Патент USA US2297076код для вставки
Sept. 29, 1942. P_sAcKs ETAL ¿292076 BRAKE coNTRoLLING MECHANISM FOR AUTOMOBILES Filed July 5, 1940 w M.n»ß wm 5 a vC ß 2,297,016 Patented Sept. 29, 1942 UNITED nsTATEs PATENT OFFICE 2,297,076 l Y BRAKE CONTROLLING MECHANISM'FOR AUTOMOBILES » Philip Sacks, Newark, and Marion M. McCoy, Whippany, N. J. Application July 5, 1940, serial No. 343,924 (ci. 1st-_139) a simplified‘brake-controlling mechanism of this This invention relates to controlling means for 4 Claims. nature which is actuated by a constantly avail able source of power entirely independent of and hydraulic' brakes of automobiles and it has as its primary object to provide new and improved separate from the automobile engine. mechanism, independent of the brake and clutch pedals and wholly under the control of the op u erator, for maintaining the brakes set whenever it is desired to prevent the automobile from mov ing under the force of gravity and for subse the operator to assume any awkward or unnatu quently releasing the brakes withoutshock, jar or noise. ’ Still another object is to provide an improved brake-controlling mechanism wholly under the control of the operator, to be actuated only when needed, and which to operate will not require 10 Devices of this nature are particularly useful in preventing automobiles, which have been brought to rest on a. hill, from starting to coast either forward or backward during the interval of time between the removal of the operator’s foot from the brake pedal and the initiation of the power drive of the automobile under the in fluence of the foot-controlled accelerator. A number of devices of this general nature heretofore have been provided but insofar as we are aware none has been entirely satisfactory. Some have been effective only when the auto mobile is facing an up-grade. Others have been connected to and actuated by parts of the auto mobile which are manipulated more or less con located if the brake-controlling mechanism were not embodied in the automobile. These objects have been attained by the> pro vision of a brake-controlling mechanism includ ing an improved and; simplified check-valve unit located in the huid-return line, which, at certain times, prevents the returnof the-fluid from the individual brake-actuating cylinders. The pres 20 ent improved construction also includes actuat ing means for said check-valve comprising an electric solenoid, adapted to be energized by elec tric current from the storage battery of the auto mobile and a manually actuable control switch 25 in series with said battery and solenoid for ren stantly during the operation of the automobile, such for example as the clutch pedal and the accelerator pedal, whereas the brakes usually are required to be locked only infrequently. Those prior devices therefore have been subjected to 30 excessive and unnecessary` actuation and wear. Other prior constructions have been actuated and maintained effective byl power supplied bry ral position, his hands and feet being maintained in the same positions in which they would be dering said solenoid'selectively effective or in effective to close said check-valve; This control switch is preferably located on the gear-shifting ylever of the automobile, where the operator nor mally has his right hand when preparing to start his automobile. . , - A‘ still further object of the invention is to -provide an improved and simplified quick-locking and gradual-releasing solenoid-actuated check the running -of the automobile engine. Those valve adapted to be embodied as a unit in a con' 35 devices have been somewhat unreliable in that ventional hydraulic brake system of an automo stopping or stalling of the engine renders the bile to control the locking and releasing ofthe brake-locking device ineffective, whereupon the brakes, as hereinbefore described. brakes are released inadvertently. Other objects and advantages will be in part Still others have been controlled electrically, but the electrically controlled devices have been 40 indicated in the following description and in part rendered apparent therefrom in connection with complicated in design and have been so con the drawing, depicting a preferred typical con structed that the high braking pressure (fre struction, Which has been annexed as a part of quently in the neighborhood of 500 pounds per this disclosure and in which: square inch) is released almost instantaneously, Fig. 1 is a sidevelevation, partly in section, of with the result that the whole braking system is 45 our improved electric solenoid-actuated check ' subjected to shocks and jars which are detri valve unit adapted to be used in a hydraulic mental to the parts and which produce undesir brake-system. able noise. Fig. 2 is view similar to Fig. l, but taken at This invention has as an object to provide a l brake-controlling mechanism, the use of which 50 right angles thereto. Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken sub is optional with the operator, which will effec stantially on ‘the line 3-3 of Fig. 1. . tively maintain the brakes set as long as desired, Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken on and which is devoid of all the undesirable and the line 4-4 of Fig. 1. ‘ objectionable features of prior constructions. Another object of the invention is to provide 55 Referring more speciñcally to the drawing, the 2 2,297,07c ' invention is disclosed as embodied in a solenoid actuated and manually controlled check-valve designed `to be incorporated in the main con duit of a conventional hydraulic brake system of an automobile between the cylinder of'Ithe usual pressure producing hydraulic pump, actu important feature of this invention as later will be explained. The upper end of the nipple is located within the lower end of the tube 3| and is formed as a valve-seat which is normally engaged gravitationally by a valve washer which closes the upper end of the :bore 33 for a pur ated by the brake-pedal and the branch conduits pose later to be described. At its lower end the which extend to the individual brake-actuating bore 33 communicates with a horizontal bore 34 cylinders. Under normal operating conditions formed in the valve casing above and parallel of the automobile »this check-valve is ineffective to the bores 2| and 22. A plug 35 closes the outer and permits unrestricted ilow through the con 10 end of the bore 34 which, intermediate its ends, duits in both directions, thereby permitting nor is intersected by a vertically disposed bore 36 mal applying and releasing of the brakes under through which it communicates with the bore the innuence of the usual brake-pedal. When 22 adjacent the reduced portion 25 of the bushing it is desired to lock the brakes in applied posi 23. The outer end of bore 38 is closed by a tion, the solenoid, which forms a part of the plug 31. check-valve, is energized by being electrically Bearing in mind that the entire system is connected with the usual storage battery of the illled with oil, and ignoring for the present a automobile _by the manual actuation of a suit brake-locking device which forms another fea able switch located convenient to the hand of 20 ture of this invention, it will be understood that the driver, as for example Yon the gear-shift le when the brake pedal is depressed suillcient oil ver. ’This energizing of the solenoid closes the will be forced through the valve-casing V to check-valve and thereby prevents return flow of shift the brake-actuating pistons in the four oil from the individual brake-actuating cylin brake-actuating cylinders, thereby to apply the ders, whereupon each of the brakes is main . brakes. The degree to which the brakes will be tained locked. The brakes will remain locked applied will be proportional to the amount of until the solenoid is de-energized by opening of pressure applied to the brake-pedal, as is usual the electric circuit, whereupon the check-valve in hydraulic brake systems. will open and permit return flow of the brake vAs the brake-pedal is depressed oil lis forced actuating oil. , 30 from the cylinder C through bore I5, ducts I8, As shown in the drawing, this check-valve chamber I8, through bore 2|, shifting the ball comprises a valve casing V connected to the valve 26 in opposition to the spring 28 thereby discharge end of the cylinder C by a threaded removing the ball from- its seat 21, thence adapter I4 provided with an axial bore I5 (see through bore 24 to conduit II‘. When pressure Fig. 2), radial ducts I8, and a reduced cylin on the brake-pedal is relieved the brake-actuat drical portion I1 affording an annular chamber ing pistons in the brake cylinders will retract, I8 between the portion I1 and the surrounding thereby forcing a portion of the oil in conduit IIl portion of the valve casing V. 'I'he valve casing to return to the valve-casing V. The returning is clamped upon the adapter I4 between a shoul oil will now from conduit II'b into bore 24 but, der I9 formed thereon and a clamp nut 28 40 as the ball-valve 261s then in contact with its threaded upon the outer endof the adapter» (see seat 21, the oil may not ilow through conduit 2|. Fig. 2), suitable washers being interposed be Instead, the oil ilows outwardly from bore 24 tween the surfaces to form oil-tight joints. 'I'he through ducts 23, thence through bore 22, duct valve casing V is preferably made of cast iron or some other highly magnetic metal. Formed in the valve casing V, at a right angle to the bore I5 and communicating at one end with the annular chamber I8, is a bore 2|, the 36, bore 34, bore 33, downwardly through ducts 30 to chamber I8 from whence it may ilow back to cylinder C through radial ducts I8 and hori zontal bore I5. Theforegoing describes the operation of our other end of which communicates with an en system when our improved locking device there larged bore 22 formed in an extension v of the 50 for is not in use. 'I'his improved locking device valve casing V. This bore is threaded at its outer is adapted to prevent return ilow of iluid from end and receives the correspondingly thread the brake cylinders when pressure on the brake ed portion 23* of a bushing 23 into the outer pedal is relieved and comprises a check-valve end of which is threaded a conduit ||n which is adapted to be rendered eiîective at will whenever connected with each of the four brake-actuating 55 the ignition switch is closed and the brakes are cylinders, not shown. The bushing 23- has a applied. This locking device comprises a valve central bore 24 and a reduced portion 25 which adapted to be controlled by a solenoid, desig serve as a retainer for a ball check-valve 28, nated .generally as S, which is supported upon the designed to bear upon a seat or washer 21, fitted valve casing V and which includes a core 33 in the bore 22 adjacent the `bore 2|, under the 60 slidingly mounted in the upright tube 3| having influence of a compression spring 28 located in one end threaded into the valve casing. At its the bore 24. Radial ports 28 connect the bore lower end the core 38 carries a washer 38 adapt 24 with the bore 22 for a purpose later to be ed normally to rest by gravity upon a seat 40 at described. the upper end of the nipple 32, to close the bore Extending upwardly through the valve cas 33 therein. The solenoid S further consists of a ing V, and communicating at their lower ends wire coil 4| wrapped about the tube 3| and with the annular chamber I8, are two relatively which, when energized by a now of electricity small ducts 38 (see Figs. 2 and 3), the upper therethrough, draws the core 38 downwardly ends of which terminate in the lower end of thereby forcing the washer 39 onto the seat 48 an upright tube 3|,` preferably of brass or other 70 with sufñcient pressure to withstand the back non-magnetic metal, later to be described. pressure in the system. The coil 4| is encased Threaded into the valve casing intermediate the within a sheet metal sheath or casing 50 secured ducts 30 is a nipple 32 having a central bore 33 at its lower end to the valve casing V and carry of small diameter. 'I'he relatively small diam ing within its upper end a block 5| of insulating eters of the ducts 38 and the bore 33 are an 75 material, such as nbre, in which are secured non 2,297,076 magnetic binding posts 52 and 53 connected to opposite ends of the coil. The nuts threaded on the binding posts also are made of non-magnetic metal, such as brass. The upper end of the tube 3 wheneverI it is desired to adapt the unit for any . special working conditions. Another important feature of. this invention ~ resides in the fact th‘at ,the corel ofthe solenoid does not have any appreciable 'axial movement 3| is closed by a non-magnetic cap 42 which car Ul under the inñuence of the magnetic coill 4| and ries a threaded non-magnetic screw 43 adapted therefore is entirely 'noiseless in_ its action. The to be unscrewed and serve as a vent to bleed the 1 only time at which the core is raised off 'of the system of air after it has been installed, thereby seat 43 is when the oil is returning through bore to insure that the entire system will be iilled with 33. Oil in the upper end o'f the tube 3| cushions oil. To permit oil to ilow to the upper end of 10 the core in its upward movement. Wh'en this the tube 3|, so that there will be no tendency to ilow stops the core and the washer 39 carried create a vacuum at that point when the core 38 thereby are again lowered by gravity onto the is moved downwardly, the core is preferably made seat 40. When the coil is energized the core _ of hexagonal stock as shown most clearly in merely bears more iirrnly on the seat 40 without Fig. 4. Spaces 44 are afforded between the outer any preceptible endwise movement. _ hexagonal periphery of the core 38 and the in Having thus described our invention, we claim: ner circular wall of the tube 3| and those spaces 1. A control unit for a hydraulic brake system permit free iiow of oil in the tube as the core having a pressure-producing means and fluid ac moves therein. tuated brakes, comprising a casing having an in The coil 4| is preferably connected with the 20 let adapted to be connected with the pressure usual storage battery and in series with the con producing means and an outlet adapted to be ventional ignition system of the automobile. connected with said brakes, a tube threaded into One end of the coil 4| is connected to the igni said casing transversely of said inlet and outlet, tion system back to the ignition switch by a wire a by-pass from said outlet to said inlet’to permit 45, connected to the binding post 52, so that the return flow of fluid through said casing, a control coil may be energized only when the ignition valve embodied in said by-pas's, comprising a switch is closed. . The other end of the coil, at valve seat, a core movable in said tube and a tached to binding post 53, is connected to ground washer carried by said core and normally rest through a wire 46 connected to a suitable man ing on said valve seat, and a magnetic coil sur ual control switch, not shown, which also is 30 rounding said tube and adapted when energized grounded. Thus it will be understood that when to cause said core to be urged in one direction thev ignition switch is closed the coil 4|' will be to force said washer against said valve seat, energized and the core will be pulled downward thereby to prevent return iiow of fluid through ly closing the bore 33 in nipple 32 with suñicient said by-pass. pressure to prevent return flow of iiuid in the 2. A control unit for a hydraulic brake system brake system. having a pressure-producing means and ñuid Although the hydraulic pressure in brake ac actuated brakes, comprising a casing having an tuating systems, as above described, frequently inlet adapted to be. connected with the pressure reaches 500 pounds per square inch that pressure producing means and an outlet adapted to be 40 is readily resisted by the pull of the solenoid connected with said brakes, a tube secured in which uses only about 2 amperes at 6 volts.- This said casing transversely of said inlet, a by-pass is made possible largely by the small diameter from said outlet to said inlet to permit return of the bore 33 which, in actual practice is only flow of fluid through said casing, a control valve about gaf of an inch, as are also the ducts 30. embodied in said by-pass, comprising a valve The efficiency of the solenoid also is increased by reason of the fact that thelvalve casing V, being of magnetic metal, becomes magnetized by the flow of current through the coil 4| and attracts the core 38 and thereby helps to force the washer 39 onto the s`eat 40, Whereas the tube 3|, cap 42, screw 43, binding posts 52, 53 and the nuts thereon, being of non-magnetic metal, do not be come energized and therefore do not exert any counter-pull on the core. It will readily be understood that if such pres sure were released instantly, upon opening of the switch 41, the parts would be subjected to severe shocks and jars which would not only be detri mental to the parts but whichvalso would cause seat, a core movable in said tube and a washer carried by said core and normally resting by gravity on said valve seat, a cap closing the up per end of said tube, an air vent in said cap, and a magnetic coil surrounding said tube and adapted when energized to cause said core to be urged in one direction to force said washer . onto said valve seat to prevent return ñow of ñuid _in said system. 3. A control ,unit for a hydraulic brake sys tem having a pressure-producing means and fluid actuated brakes, comprising a casing hav ing an inlet adapted to be connected with the pressure-producing means and an outlet adapted to be connected with said brakes, a cylindrical undesirable noise. This sudden release, with the 60 tube secured in said'casing, a by-pass >from said accompanying undesirable results, also have been outlet to said inlet to permit return flow of iiuid eliminated by making the bore 33 of relatively through said casing, a control valve embodied in small diameter, as above described. Due to its said by-pass, comprising a valve-seat, a core diameter this bore so restrictsI the flow of oil that 65 movable in said tubeand having one end nor the brakes are released gradually and all shocks, mally resting on said valve-seat, said core being jars and noise and sudden retraction of the of polygonal form in cross section, the spaces be brake-pedal are eliminated. The ducts 30, be tween the sides of said core and the inner wall of said tube permitting the flow of fluid length ing two in number and of substantially the same diameter as the bore 33, insure that there will 70 wise of said tube, and a magnetic coil surround ing said tube and adapted when energized to be no restricting back pressure on the fluid aftercause said core to be urged against said valve » it has passed the valve seat 40. seat to prevent return i'low of fluid in said system. The nipple 32 is threaded into the valve casing i 4. A control unit for a hydraulic brake sys V and may be removed and replaced -by a simi lar nipple having _a bore of diiîerent diameter 75 tem having a pressure-producing means and 4 2,297,076 iluid actuated brakes. comprising a casing oi' magnetic metal having an inlet adapted to be connected with the pressure-producing means and an outlet adapted to be connected with said brakes. a tube ot non-magnetic metal secured in said casini transversely of said inlet, a by-pass from said outlet to said inlet to permitreturn now oi' duid through said casing, a control valve embodied in said by-pas's comprising a valve seat, a core movable in said tube and a washer car ried by said core and normally resting by gravity on said valve seat, a non~magnetic cap closing the upper end of said tube, an air vent in said cap, a magnetic coil surrounding said tube and adapted when energized to cause the combined magnetic forces set up in said coil and valve cas ing to urge said core in one direction to force said washer onto said valve seat with sufficient pressure to preventA return flow of iiuid in said system. PHILIP SACKS. MARION M. McCOY.