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Патент USA US2294198

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Search Emm
[email protected]
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VOLUME MBAST‘JRING APPARATUS
Fil'ed Jan. 19, 1939
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J. 5. MORREL
voums MEASURING APPARATUS"
Filed‘Jan. 19, 1939
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Patented Aug. 25, 1942
2,294,198
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,294,198
VOLUME MEASURING APPARATUS
John Smylie Morrel, Nashville, Tenn.
Application January 19, 1939, Serial No. 251,842
5 Claims. (Cl. 73——290)
This invention relates to an improved measur
The primary object of my invention is to pro
vide a simple and durable apparatus which
in the chamber. The accompanying alteration
in volume of the chamber is obviously exactly
equal to the alteration in volume of the gas orig
inally occupying the otherwise empty space in
the vessel and the latter alteration is therefore
exhibited by the indicating means referred to
utilizes the change in volume of the air or gas
occupying the space in a container which is
above.
If:
ing device.
More particularly, it relates to an
apparatus for accurately measuring the volume
of the un?lled space in a container.
empty or but partially ?lled by liquids or solids,
when such air or gas is subjected to a known
pressure change, to ascertain the amount of liq
uid or solid which will be required to entirely ?ll
the container.
Another object of my invention is to provide a
device which will give the operator an accurate
and direct reading of the amount of liquid in
terms of gallons, for example, which will be re
quired to completely ?ll, or to ?nish ?lling any
given container.
'
Another object of my invention is to provide
means for automatically resetting such a device
for further use after each measurement has been
taken.
Another object of my invention is to provide a
vmeasuring device with which very accurate and
satisfactory measurements can be taken by per
sons having no knowledge of its principle of op
eration.
Another object is to provide a measuring de
vice of simple and sturdy design thus permitting
it to be manufactured at a low cost.
Brie?y, the apparatus contemplated by my in
vention consists of a chamber adapted to hold a
predetermined initial quantity of gas at a pre
determined initial pressure and so constructed -
that any change in the quantity of gas therein
is accompanied by an immediate alteration in
volume of the chamber which is just sufficient
to restore the pressure within the chamber to its
initial value.
V=volume of the un?lled portion of the
vessel,
P=initia1 pressure of the gas in the vessel
(normally atmospheric pressure),
P+AP:pressure of gas within the chamber.
and
AV=change in volume of the chamber,
these quantities are related by the we1—known_
equation ‘ 9
VP:
FM(V+AV)_
,5} v) (P+AP,)
W“
where AP is positive or negative according as the
initial pressure in the chamber is greater or less
than that in the vessel, and AV is of course op
1.
posite in sign to AP.
Solving this equation for V, we have
This result is equally valid whether the cham
ber be designed for an initial pressure greater or
less than atmospheric pressure, provided only
that the appropriate signs be given to AP and
AV, and. the apparatus itself may readily be
modi?ed to operate on either principle. Since
only the magnitudes, and not the signs, of the
factors
P
1+3)
and AV are essential to any further computation,
Suitable means are also provided 40 these may be treated as essentially positive; care
for indicating the magnitude of the alteration in
volume of the chamber. A suitable appliance is
provided for ?rst sealing the vessel whose ca
being taken, however, to use the proper sign for
AF in computing the numerical value of the
?rst factor. In short, if AV be taken. to repre
pacity is to be ascertained at a pressure different
sent merely the magnitude of volume change of
the chamber, the relation between V and AV
may be exhibited mathematically as
from the initial pressure within the chamber
and then opening communication between the
vessel and the chamber. The pressure at which
the vessel is sealed will normally be atmospheric
pressure and the initial pressure within the
chamber will be slightly above or below atmos- '
pheric pressure. ‘When communication is estab
lished between the chamber and the vessel, there
follows at once an equalization of pressure and
the resultant pressure in both vessel and cham
ber will be that pressure which initially existed 55
whence, P and AP being known initially and AV
being shown by the indicating means referred
to already, the desired value of V, the required
volume, can easily be computed. However, since
P and AP are sensibly constant for any one
chamber, and since the last equation shows V
I
i
L1
'
2
2,294,198
apparatus can be employed to ascertain the un
?lled volumes of any number of vessels in suc
provided at its free end with a novel sealing
and valve structure 23, the operation and detail
construction of which will be described below.
The cabinet I6 is designed to be mounted in the
upright position shown in Fig. 1 upon any suit
able support, not shown.
A cylinder 24 is mounted vertically within the
cession, provided merely that the chamber is re
stored to its initial volume between successive
cabinet l6 by means of securing screws 25. The
lower end of the cylinder is closed by a base
to be proportional to AV for ?xed values of P
and AP, this computation may be rendered un
necessary by merely calibrating the indicating
means to read V directly in terms of any con
venient units of volume. This being done, the
applications. As will be explained later, means 10 plate 26 which forms an airtight joint there
can be provided for doing this resetting auto
with. The base plate 26 is provided with a
matically, so that successful use of the appara
threaded opening 21 into which is screwed a
tus does not necessitate any knowledge of the
T-shaped coupling 28. The branch 29 of the
principles involved, or any especial skill, on
coupling 28 is provided with any suitable air
the part of the operator.
15 tight valve 30 for use when resetting which will
I shall now proceed with a detailed descrip
be described later, while the branch 3| makes an
tion of the preferred form of my invention which
airtight connection with the ?exible hose 2!].
is illustrated in the accompanying drawings
A piston 32 is mounted for vertical reciproca
tion within the cylinder 24. Mounted on the
wherein,
Figure 1 is a front elevation view of my ap 20 piston 32 is a leather or other suitable type
paratus showing it attached to a receptacle to
packing 33 to prevent leakage of air past the
be measured and indicating by dotted lines the '
piston.
The piston is partially supported by
position of the attaching means when the ap
means of an inextensible but ?exible cord or wire
paratus is not in use;
34 which is fastened at one end through an
Figure 2 is a front elevation view of the de 25 eye 35 on the piston 32 and extends vertically
upward over a grooved drum 36. The opposite
vice with its front cover removed;
Figure 3 is a cross sectional view looking in
end of the cord 34 is attached to a counter
weight I 3'! having guide holes 38 extending
the direction of the arrows along the lines 3-3
of Fig. 2;
through it at points near its outer edges (see Fig.
Two parallel wires 39 are tightly strung
nection adapted to seal the mouth of the re
from the top to the bottom of the cabinet l6
ceptacle to be measured;
and extend through the holes 38 in the counter
Figure 5 is a view taken in the direction of
weight 31 to furnish a guide therefor and to thus
the arrows along the line 5—5 of Fig. 4;
prevent swaying of the counterweight. If de
Figure 6 is another cross sectional view of the 35 sired, the frictional engagement between the cord
structure shown in Fig. 4, in operative position
34 and the drum 36 may be increased by giving
over the mouth of a receptacle;
'
the cord several revolutions about the drum.
Figure 7 is a view taken along the line 1-1
The drum 36 is keyed to a shaft 40 which
of Fig. 4 and looking in the direction of the ar
is supported in bearings 4| and 42. The shaft
40 40 extends through bearing 42 which is fastened
rows;
Figure 8 is a view taken along the line 8—8
to the back of the dial I‘! and also extends
of Fig. 4 and looking in the direction of the ar
through the dial and carries the pointer 18. The
pointer l8 rotates with the shaft and therefore
rows;
Figure 9 is a cross sectional view showing a
with the drum 36.
slightly modi?ed form of valve structure for use 45
The cylinder 24 is open at its upper end to
with the connection shown in Fig. 4;
permit access of atmospheric pressure to the top
Figure 10 is a detail plan view partly in cross
of the piston 32. The cylinder is also provided
section showing the automatic resetting means
with a side vent 43, for a purpose which is ex
Figure 4 is a detail sectional view of a con
for my apparatus;
'
Figure 11 is an elevational view taken in the
direction of the arrows along the line Il-—ll
of Fig. 10; ~
Figure 12 is a cross sectional view taken along
the line I2--l2 of Fig. 11 in the direction of the
30 3).
plained later.
The sealing and valve structure 23 (Figs. 4 to
8) is designed to perform the dual purpose of
?rst sealing the mouth of the receptacle to be
measured and, second, to permit compressed air
from the cylinder 24 to ?ow through tube 20 into
arrows;
65 the receptacle 22 after its mouth has been sealed.
Figure 13 is a cross sectional view taken in the.
The structure 23 consists of a body portion 44
direction of the arrows along the line l3—-l3 of
having a depending annular ?ange 45 and is ma
chined to provide a passageway 46. The pas
Figure 14 is an elevational view of certain oper
sageway 46 is threaded near its outer end as
ating parts of the resetting mechanism in slightly 60 shown at 41 for engagement with a nipple 48.
modi?ed form.
The other end of the nipple 48 forms an airtight
For purposes of clarity, like reference char
connection with the flexible tube 20. A tube-like
acters are used to designate like parts in each
member 49 is screwed into a hole in the center
of the views.
of the body portion 44 and is provided with a side
The reference numeral l5 designates my meas 66 vent 50 which places the interior of the tube in
uring device in its entirety. The numeral [6
open communication with the passageway 46. At
designates a cabinet within which most of the
its lower end, the tube-like member 49 is enlarged
and is machined in a manner best shown in Figs.
mechanism of the device is enclosed. This cabi
net is provided on its front face with a dial
'7 and 8. As shown in Fig. 8, the central passage
l1, an indicator l3, both of which are visible 70 way SI of the tube-like member 49 has extending
therefrom radial passageways 52 which then turn
through a transparent glass plate IS. A ?ex
at right angles to‘ form the exit passageways 53
ible hose 20 extends from the bottom of the
shown in Fig. '7. The shoulder-like surface 54 of
cabinet IE to the mouth 2| of any vessel 22 hav
the member 49 is ground smooth to provide a
ing an un?lled space therein, the volume of
suitable seat for the annular ring of packing ma
which it is desired to measure. The hose 20 is
Fig. 10; and
re. WHLADUHINU 6!, ltSHNii.
2,294,198
terial 55 which is embedded in a ?ange 56 of a
collar 51 surrounding the tube-like member 49.
The body of the collar 51 is provided with ex
ternal threads which are adapted to engage in
ternal threads of a second collar 6| provided with
a wide ?ange 62 at its upper end. Interposed
This information is obtainable in a very few sec
onds and appears on a dial which is visible not
only to the attendant, but to the motorist as well.
- between the ?ange 56 of the collar 51 and the
position shown in Fig. 1, the device is ready for
of gasoline which will be required to ?ll the tank.
With the cabinet [6 suspended preferably at
or near the gasoline dispensing pump and in the
body of the collar 6| is an elastic diaphragm 63
use. At this time the piston 32 and. the counter
having a central opening through which the body
weight 31 will be in the position shown by dotted
10 lines in Fig. 2. The valve of the structure 23
of the collar 51 extends.
The diaphragm 63 is preferably made of rubber
will be closed and the cylinder 24 and hose 29
sheeting or similar elastic material, and has its
will be ?lled with air at the predetermined pres
outer edge secured to the annular projection 45
sure caused by that portion of the weight of the
by means of a wire hoop 64. When the valve is
piston 32 which is not balanced by the counter
in its normally closed position, the packing 55 is 15 weight 31. The piston 32 is preferably su?icient
securely held against the surface 54 to thereby
ly heavier than the counterweight 31 to maintain
close the passageways 53 by means of coil springs
a pressure of approximately one-tenth atmos
65 having one end embedded in recesses 66 of
phere on the gas within the cylinder although
the body portion 44 and the other end bearing
this pressure is not critical and may be varied
on the wide flange 62 of the collar 6|. The valve 20 within wide limits. With the piston 32 in the
is clearly shown in its closed position in Fig. 4.
position shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, the
The operation of the sealing and valve struc
pointer l8 will be set at zero on the dial H.
ture 23 is as follows. The diaphragm side of the
In operation the cap is removed from the
valve is placed over the mouth of the vessel to be
mouth of the fuel tank desired to be measured
measured and is pressed downwardly as shown in
and since the fuel tank is then in open communi
Fig. 6. At the ?rst slight pressure against the
cation with the atmosphere, the air contained in
mouth 2| of the receptacle, the diaphragm 63
its un?lled space will be at atmospheric pres
comes into contact with the entire periphery of
sure; that is, approximately 15 pounds per
the mouth 21 and effectively seals the vessel to
square inch. The air within the cylinder 24
prevent passage of air either into or out of the 30 will have a relative pressure of one-tenth atmos
vessel. Upon further pressure, the diaphragm
phere, or 1.5 pounds per square inch which is
63 is depressed until it contacts the wide ?ange
equal to an absolute pressure of approximately
62. Upon still further pressure, the ?ange 62
16.5 pounds per square inch. ‘The valve 23 is
will be depressed against the action of the coil
then placed over the mouth of the fuel tank and
springs 65 and will carry with it the collar 6|,
is pressed down until it assumes the position
the collar 51, and the packing material 55. This
shown in Fig. 6. It will be noted that when
will open the passageways 53 and permit air from
valve 23 is in this position, the fuel tank is
the tube 20 to pass intothe receptacle 22 through
sealed from the atmosphere and that the air
the mouth 2| thereof.
from the cylinder 24 and the tube 20 can escape
The sealing and valve structure 23 may be pro 40 into the tank. Due to the opening of the valve
vided with a ring 61 to permit its suspension from
23, the piston 32 will descend in the cylinder 24
a hook 83 extending from the cabinet when not
until it assumes the position shown, for example,
in use.
by the full lines in Fig. 2. In this position, the
In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 9, instead
pressure within the fuel tank and the cylinder
of the tube-like member 49 being of uniform
have become equal and this pressure value is
cross section above the shoulder surface 54, it is
the same as that which originally existed in the
tapered slightly as shown at 6B and the central
cylinder. The air which previously existed in
passageway of the collar 5‘! is given a correspond
the fuel tank at atmospheric pressure will, of
ing taper. This tapered ?t causes the collar 51
course, have undergone an increase in pressure
to seat accurately when the valve is closed and 50 with a corresponding reduction in volume. It
yet permits a loose ?t between the tube 49 and the
is this reduction in volume of the air within the
collar 51 when the valve is open. The purpose
tank which permits the descent of the piston
of the loose ?t is to enable the collar to move
32, and the displacement caused by the descent
slightly in a direction oblique to the axis of the
of the piston will, of course, be equal to this
tube 49 so that the diaphragm 63 will remain in
reduction in volume. The descent of the piston
sealing contact with the mouth of the receptacle
32 causes rotation of drum 36, shaft 40, and
even though the pressure on the device is not
moves the pointer I8 on the dial 11. When
centrally applied.
the dial has been carefully calibrated according
to the well known equation given above, the
my apparatus is particularly suited, and not by
pointer I 8 will indicate the exact quantity of
60
way of limitation, I will describe its operation
gasoline required to ?ll the fuel tank. This is
For purposes of illustrating one use to which
when being used to measure the quantity of gas
indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. 2 as ten
oline required to ?ll the fuel tank of a motor
gallons.
vehicle. The fuel tanks of most motor vehicles
The calibration of the dial is accomplished in
have long curved ?lling spouts or are ba?‘led in 65 the following manner by the use of the funda
such manner as to make it impossible for an
‘attendant to see the liquid level of the gasoline
in the tanks, and he cannot, therefore, even esti
mate the quantity of gasoline which will be re
quired to ?ll the tanks.
Liquid level gauges on
mental equaticn recited above, namely:
In this equation, V represents the volume of
the instrument boards of motor vehicles leave
the un?lled space within the fuel tank, the mag
much to be desired in the way of accuracy even
nitude of which it is desired to measure.
P rep
when functioning properly. By the use of my
resents the absolute pressure of the air which
‘device, it will be possible for an attendant to in
occupies the volume V when the fuel tank is
form a motorist in advance, the exact quantity 75 open to the atmosphere and the value of P will
4
2,294,198
7 therefore be atmospheric pressure or approxi
mately 15 pounds per square inch. AP repre
sents the increase in the air pressure within the
fuel tank from the atmospheric value P to the
pressure value existing in the fuel tank after
communication has been established with the
cylinder. AP is therefore equal to the difference
between the pressure exerted on the air in the
It is then only necessary to compute the diam
eter of the drum 3B which will cause the pointer
carried thereby to make one complete revolution
of the dial while the piston travels its maximum
operative stroke. This diameter is ascertained
by using the maximum operative value of L in
the following equation wherein d indicates the
diameter of the drum:
cylinder by the piston and atmospheric pressure
and is consequently equal to the relative pressure 10
(pressure above the atmospheric value) of the air
The pointed I8 should be set at zero on the
in the cylinder. The value of AP is therefore de
dial when the piston 32 is at the upper end of
pendent on the weight of the piston 32. The
its operative stroke, which position it will oc
weight of the piston is, of course, constant and‘
hence the value of AP will be constant for any 15 cupy after resetting. If the calibration has been
carried out as above outlined, the pointer will
particular piston. AV represents the reduction
accurately indicate on the dial the number of
in volume of the air originally within the fuel
gallons required to ?ll any container upon which
tank when its pressure increases from P to
the apparatus may be used. The dial may, of
P+AP due to the establishment of communica
tion with the cylinder. It will be apparent that 20 course, be further divided to also indicate quarts
and pints, if desired.
this reduction in volume (AV) is equal to the dis
After the use of the apparatus for measuring
placement of the piston 32 which is necessary to
the volume of the un?lled portion of a particular
bring about the increase in pressure from P to
vessel, it is, of course, necessary to reset the
P+AP. The displacement of the piston 32 is
equal to the cross sectional area of the cylinder 25 device for the next measurement. This is ac
complished by passing air under pressure into
24 multiplied by the distance through which the
the cylinder 24 by way of the branch 29 of the
piston 32 travels in bringing about the above incoupling 28 after the valve 23 has been removed
dicated pressure change within the fuel tank.
from the fuel tank and is therefore closed. Air
The value of AV may therefore be indicated by
is passed into the cylinder 24 until the piston 32
the equation:
rises above the level of the air vent 43. The
AV=1rR2L
supply of air is then stopped and the valve 30
wherein R denotes the radius of the cylinder 24
will,
of course, prevent the escape of air from
and L represents the distance travelled by the
the bottom of the cylinder. Air will, however,
piston in accomplishing the pressure change
escape through the air vent 43 until the piston
within the fuel tank.
32 descends to close this vent. The piston will
By substituting the above value of AV in the
then continue to descend until the predetermined
fundamental equation, it becomes:
pressure of, for example, one-tenth atmosphere,
which is su?icient to support the uncounter
balanced portion of the weight of the piston, is
obtained in the cylinder. The apparatus is then
Since for any particular apparatus the values of
ready for reuse.
P, AP, 1r and R2 are constant, the equation may
In practice I have found it advisable to use
be rewritten as:
automatic means for resetting the apparatus.
45 This is accomplished by means of the mechanism
wherein S represents the constant for the par
shown in detail in Figs. 10 to 14, the operation
ticular apparatus and is equal to:
of which will now be explained in detail.
This automatic resetting mechanism prefer
term
ably embraces a source of air supply under pres
V is therefore equal to L multiplied by a constant 50 sure, a conduit for conveying air from such
supply to the cylinder 24 below the piston 32,
which is determined by the design of the ap
a valve structure and operating means therefor
paratus. If the lengths of L and R are given in
associated with the cylinder 24 and piston 32
inches, the value of V in gallons will be:
mounted within the cabinet I5.
__ SL
55
Referring now to Figs. 1 and 13, the pipe 69
“an
is connected to any suitable source of compressed
since 231 cubic inches is equal to one gallon.
air, not shown, and communicates with one side
By the use of this last equation, the value of S
of a rotary plug valve indicated generally by the
for the particular apparatus having been ascer
reference numeral 1.0. This valve has a cone
tained, it is a matter of simple design to arrange 60 shaped rotary plug ‘H having a way 12 ma
the numerals indicating gallons on the dial in
chined diametrically through its mid-portion.
such manner that the pointer will indicate the
The plug ‘H is seated in a correspondingly cone
proper value of V for any piston displacement.
shaped seat 13 (Fig. 12) in the valve body and
If the value of L in the last equation is taken as
is held securely seated by means of a spring 14
the distance which the piston travels in descend 65 and a securing nut 15. The valve body has
ing from its position after resetting (shown by
channels 76 in cooperative relationship with the
dotted lines in Fig. 2) to the bottom of the cylin
channel 12 in the rotary plug ‘H . The channels
der, and the equation solved, the resulting value
16 connect the pipe 69 with the valve plug and
will be the maximum value of V, or the maxi
the valve plug with the conduit 11 which may be
mum number of gallons which can be measured 70 suitably connected with the branch 29 of the
with the particular apparatus. The periphery
coupling 28 at the bottom of cylinder 24. The
of the dial should then be divided into the num
valve 30 is, of course, unnecessary when the au
ber of equal divisions indicated by this maximum
tomatic resetting means is used.
value of V and these divisions numbered consecu
The valve 10 is shown in open position by the
75 full lines in Fig. 13, while the dotted lines in the
tively as shown in Fig. 1.
IO’ WILHOUIHWU UL
lLQI [Hui
oc-dl hit htiiiill'
2,294,198
3
about its pivot 95. Rotation of the lever 94 will
raise the parallel links 9| which are held against
The valve is operated by means of a lever 18
movement along the lever 94 by pins 91. The
(Fig. 11). The motionvof the lever 18 is lim
parallel links 9| will carry with them the lever
ited by means of pins 19 extending from the
18 and continued rising of the piston 32 will
valve body. Anchoring pins 80 and 8| are car
therefore close the valve 10.
ried respectively by the valve 10 and the lever
Upon closing of the valve ‘I0, compressed air
18. A coil spring 82 extends between these two
will cease to ?ow into the cylinder 24; the piston
pins which are so arranged that the distance
32 will stop rising and. will settle back to the
between them is least when the lever 18 is in
either of its extreme positions which are indi- 10 Position Shown, 150!‘ example, by dotted lines in
cated by the full and dotted lines respectively,
Fig- 2, and the L-shaped level‘ 94 Will resume its
inFig. 11'. The spring 82 functions to retain the
position shown in Fig. 11, but will not carry
lever 18 in eitherits closed or open position until
downward With it the Parallel links 9| Which,
it is intentionally moved by means of the mechdue to the eetieh Of Spring 32, Will remain in the
anism about to be described,
15 position shown in full lines in Fig. 11. The valve
Immediately after use of the apparatus, the
10 will therefore remain closed until it is again
same ?gure indicate the valve in closed position.
piston 32 will occupy the position shown, for
necessary to reset the apparatus.
example, by the full lines in Fig. 2; the lever
18 will occupy the full line position in Fig. 11
If the resetting operation is begun by depress
ing the hook 83 with the ?nger, the hook may be
A
with the valve ‘in closed. Resetting of the mech- 20 immediately released and the sliding member
anism is accomplished by lowering the book 83
86 and hence the spring member 89' and hook'90
which extends through the wall of the cabinet
will return under the in?uence of coil spring 88
la, The lowering of the hook 33 may he done
to their upward position without closing the
either by simply depressing it with the ?nger
Valve 70 Which Will be held Open by Spring 82
or by suspending the valve 23 from it by means 25 If, however, the resetting operation is commenced.‘
‘of the ring 81, this valve having sufficient weight
by hanging the Valve 23 011 the hook 33, the hOOK
to depress the hook 33_ It W111 he noted that
the valve 10 is secured in spaced relationship
with the Well of the cabinet [5 (FigS_ 10 and
12) by means of securing screws 84 and spacers
85, and that the lever 18 lies between the valve
body and the cabinet wa11_ The inner end of
the hook 83 is attached to a Vertical slide member, 86 which is mounted for reciprocation in
guides 81. A coil spring 88 is interposed between
the lower guide 31 and the inner end of the
hook‘ 33 and tends normally to hold the Shae
member 86 in the position shown in full lines
in Fig. 11; i. e., with valve it closed. The upper
end of the slide member as is provided with a
?at spring member 89 having at its upper end
a hook 90 for engagement with the end of the
lever 18. When the hook 83 is lowered, the sliding member 36 W111 descend and the spring memher 89 and hook 90 will depress the lever 18 to
the position shown by dotted lines in Fig. 11,
thereby opening the valve 1[]_ rI'he hook 9g is
30
35
40
45
will be held down until the valve’ 23 is again 're
mOVed- This may Well be long after the resetting
operation has been completed and after the lever
18 has resumed its upward POSitiOIl. To enable
the hook 9" to return to Operative Position above
the lever 18 upon removal of the valve 23 from
the hook 83, the Outer end of the lever 18 is given
a cam Shape as Shown at 93- AS the Sliding mem
ber 35 rises, the hook 9" Will Strike the sloping
surface 98 and will be de?ected until it reaches
the limit of its upward movement and passes the
17011' comer of the level‘ 78 When it Will Snap into
the position shown in Fig. 11.
For some purposes it may be desirable to reset
the apparatus by the removal of the valve 23
from the hook 83. This has the advantage of
Permitting the valve to be replaced 0n the hook
without the loss of the information obtained by
a Previously taken reading- The accomplish
ment of this purpose requires slight changes in
certain parts of the resetting mechanism and I
freed irom engagement with lever 18 at the lower
have shown these modi?cations in Fig. 14. In
position of the latter which, however, is held in
this modi?cation, the closed and open positions
that position by Spring 32,
50 of the valve 10 are modi?ed, the closed position
With the valve 10 in open position, compressed
being shown by full lines in Fig. 14, and the open
air will flow from the source of supply, not shown,
position by ‘dotted lines. The sliding member 86
through the pipe 69, the valve 10, and the pipe
has at its upper end a ?at spring member 99
11 to the bottom of the cylinder through the
similar to the spring member 89 but is provided
coupling 28.
This compressed air ?owing into 55 at its upper end with a double curve and is
the cylinder 24 below the piston 32 will cause
the piston to rise. The lever 18 has connected to
it by means of the pin 8| parallel links 9|, best
adapted to cooperate with the lower edge of a
modi?ed valve actuating lever I00. This valve
actuating lever I00 extends beyond the valve 10
shown in Figs. 11 and 12. These parallel links are ~ and is provided with parallel links l0| which are
held in spaced relationship at their upper ends 60 identical with the links 9|. When the valve 23
by means of a sleeve 92 and a pin 93. An Lis suspended from the hook 83, the sliding mem
shaped lever 94 is pivoted‘to the cabinet wall by
her 86 will be in the position shown by the _full
means of a screw 95 and is spaced from the wall
by means of a sleeve I02. The lever 94 extends
lines in Fig. 14, and the valve actuating lever
I00 will also be in the position shown by the full
from its pivot between the parallel links 9| over 65 lines, the valve being closed. Upon removal of
the top of the cylinder 24 and has a leg 96 ‘de-
the vlave 23 from the hook, the coil spring 88 will
pending into the cylinder.
‘
When the valve 10 is open and the lever ‘I8 is
in the position shown by dotted lines in Fig. 11,
cause the sliding member 86 to rise and the spring
99 will move the valve actuating lever I00 to open
the valve. The mechanism will then assume the
the sleeve 92 separating the parallel links 9| will 70 position shown by dotted lines in Fig. 14 and the
bear against the top of’the L-shaped lever 94.
valve 10 will be open, permitting compressed air
When compressed air continues to flow into the
to flow‘into the cylinder 24 and to raise the
cylinder below the piston32, the‘piston will rise
piston 32 as heretofore described.’ The rising of
until it contacts and raises the depending leg 96
_ the piston 32 will raise the L-shaped lever '94
of the lever 94, thus'causing this lever to move 75 which will in turn raise the parallel links l0! to
6
2,294,198
close the valve 10. Upon replacing the valve 23
of said piston to a predetermined positiomsaid
on the hook 83, the sliding member 86 will de
scend and the spring 99 will snap into the posi
measuring apparatus which, though simple and
piston when at or below said predetermined
position exerting a constant pressure on the air
below it, means for conducting compressed air
from said cylinder into the un?lled space of the
vessel to be measured, which un?lled space con
durable, will give accurate results. In using my
tains a constant and known initial pressure, and
tion shown by the full lines in Fig. 14.
It will thus be seen that I have provided a
means responsive to the movement of said piston
eilected by the reduction of the volume of com
therefore be used by operators having no knowl
edge whatever of the principle of its operation. 10 pressed air within the cylinder to indicate the
volume of the un?lled space within the vessel.
The portability of the valve 23 and the fact that
3. An apparatus for measuring the un?lled
this valve can be used on tanks having openings
device, no computation is necessary and it can
of various sizes renders the apparatus particu
larly useful for ascertaining the amount of gaso
line which a motor vehicle fuel tank will hold.
Such information obtained by the use of my
device will not only prevent the waste of gaso
line by over?lling the fuel tank, but will enable
station attendants to increase their sales by in
forming the motorist in advance of the exact
amount of gasoline which will be required to ?ll
his tank. I have ascertained that readings may
space within a vessel comprising a cabinet, a
cylinder located within said cabinet, said cylinder
being closed at one end and having a closely ?t
ting piston adapted to reciprocate therein and
capable of exerting a constant predetermined
pressure on air con?ned between said piston and
the closed end of said cylinder, a vent in the
wall of said cylinder near its open end for limit
ing the maximum volume of air which said piston
can compress, a ?exible conduit leading from the
closed end of said cylinder through said cabinet
to the mouth of a vessel having un?lled space
and that by the use of the automatic resetting
the volume of which it is desired to measure, said
means, separate readings may be taken every
conduit having a coupling valve assembly for
20 to 30 seconds.
?rst sealing the mouth of said vessel and sub
While I have shown and described the preferred
sequently opening communication between said
embodiment of my invention, it will be apparent
cylinder and the un?lled space in said vessel to
that various modi?cations may be resorted to
without departing from the broad scope of the 30 thereby permit compressed air in said cylinder
to ?ow into said vessel, and means responsive to
invention as de?ned in the annexed claims.
the movement of said piston effected by the re
In the speci?cation and claims, the term “?uid”
duction of the volume of compressed air within
means any ?uid which is substantially compres
the cylinder to indicate the volume of the un
sible and which follows Boyle’s law with reason
?lled space within the vessel.
able accuracy through narrow ranges of pressure
4. Apparatus for measuring the volumetric
change. By the term “un?lled space”, is meant
capacity of the un?lled space in a vessel, com-_
that space in the vessel which is occupied only
prising a. cylinder having vertical walls and
by the compressible ?uid. The term “cylinder”
closed at its lower end, a weighted piston closely
is meant to designate any chamber, irrespective
of cross-sectional shape, in which a piston may 40 ?tting the inner walls of said cylinder and
adapted for vertical reciprocation therein, a ?ex
be closely ?tted and adapted to reciprocate.
ible strand secured to said piston and extending
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
upwardly and around a horizontally disposed
1. An apparatus for measuring the un?lled
rotatable shaft, said piston exerting a predeter
space within a vessel comprising a cylinder hav
ing vertical walls and closed at its lower end, a 45 mined constant pressure on ?uid con?ned be
tween said piston and the lower end of said
piston mounted for vertical reciprocation in said
cylinder irrespective of the volume of said ?uid,
cylinder, said piston including means to prevent
valve means controlled by the position of said pis
the passage of air between the piston and the
ton for securing a predetermined volume of con
walls of said cylinder, means for introducing
compressed air into said cylinder below said pis 50 ?ned ?uid in said cylinder at said predetermined
pressure, a conduit leading from the lower end
ton to thereby raise the piston, an air vent in
of said cylinder to the mouth of a vessel having
the wall of said cylinder near its upper end to
a space of unknown volumetric capacity which
permit the escape of air from the cylinder when
is occupied by ?uid at atmospheric pressure,
said piston rises above said vent, a conduit lead
ing from the closed. end of said cylinder to the 55 means associated with said conduit for sealing
the mouth of said vessel and for placing the con
mouth of the vessel to be measured, means at the
?ned space in said cylinder in open communica
free end of said conduit for sealing the mouth of
tion with the interior of said vessel whereby ?ow
said vessel, a valve for establishing communica
of compressed ?uid from said cylinder into said
tion between the interior of said vessel and said
cylinder to permit compressed air within the 60 vessel is accompanied by a predetermined move
ment of said piston with a consequent rotation
cylinder to ?ow into the vessel, and means re
of said horizontally disposed shaft, and means
sponsive to the movement of said piston effected
operatively connected with said shaft and re
by the reduction of the volume of compressed
sponsive
to rotation thereof to indicate the
air within the cylinder to indicate the volume
65 volume of the un?lled space in said vessel.
of the un?lled space within the vessel.
5. An apparatus for measuring the volume of
2. An apparatus for measuring the un?lled
the un?lled space within a vessel comprising a
space within a vessel comprising a cylinder hav
cylinder closed at one end, a closely ?tted piston
ing vertical walls and closed at its lower end, a
adapted for reciprocation within said cylinder
closely ?tting weighted piston adapted for ver
tical reciprocation therein, means for introduc 70 and exerting a predetermined constant pressure
on a fluid between said piston and the closed
ing compressed air into the closed end of said
end of said cylinder irrespective of the volume
cylinder below said piston to thereby raise the
piston, valve means in the walls of said cylinder
of said ?uid, valve means controlled by the posi
tion of said piston for securing a prescribed
opened to permit escape of air from said cylin
der by raising of said piston and closed by descent 75 initial volume of ?uid within said cylinder at
be taken with my device in a very few seconds
litklutl!
l6. WIEASUHINU 6L HloHNbl
2,294,198
said predetermined pressure, a conduit leading
from the closed end of said cylinder to the mouth
of a vessel having an un?lled space therein of
unknown volume, means at the free end of said
conduit for sealing the mouth of the vessel, a
valve for opening communication between the
interior of the vessel and said cylinder to thus
7
permit an equalization of pressure in said cylin
der andv said vessel and means responsive to
movement of said piston effected by alteration
of volume of ?uid within said cylinder to in
dicate the volume of the un?lled space within
said vessel.
JOHN SMYLIE MORRELl
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