latter passes current, and to
compared with the ballast impedance; a bime
said contact when distorted suiiiciently;
tallic strip in position to be distorted by heat 30 open
said bimetallic strip also being so positioned as
from ‘said resistor and having one end electrical
to be distorted by the heat developed in said re
, ly connected to one end of said resistor; a low
sistor when the latter is energized and. to short
resistance contact connected to the other end of
circuit said resistor by making contact with the
said resistor and near but out of contact. with
contact or material having a low resistance, when
the other end of the bimetallic strip when said resistor is unenergized; and a second contact
closed to said other end 01 said bimetallic strip
when said resistor is unenergized, said second
distorted su?iciently.
-
HENRY J. McCARTHY.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
448 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа