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Патент USA US2297076

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Sept. 29, 1942.
P_sAcKs ETAL
¿292076
BRAKE coNTRoLLING MECHANISM FOR AUTOMOBILES
Filed July 5, 1940
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2,297,016
Patented Sept. 29, 1942
UNITED nsTATEs PATENT OFFICE
2,297,076
l
Y
BRAKE CONTROLLING MECHANISM'FOR
AUTOMOBILES
»
Philip Sacks, Newark, and Marion M. McCoy,
Whippany, N. J.
Application July 5, 1940, serial No. 343,924
(ci. 1st-_139)
a simplified‘brake-controlling mechanism of this
This invention relates to controlling means for
4 Claims.
nature which is actuated by a constantly avail
able source of power entirely independent of and
hydraulic' brakes of automobiles and it has as
its primary object to provide new and improved
separate from the automobile engine.
mechanism, independent of the brake and clutch
pedals and wholly under the control of the op
u
erator, for maintaining the brakes set whenever
it is desired to prevent the automobile from mov
ing under the force of gravity and for subse
the operator to assume any awkward or unnatu
quently releasing the brakes withoutshock, jar
or noise.
’
Still another object is to provide an improved
brake-controlling mechanism wholly under the
control of the operator, to be actuated only when
needed, and which to operate will not require
10
Devices of this nature are particularly useful
in preventing automobiles, which have been
brought to rest on a. hill, from starting to coast
either forward or backward during the interval
of time between the removal of the operator’s
foot from the brake pedal and the initiation of
the power drive of the automobile under the in
fluence of the foot-controlled accelerator.
A number of devices of this general nature
heretofore have been provided but insofar as we
are aware none has been entirely satisfactory.
Some have been effective only when the auto
mobile is facing an up-grade. Others have been
connected to and actuated by parts of the auto
mobile which are manipulated more or less con
located if the brake-controlling mechanism were
not embodied in the automobile.
These objects have been attained by the> pro
vision of a brake-controlling mechanism includ
ing an improved and; simplified check-valve unit
located in the huid-return line, which, at certain
times, prevents the returnof the-fluid from the
individual brake-actuating cylinders. The pres
20 ent improved construction also includes actuat
ing means for said check-valve comprising an
electric solenoid, adapted to be energized by elec
tric current from the storage battery of the auto
mobile and a manually actuable control switch
25 in series with said battery and solenoid for ren
stantly during the operation of the automobile,
such for example as the clutch pedal and the
accelerator pedal, whereas the brakes usually are
required to be locked only infrequently. Those
prior devices therefore have been subjected to 30
excessive and unnecessary` actuation and wear.
Other prior constructions have been actuated
and maintained effective byl power supplied bry
ral position, his hands and feet being maintained
in the same positions in which they would be
dering said solenoid'selectively effective or in
effective to close said check-valve; This control
switch is preferably located on the gear-shifting
ylever of the automobile, where the operator nor
mally has his right hand when preparing to start
his automobile.
.
,
-
A‘ still further object of the invention is to
-provide an improved and simplified quick-locking
and gradual-releasing solenoid-actuated check
the running -of the automobile engine. Those
valve adapted to be embodied as a unit in a con'
35
devices have been somewhat unreliable in that
ventional hydraulic brake system of an automo
stopping or stalling of the engine renders the
bile to control the locking and releasing ofthe
brake-locking device ineffective, whereupon the
brakes, as hereinbefore described.
brakes are released inadvertently.
Other objects and advantages will be in part
Still others have been controlled electrically,
but the electrically controlled devices have been 40 indicated in the following description and in part
rendered apparent therefrom in connection with
complicated in design and have been so con
the drawing, depicting a preferred typical con
structed that the high braking pressure (fre
struction,
Which has been annexed as a part of
quently in the neighborhood of 500 pounds per
this disclosure and in which:
square inch) is released almost instantaneously,
Fig. 1 is a sidevelevation, partly in section, of
with the result that the whole braking system is 45
our
improved electric solenoid-actuated check
' subjected to shocks and jars which are detri
valve unit adapted to be used in a hydraulic
mental to the parts and which produce undesir
brake-system.
able noise.
Fig. 2 is view similar to Fig. l, but taken at
This invention has as an object to provide a
l
brake-controlling mechanism, the use of which 50 right angles thereto.
Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken sub
is optional with the operator, which will effec
stantially on ‘the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
.
tively maintain the brakes set as long as desired,
Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken on
and which is devoid of all the undesirable and
the line 4-4 of Fig. 1.
‘
objectionable features of prior constructions.
Another object of the invention is to provide 55 Referring more speciñcally to the drawing, the
2
2,297,07c '
invention is disclosed as embodied in a solenoid
actuated and manually controlled check-valve
designed `to be incorporated in the main con
duit of a conventional hydraulic brake system
of an automobile between the cylinder of'Ithe
usual pressure producing hydraulic pump, actu
important feature of this invention as later will
be explained. The upper end of the nipple is
located within the lower end of the tube 3|
and is formed as a valve-seat which is normally
engaged gravitationally by a valve washer which
closes the upper end of the :bore 33 for a pur
ated by the brake-pedal and the branch conduits
pose later to be described. At its lower end the
which extend to the individual brake-actuating
bore 33 communicates with a horizontal bore 34
cylinders. Under normal operating conditions
formed in the valve casing above and parallel
of the automobile »this check-valve is ineffective
to the bores 2| and 22. A plug 35 closes the outer
and permits unrestricted ilow through the con 10 end of the bore 34 which, intermediate its ends,
duits in both directions, thereby permitting nor
is intersected by a vertically disposed bore 36
mal applying and releasing of the brakes under
through which it communicates with the bore
the innuence of the usual brake-pedal. When
22 adjacent the reduced portion 25 of the bushing
it is desired to lock the brakes in applied posi
23. The outer end of bore 38 is closed by a
tion, the solenoid, which forms a part of the
plug 31.
check-valve, is energized by being electrically
Bearing in mind that the entire system is
connected with the usual storage battery of the
illled with oil, and ignoring for the present a
automobile _by the manual actuation of a suit
brake-locking device which forms another fea
able switch located convenient to the hand of 20 ture of this invention, it will be understood that
the driver, as for example Yon the gear-shift le
when the brake pedal is depressed suillcient oil
ver. ’This energizing of the solenoid closes the
will be forced through the valve-casing V to
check-valve and thereby prevents return flow of
shift the brake-actuating pistons in the four
oil from the individual brake-actuating cylin
brake-actuating cylinders, thereby to apply the
ders, whereupon each of the brakes is main
. brakes.
The degree to which the brakes will be
tained locked. The brakes will remain locked
applied will be proportional to the amount of
until the solenoid is de-energized by opening of
pressure applied to the brake-pedal, as is usual
the electric circuit, whereupon the check-valve
in hydraulic brake systems.
will open and permit return flow of the brake
vAs the brake-pedal is depressed oil lis forced
actuating oil.
,
30 from the cylinder C through bore I5, ducts I8,
As shown in the drawing, this check-valve
chamber I8, through bore 2|, shifting the ball
comprises a valve casing V connected to the
valve 26 in opposition to the spring 28 thereby
discharge end of the cylinder C by a threaded
removing the ball from- its seat 21, thence
adapter I4 provided with an axial bore I5 (see
through bore 24 to conduit II‘. When pressure
Fig. 2), radial ducts I8, and a reduced cylin
on the brake-pedal is relieved the brake-actuat
drical portion I1 affording an annular chamber
ing pistons in the brake cylinders will retract,
I8 between the portion I1 and the surrounding
thereby forcing a portion of the oil in conduit IIl
portion of the valve casing V. 'I'he valve casing
to return to the valve-casing V. The returning
is clamped upon the adapter I4 between a shoul
oil will now from conduit II'b into bore 24 but,
der I9 formed thereon and a clamp nut 28 40 as the ball-valve 261s then in contact with its
threaded upon the outer endof the adapter» (see
seat 21, the oil may not ilow through conduit 2|.
Fig. 2), suitable washers being interposed be
Instead, the oil ilows outwardly from bore 24
tween the surfaces to form oil-tight joints. 'I'he
through ducts 23, thence through bore 22, duct
valve casing V is preferably made of cast iron
or some other highly magnetic metal.
Formed in the valve casing V, at a right angle
to the bore I5 and communicating at one end
with the annular chamber I8, is a bore 2|, the
36, bore 34, bore 33, downwardly through ducts
30 to chamber I8 from whence it may ilow back
to cylinder C through radial ducts I8 and hori
zontal bore I5.
Theforegoing describes the operation of our
other end of which communicates with an en
system when our improved locking device there
larged bore 22 formed in an extension v of the 50 for is not in use. 'I'his improved locking device
valve casing V. This bore is threaded at its outer
is adapted to prevent return ilow of iluid from
end and receives the correspondingly thread
the brake cylinders when pressure on the brake
ed portion 23* of a bushing 23 into the outer
pedal is relieved and comprises a check-valve
end of which is threaded a conduit ||n which is
adapted to be rendered eiîective at will whenever
connected with each of the four brake-actuating 55 the ignition switch is closed and the brakes are
cylinders, not shown. The bushing 23- has a
applied. This locking device comprises a valve
central bore 24 and a reduced portion 25 which
adapted to be controlled by a solenoid, desig
serve as a retainer for a ball check-valve 28,
nated .generally as S, which is supported upon the
designed to bear upon a seat or washer 21, fitted
valve casing V and which includes a core 33
in the bore 22 adjacent the `bore 2|, under the 60 slidingly mounted in the upright tube 3| having
influence of a compression spring 28 located in
one end threaded into the valve casing. At its
the bore 24. Radial ports 28 connect the bore
lower end the core 38 carries a washer 38 adapt
24 with the bore 22 for a purpose later to be
ed normally to rest by gravity upon a seat 40 at
described.
the upper end of the nipple 32, to close the bore
Extending upwardly through the valve cas
33 therein. The solenoid S further consists of a
ing V, and communicating at their lower ends
wire coil 4| wrapped about the tube 3| and
with the annular chamber I8, are two relatively
which, when energized by a now of electricity
small ducts 38 (see Figs. 2 and 3), the upper
therethrough, draws the core 38 downwardly
ends of which terminate in the lower end of
thereby forcing the washer 39 onto the seat 48
an upright tube 3|,` preferably of brass or other 70 with sufñcient pressure to withstand the back
non-magnetic metal, later to be described.
pressure in the system. The coil 4| is encased
Threaded into the valve casing intermediate the
within a sheet metal sheath or casing 50 secured
ducts 30 is a nipple 32 having a central bore 33
at its lower end to the valve casing V and carry
of small diameter. 'I'he relatively small diam
ing within its upper end a block 5| of insulating
eters of the ducts 38 and the bore 33 are an 75 material, such as nbre, in which are secured non
2,297,076
magnetic binding posts 52 and 53 connected to
opposite ends of the coil. The nuts threaded on
the binding posts also are made of non-magnetic
metal, such as brass. The upper end of the tube
3
wheneverI it is desired to adapt the unit for any .
special working conditions.
Another important feature of. this invention ~
resides in the fact th‘at ,the corel ofthe solenoid
does not have any appreciable 'axial movement
3| is closed by a non-magnetic cap 42 which car Ul under the inñuence of the magnetic coill 4| and
ries a threaded non-magnetic screw 43 adapted
therefore is entirely 'noiseless in_ its action. The
to be unscrewed and serve as a vent to bleed the 1
only time at which the core is raised off 'of the
system of air after it has been installed, thereby
seat 43 is when the oil is returning through bore
to insure that the entire system will be iilled with
33. Oil in the upper end o'f the tube 3| cushions
oil. To permit oil to ilow to the upper end of 10 the core in its upward movement. Wh'en this
the tube 3|, so that there will be no tendency to
ilow stops the core and the washer 39 carried
create a vacuum at that point when the core 38
thereby are again lowered by gravity onto the
is moved downwardly, the core is preferably made
seat 40. When the coil is energized the core _
of hexagonal stock as shown most clearly in
merely bears more iirrnly on the seat 40 without
Fig. 4. Spaces 44 are afforded between the outer
any preceptible endwise movement.
_
hexagonal periphery of the core 38 and the in
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
ner circular wall of the tube 3| and those spaces
1. A control unit for a hydraulic brake system
permit free iiow of oil in the tube as the core
having a pressure-producing means and fluid ac
moves therein.
tuated brakes, comprising a casing having an in
The coil 4| is preferably connected with the 20 let adapted to be connected with the pressure
usual storage battery and in series with the con
producing means and an outlet adapted to be
ventional ignition system of the automobile.
connected with said brakes, a tube threaded into
One end of the coil 4| is connected to the igni
said casing transversely of said inlet and outlet,
tion system back to the ignition switch by a wire
a by-pass from said outlet to said inlet’to permit
45, connected to the binding post 52, so that the
return flow of fluid through said casing, a control
coil may be energized only when the ignition
valve embodied in said by-pas's, comprising a
switch is closed. . The other end of the coil, at
valve seat, a core movable in said tube and a
tached to binding post 53, is connected to ground
washer carried by said core and normally rest
through a wire 46 connected to a suitable man
ing on said valve seat, and a magnetic coil sur
ual control switch, not shown, which also is 30 rounding said tube and adapted when energized
grounded. Thus it will be understood that when
to cause said core to be urged in one direction
thev ignition switch is closed the coil 4|' will be
to force said washer against said valve seat,
energized and the core will be pulled downward
thereby to prevent return iiow of fluid through
ly closing the bore 33 in nipple 32 with suñicient
said by-pass.
pressure to prevent return flow of iiuid in the
2. A control unit for a hydraulic brake system
brake system.
having a pressure-producing means and ñuid
Although the hydraulic pressure in brake ac
actuated brakes, comprising a casing having an
tuating systems, as above described, frequently
inlet
adapted to be. connected with the pressure
reaches 500 pounds per square inch that pressure
producing means and an outlet adapted to be
40
is readily resisted by the pull of the solenoid
connected with said brakes, a tube secured in
which uses only about 2 amperes at 6 volts.- This
said casing transversely of said inlet, a by-pass
is made possible largely by the small diameter
from said outlet to said inlet to permit return
of the bore 33 which, in actual practice is only
flow of fluid through said casing, a control valve
about gaf of an inch, as are also the ducts 30.
embodied in said by-pass, comprising a valve
The efficiency of the solenoid also is increased by
reason of the fact that thelvalve casing V, being
of magnetic metal, becomes magnetized by the
flow of current through the coil 4| and attracts
the core 38 and thereby helps to force the washer
39 onto the s`eat 40, Whereas the tube 3|, cap
42, screw 43, binding posts 52, 53 and the nuts
thereon, being of non-magnetic metal, do not be
come energized and therefore do not exert any
counter-pull on the core.
It will readily be understood that if such pres
sure were released instantly, upon opening of the
switch 41, the parts would be subjected to severe
shocks and jars which would not only be detri
mental to the parts but whichvalso would cause
seat, a core movable in said tube and a washer
carried by said core and normally resting by
gravity on said valve seat, a cap closing the up
per end of said tube, an air vent in said cap, and
a magnetic coil surrounding said tube and
adapted when energized to cause said core to
be urged in one direction to force said washer
. onto said valve seat to prevent return ñow of
ñuid _in said system.
3. A control ,unit for a hydraulic brake sys
tem having a pressure-producing means and
fluid actuated brakes, comprising a casing hav
ing an inlet adapted to be connected with the
pressure-producing means and an outlet adapted
to be connected with said brakes, a cylindrical
undesirable noise. This sudden release, with the 60 tube secured in said'casing, a by-pass >from said
accompanying undesirable results, also have been
outlet to said inlet to permit return flow of iiuid
eliminated by making the bore 33 of relatively
through said casing, a control valve embodied in
small diameter, as above described. Due to its
said by-pass, comprising a valve-seat, a core
diameter this bore so restrictsI the flow of oil that
65 movable in said tubeand having one end nor
the brakes are released gradually and all shocks,
mally resting on said valve-seat, said core being
jars and noise and sudden retraction of the
of polygonal form in cross section, the spaces be
brake-pedal are eliminated. The ducts 30, be
tween the sides of said core and the inner wall
of said tube permitting the flow of fluid length
ing two in number and of substantially the same
diameter as the bore 33, insure that there will 70 wise of said tube, and a magnetic coil surround
ing said tube and adapted when energized to
be no restricting back pressure on the fluid aftercause said core to be urged against said valve »
it has passed the valve seat 40.
seat to prevent return i'low of fluid in said system.
The nipple 32 is threaded into the valve casing
i 4. A control unit for a hydraulic brake sys
V and may be removed and replaced -by a simi
lar nipple having _a bore of diiîerent diameter 75 tem having a pressure-producing means and
4
2,297,076
iluid actuated brakes. comprising a casing oi'
magnetic metal having an inlet adapted to be
connected with the pressure-producing means
and an outlet adapted to be connected with said
brakes. a tube ot non-magnetic metal secured in
said casini transversely of said inlet, a by-pass
from said outlet to said inlet to permitreturn
now oi' duid through said casing, a control valve
embodied in said by-pas's comprising a valve seat,
a core movable in said tube and a washer car
ried by said core and normally resting by gravity
on said valve seat, a non~magnetic cap closing
the upper end of said tube, an air vent in said
cap, a magnetic coil surrounding said tube and
adapted when energized to cause the combined
magnetic forces set up in said coil and valve cas
ing to urge said core in one direction to force
said washer onto said valve seat with sufficient
pressure to preventA return flow of iiuid in said
system.
PHILIP SACKS.
MARION M. McCOY.
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