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Патент USA US2297380

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Sept. 2-9, 1942-
.J. |.. WOODWORTH
2,297,380
CARRIER CURRENT CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Aug. 13, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Inventor“:
v John L.Wdo dwor'th,
‘Sept. 29, 1942.
J. L. WOODWORTH
2,297,380
CARRIER CURRENT CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Aug. 13, 1941
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CARR/ER CURRENT RECEIVER
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Inventor:
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John L?wo'odworth,
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His Attorneg.
2,297,380‘
"PatenteciSept. 29, 1942
UNITED STATE 5' PATENT oEFicE
2,297,380
‘CARRIER CURRENT CONTBOL SYSTEM
John L. Woodworth, Schenectady, N. Y., assign
or to General Electric Company, a corporation
or New York
Application August 13, 1941, Serial No. 406,588
5150mm
(01.11147) _
This invention relates. to carrier current con
trol systems, and more particularly to such sys
tems in which the carrier current is utilized to
effect control 0! loads on a power system at
remote points.
Carrier current control ‘systems for controlling
loads on a power system at remote points gen
erally utilize carrier current receivers at such
described above, is described and claimed in U. S. ' "
Letters Patent 2,064,644, 'ior Control device, is
sued to me on December 15, 1936, and assigned
to the same assignee as the present application.
This receiver is described hereinafter in connec
tion with the description and explanation oi the
operation of my‘invention.
Another such carrier current controller is dis
closed and claimed in my copending application
remote loads which respond to carrier current
only ai’ter they have received such‘carrier cur 1-0 for Letters Patent, Serial No. 385,278, for Carrier
current controller, ?led on March 26, 1941, and
rent for a substantial length of time. It is .de
assigned to the same assignee as the present
sirable to provide- that such carrier current re
application.
ceivers shall not respond instantaneously to car
Brie?y, this device comprises a bimetallic strip '
rier current, in order to avoid possible response to
?xed at one end to a support, and at the other
' transients induced on the power line by lightning, end to a second bimetallic strip arranged to bend
switching operations, and the like. Although, in
in the opposite direction in response to heating. ' I
manufacturing such carrier current receivers
A, movable electric circuit contact is mounted _on
which respond to carrier current only after a sub
the end of this second bimetallic strip and ‘is
stantial time, eiiorts are made to manufacture '
arranged’to engage a ?xed electric circuit con- ' Q
20
all. such receivers alike, it is inevitable that cer
tact upon motion of the second bimetallic strip
tainmanuiacturing tolerances exist. Each car
caused by heating. An electrical heating winding
rier current receiver consequentlyresponds to Sis
arranged around the second bimetallic strip _
reception of carrier current tor a slightly dif
so that upon application of electric'energy to the
ierent time.
‘heater ‘for a short period, the second bimetallic.
Such receivers generally operate in response
strip ?exes to close the electric contacts, while
' to application 0! line voltage for an interval of
the
?rst bimetallic strip does not bend substan
time, and, since line voltages vary considerably
tially. Ii heating be continued longer, heat ?ows
in diiierent parts for normal power systems due
the second bimetallic strip to the ?rst by
to loading conditions and the like, ‘the receivers 30 irom
conduction,
or otherwise, and causes the ?rst
respond to carrier current‘ pulses of different
bimetallic strip to flex. Flexure of this ?rst
duration because they are energized by voltage
bimetallic strip is sufficient to separate the elec
of dii’ierent intensities.
trical contacts even though the second bimetallic
For such reasons, carrier current receivers oi
strip is bent to a very large extent.
,
the type which respond only to reception or car
O?peak loadcontrol'by using such receivers is
rier current for a substantial interval generally 36 now
accomplished by‘transmitting a carrier cur
vary in their time of response to such carrier
rent
impulse of sui'?cient duration to cause every
current by considerable amounts. For example,
receiver to operate. Such operation connects the
‘one type oi carrier current receiver used exten
associated loads to the power-line at any desired
sively to control water heater loads has a ther
time after the peak load for a day has decreased
mal element to which heat is applied during
reception of carrier current. These carrier cur
rent controllers are manufactured so as to close
by a suitable amount.
Such a carrier current
impulse isusually transmitted to add water heat
»er loads to a' power system afterv the evening
the load circuit aiter receiving carrier current
load has passed.
.
nominally for ten seconds. Actually, such con 46 peak
Just before a peak load is expected on the sys
trollers are manufactured to energize their as
tem, which normally occurs at some time in
sociated load circuits after about 4 or 5 sec
the middle of the day, another di?erentlychar
onds. The time varies slightly due to manufac
acterised carrier current impulse is transmitted
. turing variations. As installed, these controllers
are energized by line voltages oi different values,
and, sometimes act to complete their associated
load circuits in a period as short as three sec
onds. Others mayrequire as long as six sec
' to these receivers and this impulse causes them
to disconnect their associated loads from the
power line. In the case of the particular receiv
ers described and claimed in the above men
tioned patent and application, this impulse which,
produces disconnection oi the load is usually
~ A typical carrier current receiver, oi the type 5‘ about 30 seconds in length.
onds beiore they complete their associated load
circuits.
'
I
2 .
2,297,380
It is, therefore, usual that the carrier ‘current
. controllers will be so actuated as to keep their
associated loads connected to the power line for
a large portion of each day, usually from 16 to 20
hours. These loads are disconnected by the car
rier current receivers for a period, usually four
to- eight hours, during that portion of the day
are connectedto the power line H, and certain
ones of these loads are controlled by carrier cur
rent control receivers such, for example, as dis
clwed, and claimed in my aforesaid patent and;
application and described hereinafter. These
carrier current controlled loads, not shown, may
comprise water heaters having thermostatic con
when the peak loads on the power system occur. , trol, street lighting loads, or any‘other load which
Transmission of a carrier current impulse
it may be desired tocontrol from a remote point
which causes loads to be disconnected from the 10 by carrier current.
,
lower lines, in the case of loads such aswater
A motor. generator‘set is provided to produce
heaters which are thermostatically controlled, } j-suitable carrier currents and includes a motor
does not cause a sudden disconnection of a large
l2 arrangedv to be energized from the power line
total load from the power\ system. This is true
H through a circuit breaker l3, and a generator
because such loads have” generally been energized 15 l4. Thegenerator I 4 produces alternating volt
for a considerable period of time, during which
many such loads have been disconnected from
the power system by their individual thermostatic control. However, during the period when
age of carrier frequency, suitable for energizing
the power line I I so as to operate the carrier cur
rent control receivers connected thereto. This
frequency may be of the order of 400 to 1000
cycles, The generator is connected to the power
system'by carrier control, practically all of the
line H serially through a circuit breaker l5, car
associated thermostat‘controls connect the loads
rier current coupling inductances l6, and capaci
‘ to they power line, except for their disconnection
tors ill. The capacitors H are provided to insu
by the carrier current receivers. When a carrier
late the generator II from power currents in the
current impulse is transmitted to ‘connect all
power line i l, and the inductances l6 are pro
such loads to the power system therefore, the en
vided to resonate with the coupling capacitors
tire carrier current controlled load is applied to
l‘! at the carrier current frequency, so that very
the power system at one time.
little reactance is presented to carrier current
It is accordingly an object of my invention to
between the generator l4 and the power line I I.
provide an improved and simpli?ed carrier cur 30
In operation, closing of the circuit breaker l3
rent control system having means whereby small
startsv the motor l2, and subsequent closing of
increments of the carrier current controlled loads
the circuit breaker" I 5 energizes the power line
may be added to the power system as desired. I
H with carrier current from the generator I‘.
It is a further object of my invention to pro
If the circuit breaker l5 be kept closed for ten
vide an improved and simpli?ed carrier current 35 ‘seconds, assuming that carrier current control
control system for controlling remote loads on
receivers are utilized which have characteristics
a power system having means whereby the car
as described above, all such receivers connect
rier current controlled loads may be so controlled
their associated loads to the power line II. If,
as to maintain the power system load substan
however, the circuit breaker I5 be kept closed
such loads are all disconnected from the power
tially constant except when the total system load
increases beyond the point at which all carrier
current controlled loads are disconnected or
when. the total system load decreases beyond the
point where all the carrier current controlled
loads are connected. It is a corollary object of
my invention to provide simple and effective
means whereby such control is automatically ef
fected in response to power demands-on the sys
tem.
.
'
'
w. for thirty seconds, the. carrier current control
receivers disconnect all their associated loads
from the power line H.
‘
_
In accordance with my invention, I provide
means for maintaining the circuit breaker l5
closed for a time just'su?icient to connect any
desired number of carrier current controlled loads
to the power line H. In the case of the par
ticular carrier current control receivers described
‘
It is also an object of my invention to provide 50 above, if the circuit breaker 55 be kept closed
for three seconds, very few of the carrier cur—
an improved and simpli?ed carrier current con
rent control receivers connect their associated
trol system having means utilizing only one con
loads to the power line II. If the circuit break
trol frequency whereby a plurality of remote
er
l5 be kept closed for a slightly longer time,
loads may be connected and disconnected from
for
example, three and one-half seconds, the
the power system ‘consecutively as desired in re
carrier current/control receivers connect a larger
sponse to carrier current of such one frequency.
number of their associated loads to the power
The features of my invention which I believe
line.
By controlling the length of time which
‘to be novel are set forth with particularity in the
the
circuit
breaker l5 remains closed, the amount
appended claims. My invention itself, both as to
its organization and manner of omration, to= 60 of load added to the system by the carrier cur
rent control receivers is adjusted to any desired
‘ gether with further objects and advantages
thereof may best he understood by reference to
following description taken in connection
' with the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1
illustrates a carrier current control transmitter
connected with a power transmission system ac
cording to my invention; Fig. 2 illustrates car
rier current control receivers and associated
loads connected with a power transmission sys
tern, and Fig. 3 illustrates a thermal relay as.
illustrated in Fig. 2.
I In Fig. 1 a generator, or other alternating cur
rent power source, is represented by three slip
rings and associated brushes iii to which a power
line, ii is connected. ‘Various/loads,» not shown,
value.
'
'
‘
If at any time it be‘desired to remove a por
tion of the carrier current controlled load from
the power line H, it is only necessary to main
tain the circuit breaker l5 closed for thirty sec
onds in order to disconnect the entire carrier
- current controlled load from the system. Then,
after a time su?icient to allow the carrier cur
rent control receivers to return to a responsive
condition, the circuit breaker l5 may be kept
closed for any desired length of time to connect
any portion of the carrier current controlled
load to the power line.
.
'
Such a control system may be utilized to main
tain power demand substantially constant on a
3
2,297,880
ity of the system. This meter I8 is energized
from the power line ll through current trans
formers i9 and potential transformers 20, and
power system. In this speci?cation and in the
appended claims I'use' the expression “demand,”
or “power demand," on a power system to mean
any quantity so measured in the system as to
give an indication'of the power delivered by the.
system to connected loads, such indication bear
ing some desired" relation with the maximum
power delivery capabilities of the system. For
example, such demand may conveniently be meas
ured‘by a meter responsive to current ?owing in
the system, which meter is so constructedas to
be responsivelonly to current ?owing for a sub
stantial time.
4
has a set of contacts 2| which are closed by an
arm 22, made of conductive material, whenever
the system demand is greater than a predeter
mined amount. The meter also has a second set
of contacts 23 which are closed by the arm 22 1
whenever the system demand falls below a smaller
predetermined value.
'
.The contacts 2| and 23 of the demand meter
l8 are provided to energize suitable circuits which
automatically act to transmit carrier currents in
'
such manner as to add load to the system, or re
move load from-the system, in such amounts as
Such a currentmeten'in which a thermal lag ~
is provided to insure response of the meter only
to current flowing for substantial periods, is de
scribed in Letters Patent No. 1,156,414, issued on
October 12, 1915, to Paul M. Lincoln. It may be
to-keep the total system-load substantially con
stant within certain limits: In certain situa
tions it may not be desired to provide such a
fully automatic system, and'I have accordingly
desired to use such a meter on certain power sys
provided ‘hand operating meansrfor the system.
Where the manual arrangement aloneis desired.
terns to indicate demand, because the maximum
power delivering capability of a system is gen
it is of course not necessary to provide ‘the con
erally limited by the amount or heating produced
in the generating equipment and associated cir
tacts 2i and 23 of the demand meter l8. When
using the manual system, the operator deter
cuits. The demand, as measured by the meter
when he wishes to remove load from the
described in the above mentioned Lincoln pat 25 mines
system or add load to the system by noting the
ent, is closely related to this maximum power de~
position of the m'ember22 of the demand meter
livering capability.‘
‘
_
l8, or by any other suitable means.
In most cases, it will be desired to provide such
by an instrument which indicates a function of 30 hand operated- means along with the fully auto-- ~
matic arrangement, and I have illustrated the
power ?owing in the system,,in'tegrated in some
fully automatic transmitting arrangement in Fig.
desirable manner with respect to time. Such a
l as including manual operating means for ac
demand meter is described in Letters Patent No.
Alternatively, the power demand on a power
system utilizing vmy invention may be measured
1,156,412, issued on October 12, 1915, to Paul M.
Lincoln, I! such a meter'be used, the demand
35
on the system as measured by the meter is some
what'morebiosely related to the total system
load.
'
>
complishing the desired results. A double pole,
triple throw switch 24 is provided which has one
‘movable blade 25 connected to one'terminal of
the operating coil 21 of the circuit breaker II,
and another movable blade 26'connected to one
.
terminal of the operating coil 28 of the circuit
In certain other situations it may be desired
breaker IS. The other terminals of these oper
40
to utilize still another type of demand meter,
commonly called a “block demand meter.” This
type. of demand meter comprises a watt hour
meter which is automatically reset to zero at the
end of each “block," or predetermined period.
and which indicates demand at the end of each
such block, or period, according to the number
of watt hours used in each such period. These
periods mam-for example, be a quarter or a half
ating coils 21 and 28 areboth connected to one
terminal 40 of a suitable source of operating po
tential, as, for example, one of the potential
transformers 20. In the intermediate position of
the switch 24, the movable blades 25 and 28 make _
no connection. and the system can be operated
neither manually nor automatically. In the
upper position of the switch 24, the movable blade
25 is connected to the other terminal 39 of the
hour.
‘
Any of these types of demand meters may be 50 source of operating potential, and movable blade
25 is connected through a normally open push
utilized in accordance with my invention to pro
button 29 to terminal 39 of the source of oper
ating potential.
trol a carrier current system according to my
When the system is not in operation, the parts
invention. or to provide automatic operation of
are
as illustrated in the drawings. In order to
55
remote loads by carrier current control so as to
operate the system manually, an operator ?rst
maintain the total ‘system load substantially con
moves the switch 24 to the upperposition, there
stant. In providing such automatic operation
by energizing the operating coil 21 of the circuit
according to my invention, the demand meter is
breaker I3 and starting the motor l2. After a
provided with two sets of contacts, one set 01'
contacts being closed when the demand is great 60 short interval during which the motor I2 comes
up to speed, the operator may depress the push
er than a predetermined amount somewhat less
button 29 to energize the operating coil 28 and
than the total power delivering capability of the
vide an indication by which an operator can con—
system, and the other set of contacts being closed
close the circuit breaker l5, thereby energizing
the power line H with carrier current from the
when the demand is less than a predetermined
smaller amount. If the last described "block” 65 generator l4. As explained above, because of
the fact that carrier current receivers have cer
demand meter be utilized with this system, it can
tain manufacturing variations, and because oper
conveniently be arranged to operate only the ?rst
ating voltage diiifers widely at diiferent points
such contacts. The other set of contacts, which
along the power line ll, individual carrier cur‘
closes at a predetermined smaller demand, may
be operated in response to the reduction of cur— 70 rent receivers operate at di?ering times. Bv
maintaining push button 29 closed for a suitable
rent in the power lines below a certain predeter
time, the operator may connect any desired num
mined value.
ber of loads to the line i l, or disconnect any de~
In the drawings. a rectangle i8 represents such
a demand meter which may be responsive to any
desired function of the power delivering capabil 75
sired number of loads from the‘ line.
A preferred method of operation is, however,
4.
2,297,880
as follows. If the operator maintains the push
closed to keep the system in readiness for trans
mitting a pulse of carrier current to disconnect
loads whenever the contacts 2| oi the demand
button 29 closed for a short period, for example,
I {or a half second and then leaves it open for a
somewhat longer period, for example 11/2 sec
meter l8 are closed by the arm 22 upon an in
crease in demand on the system.
onds, and if he repeats such operation, he can
operate the carrier current receivers much more
slowly than by keeping button 28- depressed con
When the demand on thesystem increases to
' an amount su?lcient to move the arm 22 to clos
tinuously. He may, in fact, by suitably choosing
ing position against the contacts 2! of the de
the ratio of the time when he holds the push but
mand meter l8, a .circuit is completed through
ton 29 depressed to the time when he leaves 10 coil 4| as explained above. As soon as the-coil
it undepressed, operate the carrier current re
4i oi’ the master relay 30 is energized, the nor
ceivers with any desired slowness, so that he may
mally open contacts 38’ close, thereby completing
discontinue. adding carrier current controlled
a circuit from the terminal 39 of the source of
loads to the system, or removing such loads from
operating potential through the contacts 3|, the
the system, whenever the indication of demand 15 ‘movable. blade 25 of the switch 24, and the oper
on the system justiiles it.
ating coil 21 01- the circuit breaker II to the other
In the control system for automatically con
terminal 40 of the source or operating potential.
trolling the transmission of carrier current pulses
The circuit breaker I3 is thereupon closed, and
for increasing or decreasing the connection of re
connects the motor I! to the power line ll so as
motely controlled loads in accordance with indi '20 to bring the motor generator set 12, i4 up to
cations of the demand meter I8, there is a master
speed. A second pair of normally open contacts
relay 30, two double coil, two-position relays 3i
and 32, time delay relays u, 34, 35, and 36, and
44 or the master relay 2| simultaneously close.
second two-position relay l2 prevents the con
source.
and “seal in" the operating coil 41 of the master
a time switch 31. The relay 3| controls removal
relay 3| through a circuit from the terminal 2| oi’
of the carrier current controlled load from the 25 the potential source through the normally closed
system.
relay 8| prevents such loads from
contacts 45 of the time delay relay 3|, contacts
being re ved while the demand meter I8 is
44 and operating coil 4i 0! the master relay 3|
causing their connection to the line II. The
back to the other terminal 4| oi’ the potential
nection of such loads to the power line H while
the_demand meter I4 is causing the system to re
move the remote loads from the line. The time
vdelay relay 24 connects the generator l4 to the
line H only after .the motor i2 has come up to
speed. The time delay relay |4 prevents the
demand meter II from causing connection of the
remote load to the line H before the carrier cur
Contacts 4! stay closed until all controlled
loads are disconnected from the line H because‘
the operating coil 4| 0! the time delay relay N
is not energized until the circuit ‘breaker ii is
closed, and this relay 2| is so constructed as to
open its contacts 4| only after being energized
tor a period sumciently long that transmitted
carrier current has caused all carrier current re
rent receivers have returned to a suitable con
ceivers to disconnect their associated loads from
the power line H. In the case of the particular
carrier current receivers described, this period
~may conveniently be about forty seconds. The
dition to receive control pulses after having re
ceived a set of such pulses. The time delay re
lay " prevents the system from transmitting
pulses intended to connect remote loads to the
system after all such loads have been ‘connected.
The time delay relay 3| prevents the system from
transmitting additional pulses intended to dis
master relay 40 thus remains closed for about .
forty seconds alter being operated, even though ~
the arm 22 moves away from the contacts 2| of
the demand meter 1|.
The contacts 2| oi’ the master relay 3|, upon
being closed, also complete a circuit from the
terminal 29 of the potential source through the
' circuit alternately so as to transmit successive
operating coil 41 oi’ the time delay relay 33 to the
short pulses of carrier current in the process of
other terminal 4| of the potential source. This
connecting remote load to the power line H.‘
time delay relay 3| has contacts 4| which are
To connect the system for fully automatic op
normally open, and is arranged to close its con
eration, the double pole, triple throw switch 24
tacts 4| vonly alter the operating coil 41 has been
is moved to its lower position. In this switch
energized for a period su?lcient for the motor
position, when the operating coil 4| is energized, 55 generator set l2, l4 to come up to speed. It is
a circuit is, formed from one terminal 32 of the
usually suiilcient to allow about a ?ve second in
source of operating potential for the system
terval for this operation.
through the contacts 34 of the master relay 8|,
After an interval su?lciently long for the motor
movable blade 24,.coil 21 and back to ‘terminal
generator set l2, l4 to come up to speed, the time
connect remote loads from the system after all
such remote loads have been disconnected. The
time switch 21 is arranged to close and open a
46 of the potential source and the circuit breaker '
delay relay 32 closes its contacts 4| and thereby
I2 is operated to start the motor i2. When the
arm 22 closes contacts 2| and contacts 42 0! relay ‘
completes a circuit from the terminal 2| 0! the
potential source through the contacts 2| oi the
ii are closed, the operating coil 4| 0! the master
master relay 8|, contacts 4| of the time delay
relay 3| is energized through a circuit extending
(mm the terminal 4| 0! the source of operating
potential through coil 4|, contacts 2| and arm
1|, and contacts 42 back to the terminal .3! of the
source of operating potential.
When the system is in the-condition illustrated,
the carrier current controlled loads are all con—
relay IS, a pair of normally open contacts 48 of
the master relay 3|, the movable blade 2| of the
switch 24, and the operating coil 2| oi’ the circuit
breaker ll back to the other terminal 4| of the
potential source. The normally open contacts
4| of the master relay 8| were closed previously
70 upon the energization of the operating coil 4i,
nected to the power line H, and the contacts 42
so that closure oi’ the contacts 4| results in oper
of the two-position relay 32 are open to prevent - ation of circuit breaker II and connection of ‘the
useless operation oi‘ the system in attempting to
generator 14 to the power line H with the con
connect additional remote loads to the line H.
sequent transmission of a carrier current im
The contacts 42 of the two-position‘relay II are 75 pulse.
My;
2,297,880
ii
connection of the remote‘ load thereto, even
though the arm 22 touches brie?y the contacts
When the contacts 48 of the time delay relay
33 close, another circuit is completed from the
23 of the demand meter I3. Unless the demand
remains low enough to keep arm 22 against con
tacts 23 until relay 34 acts, the system does not
add load to the power line.
contacts 50 of the master relay 3!), and operating
The delay in the relay 34 also serves another
coils 5i and 52, in parallel, of the two-position
purpose, namely, to prevent the transmission of
relays 32 and 3|, respectively, back to the other .
carrier current pulses to the carrier current re-'
terminal 40 of the potential source. Energiza
ceivers immediately after they have received a
tion of the operating coil 5| of relay 32 closes the 10 pulse which has caused them to disconnect their
contacts, 43 and puts the system in readiness for
associated loads from the power line H. As ex?
transmitting carrier current pulses to the re
plalned hereinafter, the preferred type of car
ceivers to cause them to connect load to the sys
current receivers utilizes bimetal elements.
tem. Simultaneous energization of the operating ' rier
whlch depend on heating for their operation,
coil 52 of the relay 3| opens the contacts 42, .15 and a short time should be provided after each
thereby opening the circuit through the contacts
terminal 39 of the potential source through the
contacts 38 of the master relay 30, contacts 48
of time delay relay 33, a pair of normally open
2| of the demand meter III to prevent further
operation of the system in transmitting carrier
current to the receivers to cause them to discon
nect loads from the system.
After these operations, the system continues
the transmission of a carrier current impulse
from the generator.“ for forty seconds, until
operation of the blmetal elements to allow them
to cool and return to a responsive condition.
That is, if the arm 22 ‘should move to the right
20 in responseto increased demand and touch con
tacts 2| to produce operation of the system to
disconnect all remote carrier current controlled
loads from the line H, and immediately there— I
after if the system demand should drop suf
the time delay relay 33 opens its contacts 45
and deenergizes the operating coil 4| of the mas 25 ficiently to move the arm 22 to the left to close
contacts 23, the time delay of the relay 34 as
ter relay 30, thereby breaking all operating cir
sures that no carrier current is transmitted to
cuits, including the circuits through which the
the receivers until they are restored to a recep
operating coils 21 and 28 of the circuit breakers
tive condition for reconnecting loads to the
l3 and I5 are energized. The motor generator
set l2, I4 is therefore disconnected from the 30 line II.
If, therefore, the decreased demand on the line
power line II, the carrier current receivers have
H, remains at a sulhciently low value to keep
the arm 22 against the contacts 23 for a period
longer than that for which the relay 34 is made
,ter is in readiness to respond to a ‘reduced de
mand on the power line by transmitting pulses 35 to remain open, the ‘contacts 55 close and com-n
plete a circuit from the-terminal 3,9 of the po
to the carrier current receivers to cause them
tential source through the contacts 43 of relay
to add increments of load to the power line.
32, contacts 23 and arm 22 of demand'meter
Either of two conditions may obtain after
by such time disconnected all their associated
loads from the power line H, and the transmit~
the above described operation has been com
13, contacts 53 of the master relay 30, contacts
pleted. If the increased demand on the system 40 55 of the time delay relay 34, movable blade 25 ,
of the switch 24, and operating coil 21 of the
which'caused disconnection of loads therefrom
circuit breaker l3 back to the other terminal
was so great that, upon disconnecting all the
'43 of the potential source. The operating coils
carrier current controlled loads from the sys
56 and 31, of the time switch 31 and time delay >
tem, the arm 22 does not move to the left suf
relay 33 respectively, are connected ‘in shunt to
ficiently to close a circuit through the contacts
the operating coil 21 through the movable blade‘
23 of the demand meter l3, .the control system
25 of the switch 24, and are, therefore, ener
remains inactive. However, if the demand on
gized at the same time through this circuit.
the system which caused load disconnection was
When the operating coil 21 is energized, it
smaller, removal of the carrier current controlled
operates
the circuit breaker l3 and starts the
50
load from the system may be su?icient to make
the arm 22 move to the left and close a circuit
motor generator set l2, l4, and after a suitable
interval the time delay relay 33 closes its con
tacts 43 to complete a circuit from the termi
In any case, the demand on the system must
nal 33 of the potential source through contacts
eventually become small enough so that the arm
22 closes the contacts 23. A‘ circuit is there 55 43 of relay 32, contacts 23 and arm 22 of de
through the contacts 23.
upon completed from the terminal 39 of the po—
tential source through the contacts 43 of the
two-position relay 32 (which contacts were closed
during the preceding load disconnecting opera
tion), contacts 23 and arm 22 of demand meter
I3, normally closed contacts 53 of master relay
3. (which is now'deenergized), and operating
coil 54 of time delay relay 34 back to the other
terminal 43 of the potential source. The time
mand meter I3, contacts 53 of master relay
3!), contacts 55 of time delay relay 34, contact
13 of time delay relay 33, arpair of normally
closed contacts 56' of the master relay 3!! (which
is now in unenergized position), and the operat
ing coils 51 and 53, in parallel, of the relays
3i and 35, respectively, back to the other ter~
minal 40 of the potential source. The operat~=
ing coil 51 of the relay 3| closes the contacts
delay relay 34 is so constructed that its nor 65 42' (which were left open after the preceding
operation of the system in disconnecting all re
mally open contacts 55 are closed only after its .
mote loads from the power line H), so that clo
operating coil 54 has been energized for a sub
sure of the contacts 2| of the demand meter 18
stantlal period, which may, for example, be as
.by the arm 22 can immediately initiate another
long as ten minutes.
The system is so arranged that closure of 70 load disconnecting operation.
After energization of the coil 58 of the time
contacts 55 initiates operation of the system to
delay relay 35, the normally open contacts 59 cf
connect the remote loads to the power line H.
the relay close only after a period su'ificiently
Because of the long time delay provided for the
long to insure that all carrier current controlled
;time delay relay 34, brief decreases in demand
‘ on the power line H are not effective to initiate 75 loads have been connected to the power line H.
6.
' 2,297,380v
~ ‘when the contacts 59 close after all such loads
line
are connected, the operating coil 60 of the relay
H nae-d incantation of the remotely
controlled loads to' the line.
, 32 is connected in parallel to the operating coils
.
Nowit vvthe demand on the power line ll con
51 and 58 of the. relays 3| and 85, so that the '. tinues to remain low and the arm 22 remains .
contacts 43 of the relay 32 areopened, thereby » against the contacts 23, the carrier current re
opening the circuit including contacts 23 of de=
ceivers-progressively contract more and more of
mand meter l8, and preventing the system from Y‘ their associated load} to the power line H, and
sending any more carrier current pulses of the . ' all suchloads eventually become connected with
type which cause the carrier current receivers
in aboutf25 seconds after contacts 48 or the
to connect loads to the power line it. in this 10' relay 33 have'closed. Thirty ‘seconds after such
particular system, it is convenient to make the » : closure, the contacts v59 or‘v the relay 35 close to
time delay of the relay 35 about thirty seconds,
as will be explained hereinafter.
-_ energize the operating‘coil. Goof the relay 32
._
‘ and open'contacts 43, thereby interrupting the
During the timev when the contacts 23 are
circuit through thegfcontactav'i’f ncl preventing
closed by the arm 2201’ the demand meter 58, 15 further transmission orf'short itarrier current
and the time delay relay 35 is moving'toward the - ‘ pulses.v ' such-transmissioniis c longer desir
position where its contacts stare closed; the'time 1 i
switch Bl remains in operation. It is so con-;
structed that, while its operating coil 56 is en
able,v because all thew-remlitedoads‘ have been
I connected to the ‘power line' H.
It may, however, happen‘. that, as the carrier
ergized, it continually makes and breaks a cir- 20 ‘current receivers slowly connect. their associated
cuit in shunt to the normally open contacts 639
loads to the powen-line ‘II in response to repeated
"or the master relay it (which is deenergized). ‘
closures of Pievc: , uitlfbreaker ii, the demand
The time switch 31 may be conveniently ar
on the powel’ line _.ll.i,rises"'s_,uihciently to move
the arm 22 from thecoi'ita' '23; Attire moment
ranged, as shown, vto have a movable arm at
which is rotated bythe operating coil 56 across 25 of this opernng all circuitsithrough ther'control
a plurality of contacts 82 arranged in a circle,
system ‘are opened, including the circuits through
whose center is on the axis of‘rotation or the
the operating coils 21, 28, 54, ll, 56, 57, and 58.
'. arm 6!. The contacts 62 and the spaces there-7
The motor generator set [2, It therefore stops,
between may be proportioned in any desired ,
the time switch 3lstops, the time delay relays
manner to provide that repeated short pulses of. 30 33, 34 and 35am released to their initial posi
carrier current are transmitted over the power
line H with any desired spacing therebetween, H
tions, and the remote loads which‘ have ‘so far I
been connectedto the powerline H~ remain con
nected thereto, whileno more loads are added.
It the demand on the system. thereafter in
so as to increase by any desired amount the
‘total length of time required for the carrier cur
rent receivers to respond to such pulses in con
necting their associated loads to supply line ii.
The circuit whichis repeatedly completed and
interrupted bytime switch 31 as long ascon
tacts 23 are closed may be traced from the ter
minal 39 ‘of the potential source through con
tacts 53 of relay 32 (which contacts. are not
opened by the time delay relay 35 for 30 sec
onds), contacts 23 and arm 22 of demand meter
58, contacts 53 of master relay 30, contacts 55
of relay 35, contacts I38 of relay 33, contacts 52
'35
creases to the point at which the arm 22 closes
the contacts 2|, the previously described opera
tion is initiated, in which a long carrier current
pulse is transmitted, and all the remote loads are
disconnectedfrom the power line H. The load
disconnecting circuit may be completed through
7 contacts 2| because contacts 42 of relay 3| were
closed immediately when loadsrwere connected
to line H after a preceding disconnecting opera
It may happen that the demand does not thus
and arm di or time switch 3'5, movable blade 45 increase but again decreases. Then, the arm 22
26 of switch 26, and operating coil 2% ct circuit
again touches the contacts 23 of the demand
breaker 55 back to the other terminal at of the
meter 58, and if the demand remains at a low
potential source.
.
value for a period long enough to close the con
As long as the arm 22 remains against the
tacts 55 of the ten minute delay relay 3‘, the
m
0
contacts 23 (until contacts 59 of the time delay
entire sequence of operation begins anew to start
relay 35 close), the arm ti of the time switch
the motor generator set l2, H, and to connect
3? ‘repeatedly energizes and deenergizes the op
additional .yloads to line H. Such operation
erating coil 28 of the circuit breaker i5, so as
eventually causes additional carrier current re
to connect and disconnect the generator l6 from
ceivers to. connect their associated loads to the
the power line M. ‘This results, as long as the
power line H, thereby causing the demand to
demand is su?ciently low, in a series of carrier
increase again; If this action be continued past
current pulses being transmitted over the power ._ the time when all the carrier current receivers
'line H, and these pulses a?'ect the carrier cur
have operated to connect their associated loads
rent receivers in the same manner as if a con
to the line H, and long enough for the time de
60
tinuous pulse were transmitted, except that it
lay relay 35 to close its contacts 59, as explained
takes a somewhat longer time to produce the
above, the operating coil 60 is energized and
same e?ect. vFor example, if the circuit breaker ‘ opens the contacts 43- of the relay 32, thereby
disabling the contacts 23 of the demand meter 88
he closed for a half second and opened for one
and one-half seconds, as previously suggested,
such action being repeated by the time switch
3?, it takes the carrier current receivers a little
more than four times as long to connect their
associated loads to the power line H as if a con
tinuous carrier current puise were transmitted. '
By thus slowing down the ‘action or the carrier
' current receivers in connecting their associated
ioads, the demand meter I8 is‘made better able
to respond to changesin demand on the power
from completing a circuit through the control
system to cause any further operation.
'
Although the automatic system has been de
scribed as having no means to disconnect loads
progressively from- the line, as -it has means
to connect such loads progressively to the line,
such progressively disconnecting means may obe
, viously be utilized, if desired. The progressive
disconnecting means is exactly like the connect- ‘
ing means and transmits pulses effective to dis
connect loads slowly from line ll. It is pre=
.
ferred at present'to
7
fen-ed because line surges; due to switching and
the system as illustrated
'
to avoidjadditional ‘complication of parts and tov '
the'likacannotcauseittooperater.
'
retain certain advantages in connecting loads
> first at'points oi’ high systemvoltage. It is not"
,
As mentioned 'hereinbefore, a preferred typeof '
carrierifcurrentreoeiver is described in Letters
‘Patent No. 2,064,644-issued to me .on December
15,1936, and asslgnedto-the same assignee as
necessary lac-‘decrease loads gradually because, as
explained previously, less total load must be dis;
connected than must later be connected, and
.
' ' the present application. .Such a- receiver is illus
becauseloads are progressively connec'ted‘to the _. vtrated' in Fig. 210i the drawingsaccompanying
the present application, in which a.v portion of‘
line in any necessary amount almost immediately '
the power line H is ‘illustrated. Several carrier
aftertheir total disconnection, if such reconnec
tion'is necessary to maintain optimum demand - current receivers, each shown as a rectangle ‘ll,
are connected to the line H. One of these-rec:
on‘ the line at all times within the capacity of Y
tangles isv formed by dashed lines, and includes a
the carrier controlled load tovary such demand.
As explained previously, the fact that different 'load‘ device‘li connected to beenergized from
carrier control receivers connected to the power
line ll respond to carrier current impulses of dif
'power line H through a'power transformer l2
and a switch it
.
The switch 13 is'of' the liquid-contact type and
is completely described and claimed in Letters
Patent No. 2,101,092, issued on December 7, 1937,
.ceivers are connectedat points on the ‘power line 20 to John lLjl’ayne,v Jr., and assigned to the same
assignee as the present application. Brie?y, the
H where there are differing voltages. The differ
switch comprises apair of metallic hemispheres
ing voltages on 'the'line may'even be’ the prin
separated by a disc of refractory material, and
cipal factor in producing the varying response
by a fillet of thermoplastic insulating material .
times of receivers. On some secondary feeders,
which is fusion weldedto the rims of the disc
for example, there may be voltages as low as
and of the two hemispheres, thereby sealing the
llO volts. On other secondary feeders, which are
ferent duration may be attributed, not only to the
fact that there are manufacturing variations in
the receivers, but also to the fact that the re
lightly loaded the voltage may be‘ as high as 125
or 130 volts.
,
'
,
.
r
container thus formed.
A body of liquid con; '
ducting material is sealed within the hemispheres
and serves to make and break the electric circuit
In short, carrier current receivers on high volt—
age feeders generally operate in shorter time 30 therebetween through an aperture in the disc of
refractory material when the switch is moved be
than such receivers on low voltage, feeders. A
tween'two operating positions.
load‘ connected at a high voltage point of a nor;
Associated with each device ‘it is means for
‘mal power transmission system generally pro—
storing the energy of the pulses sent out over
duces less copper loss in transmission lines,’ dis
the lines H until a predetermined value is
tribution transformers and feeders than the same
- reached, at which time the switch '13 will be op
load would produce if connected at a low voltage
erated. In other words, the energy of the trans
point on the system. These facts are of consid
mitted pulses is stored for a time interval, the
erable advantage in the operation of a carrier
duration of which is a function of the amount
current control system according to my invention,
because high voltage feeders generally can supply
of stored energy required to operate the device. . '
loads added to the power systemwith less trans
mission loss and better equipment utilization
than low voltage feeders. This results not only
heat-storage capacity. As previously explained,
in an improved load factor on distribution trans
_' vformers and other equipment, but also in smaller
copper loss in the power line H and the feeders
which form a part thereof.
'
' '
~
These advantages, which are related to the
fact that carrier current receivers tend to oper
ate ?rst at high voltage points of the system,
also .accrue in a system in which the varying
time of operation of receivers is caused by car
rier voltage variations from point to point of
the system. Carrier voltage variations generally
correspond ,to_ power voltage ‘variations. ‘It is
preferred, though, to utilize receivers in ‘which
the operating time is dependent on power voltage
variations.
>
‘
In the illustrative form of my invention, the
switch is thermally operated and has substantial
the diiferent switches have different storage ca
pacities so that the device will not be operated
until there is transmitted an impulse of su?lcient‘
duration or a sumcient number of successive im
pulses to increase the stored energy. such as
heat, in the storage means or device to the value
necessary for operation. The switch ‘it is car
ried by a yoke 14, pivoted on the free end of a
supporting member 1i, and actuated by the mov
able free end of a bimetallic member ‘II to which
heat is applied by an electric resistance heater
H. In the position shown, the switch 11 is in»
circuit interrupting position. Upon energization
of the heater 11, the strip l0 bends to the right
_ and allows the yoke 14 to move clockwise. $uch ';
movement of the yoke 14 turns the switch 13 into '
It is to be understood that it is within the
scope of my invention to utilize any type of car (30 circuit completing position, and connects the load 1
‘ii to‘ the power line H through the transformer
rier current control receiver which responds only
12. It is to be understood, of course, that the
after receiving a carrier current for a substantial
load 1 i, which is indicated as a lamp, may be any
time. It is preferred, however, to use such a re
load on the power line I I for which remote con
ceiver which “resets” each time after it receives
energy. That'ls, it is preferred to use a receiver 65 trol is desired. As explained previously, partic
ularly good results are obtained ‘with a carrier
which returns to a'normal, or initial, starting
condition within a short time after the reception.
of any carrier current impulse, Such receivers
may be of the thermal type, in which ‘a switch
is operated through the medium oi a bimetal
strip to which heat is applied during the recep
tion of a carrier current impulse. After an im
pulse is no longer received, the bimetal strip
cools oil and the receiver returns to its initial
current control system arranged in accordance
with my invention when the load ‘H is an elec»
.tric water heater or the like load which acts to
store energy.
Electric energy is applied to the heater 11 from
a transformer 18, which is connected across the
secondary of the transformer ‘I! through contacts
"i! of an electromagnetic switch having an oper- '
starting condition. This type of receiver is pre 75 ating coil 8|. A series resonant circuit including
2,297,380
' a condenser 8| and an inductance 82 is connected
in shunt to'the secondary of the transformer 72, a
.pull the yoke 14 counterclockwise around the bi
metallic strip 15' back‘ to the circuit interrupting
and is tuned to the frequency of carrier current
position of the switch 13.
transmitted irom the generator M of Fig. l. A
It' is apparent from the description of a power.
full wave recti?er circuit including rectifying 5 system arranged according to my invention with
means 83 is connected across the inductance 82, p
a carrier current control system providing accu
and is so arranged as to rectify carrier current _ rate control of certain loads on the system, that
?owing therethrough to produce a continuous
an improved load factor may be obtained for the
current in the operating coil 80 of the electro
entire power system by connecting just enough
10 of the controlled loads to the system at any time
magnetic switch.
v
In operation, when a carrier current impulse
to keep power demand at annoptimum value.
appears on the power line II, it is transmitted
While I have shown and described a particu
through the transformer" and produces suf?-' ' lar embodiment of my invention, it will be obvi
cient current ?ow through the series resonant cir
. ous to those skilled in the art that changes and
cult 8|, 82, and through the operating coil 80
to close contacts "and transmit power, current '
from the power line II to the heater ‘|‘|._ As ex
plalned above, when a smallaniount of heat, cor
responding to a short impulse'?if'l'carrier current,
modi?cations may be‘ made without departing
from my invention in its broader aspects, and I,
therefore, aim in the appended claims to cover all
‘such changes and modi?cations as fall within
the true spirit and scope of my invention.
which, for example, lasts for three to six sec -20 vWhat I claim as new and desire to secure by
onds, is applied by the heater 11 to the bimetallic
Letters Patent of the United States is:
strip 18, the strip moves to the right, thereby
1. In a carrier current control system having
removing support from the right end or the yoke I
‘l4, and allowing it to move clockwise and close
a plurality of carrier current receivers or a type
. which operates to effect a desired control oper
'
'
‘>
_
25 ation in response to reception of a carrier current
If a longer carrier current impulse be trans
~ pulse of substantial duration, the di?erent receiv
mitted over the power line I I, similar operations
ers being operative to effect their respective con
ensue, but the heater 11 applies a larger amount
trol operations in response to reception of carrier
of heat to the bimetallic strip 18,.so that it moves
current pulses of different durations, the method
farther to the right and eventually engages the 30 oi’ operating any desired number of such receiv
reset trigger 88, which is connected pivotally to
ers which comprises transmitting a succession oi
- the yoke 14. After the carrier current impulse
pulses of carrier current to said receivers, each
the switch 13.
, has ended and heat is no longersupplied to the
’ of said pulses being shorter than the length re- ‘
bimetallic strip 16, the strip moves to the left, and,
quired for ‘operation of any or said receivers, the
through the medium of the trigger 8|, pushes 35 length of said pulses with respect to the length
, the yoke l4 back in counterclockwise rotation to
of periods without carrier current transmission
interrupt the circuit through the switch’ 13. At
'between- said pulses being su?iciently great to
the end of travel of the bimetallic strip 18, its
operate a desired number of said receivers latter
upper end again rests under the end 01' the yoke
‘a number of such pulses is transmitted.
‘M to maintain‘it in its counterclockwise posi 40 2. In a carrier current control system having a
tion.
'
-
--
'
In Fig. 3, the thermally operated switch ‘13 with
its associated operating parts is shown in some
what greater detail.
plurality of carrier current receivers of a type
which operates to e?ect a desired control opera
tion in response to reception of a carrier current
It is desirable in a thermal , - pulse or substantial duration, the different re
relay of this type that ambient temperature
.- ceivers being operative to effect their respective
vchanges be prevented ,tro'm effecting relative
control operations in response to pulses of such
carrier current of di?erent respective durations,
the method of operating any desired number of
such receivers which comprises transmitting to
movement between the upper tree end or the bi
metallic strip 78 and the yoke 14. To this end
the supporting member 15 is made'of bimetallic
material, so that its free end, which supports the
. yoke ‘H, moves in the same direction and in, the
same amount as the end- or the bimetallic strip
‘It in response to changes in ambient tempera
Suitable "adjusting means comprising a U
said receivers a carrier current pulse of sufficient
duration to operate any desired number of said
wreceivers after such pulse is transmitted.
3. In'acarrier current control system having
a plurality or carrier current receivers or a type
which operates to e?ect a desired control oper
shaped member 85, a sti? resilient ‘backing strip
ation‘ in response to reception 01’ a carrier current
86, and a screw 81, are provided for changing ‘the
relative positions 01 the free ends of the two bi-l
‘pulse of substantial duration, said receivers being
metallic strips 15 and 16, thereby to change the
operative in response to potentials on said system
and being located at points of said system having
energization period necessary to actuate the bi- -
different potentials, whereby, and by reason of
metallic strip 16 between its operating positions.
unavoidable manufacturing variations, the di?er- ‘
ent receivers are operative to e?'ect their respec
Manual control means are provided to operate
the switch between its two positionsfor testing
tive control operations‘in desponse to pulses of
carrier current or di?ferent respective durations,
of operating rods 88 and 89 which may conven
the method of operating any desired number of
iently extend outside the case of the-thermal re
such receivers which comprises transmitting to
lay. When the operating rod 88 is pulled down
‘said receivers a carrier current pulse of su?icient
ward, it is arranged through the medium of a' ' duration to operate any desirednumber or said
or other purposes.
Such means comprise a pair
member 98, which'is- fastened to the bimetallic
receivers after such pulse is transmitted
‘
strip 15, to pull such strip to the left and release in g 4. Incombination,_inapower transmission sys-
the yoke ‘M from the upper free end of the bi‘
'metallic strip 18. Thereu-pon the switch 73 is
turned to its circuit completing position.
When ‘
the operating rod 88 is pulled downward it is ar
.temhaving loads which may be disconnected
from said system during peak demand thereon,
means for individually controlling the connection
. of such loads to said power system, and means
ranged, through the medium or a spring 9|,‘ to 75 responsive 'to the; demand-on said system for
-
‘
9,297,830
controlling said connecting means to connect the "
associated loads progressively to said system as
the'demand on said system fails. thereby to im
prove the load riactor oi said system.
'
5. In combination, in a power transmission sys
tem having loads which may be disconnected
.9
therefrom during periods of high demand there
on, means'ior eiiecting individually the connec
tionoisaidloadstosaidwsteminresponseto
the reception oi carrier current ior a substantial‘
time, each or said‘means being effective only in
response to carrier current of a diiierenttime,
and means responsive to demand on'said system
ior transmittlngjcarrier current to said connect
mand thereon, means ior individually controlling
ing means whenever such demand ialls .below a
the'connection and disconnection of
loads
irom ‘said system, means responsive to e de 10 predetermined value thereby to cause progressive
connection oi said loads to said system, said trans
mand on said system ior operating said connect
irom said system during periods oi maximum de
ingmeanstodisconnectsaidloadsiromsaid
mitting means being-ei’iective to stop transmis
system upon an increase in the demand thereon,
and means responsive to ‘decreasing demand on
sion of carrier current to said'controlling'means
and thereby to stop such progressive connection
said system ior connecting said loads to said m 15 oisaidloadstosaidsystemwheneverthedemand~
tom progressively as the demand thereon de
onl said system rises above said predetermined
creases, whereby the load iactor ot- said system
10. In a power transmission system having
is improved.
loads which may be disconnected therefrom dur
6. In combination, in a power
on sys
tem having loads which may be disconnected
ing periods oi high demand thereommeans-w
sponsive Jointly to system voltage and to carrier
iromsaidsystemduringperiodsoimaximumde
V8
“6.
'
,
-
'
'
mand thereon, a carrier current control system
currenttransmittedthroughsaidsystemiorcon-
associated with said transmission system and
necting such loads to said system; said controlling
means being connected to said system at points
oi diiiering system voltage thereby to cause iast
operation of said controlling means at points 0!
high voltage and slow operation of said con
comprising carrier current receiving means asso
ciated with each of said loads ior controlling in
dividually the connection oi said loads to said
system, each oi said receiving means being eiiec
tive to produce a control operation only after re
ception of a carrier current impulse oi diiierent
duration, and means responsive to demand on
said system ior transmitting carrier current to
said receiving means to eiiect progressive con
nection oi said loads to said system as the de
mand on said system decreases.
'I. In combination,‘ in a power ton
system having loads which may be dismnnected
dividual connection oi said loads to said system,
said controlling means at said high voltage points
being automatically ?rst selected for operation in
response to such transmitted carrier current,
whereby loads are first connected to said system
therefrom during periods oi high demand thereon,
at high voltage portions thereof. -
means ior controlling individually the connection
oisuchloadstosaidsysteminresponsetothe
reception oi carrier current ior a substantial
time, each oi said means being e?ective to pro~
duce a control operation upon reception at carrier
current ior a dii’ierent time, and means mar/are“
sive to changing demand on said system ior trans
mitting carrier current thereover to said control
trolling means at points oi low voltage, and means
responsive to decreasing demand on said system
for transmitting carrier current'over said system
to said controlling means to eiiect pve in
11. In a remote control system having a plu
ralityoddevicesoiwhichanydesirednumberis
to be operated, means to supply control pulses to
said devices, each of said devices having means '
tostoretheenergyoisaidpulsesioraninterval
whose duration is a iunction oi the amount oi
smred energy and to operate the respective de
45 vice when energy stored in the corresponding
ling means, said transmitting means being oper~
storage means attains a predetermined value,v
said predetermined value being diiierent in the
ative to transmit carrier current only until said
controlling means have eiiected changes in the
diiierent devices, the method oi operating any
connection oi a portion oi the loads on said sys
desired number oi’ such devices which comprises
supplyingtoalloisaiddevicesasuccessionoi
tem such that the resulting demand on said sys
control pulses spaced in time by less than said
tem coniorms to a predetermined desired de
interval, the succession including a number 01
mand.
pluses sumcient to increase the stored energy
8. In combination, in a power transmission
in the respective storage means to a value as
system having loads which may be disconnected
thereirom during periods oi high demand there 55 mt as that value of energy storage required to
on, means ior controlling individually the con
operate the desired number oi devices.
12. In a remote control system having a plu
nection oi such loads to said system in response
rality or devices oi which any desired number is
to the reception oi carrier current ior a substan
to be operated, means to 81mph? current to said
tial time, each oi said controlling means being
devices, each 01' said devices having means to
eiiective to connect the associated load to said
store the energy oi said current and operate the
system upon reception oi carrier current ior a
respective device when energy stored in the cor
diiierent time, and means responsive to decreas
responding storage means attains a predeter
ing demand on said system ior transmitting suc
mined value, said predetermined value being dil
cessiveshort impulses oi carrier current to said
controlling means only until a portion oi said 86 ierent in the diiierent devices, the method oi op
controlling means has operated to connect a sui
erating any desired number 01 such devices which
?cient number oi loads to said system to increase
comprises supplying current to all oi said de
the demand thereon to a predetermined value,
‘vices ior a time suiiicient to increase the stored
the length oi such short successive impulses oi
energy in the respective storage means to a value
carrier current being suiiicient with respect to
as great as that value oi energy storage required
the length oi intervals therebetween to operate
. to operate the desired number oi devices.
13. In a distribution system having a plurality
oi loads connected thereto through respective
her oi such short pulses.
switches, individual control means ior operating
9. In combination, in a power transmission
system having loads which may be disconnected 75 said switches, each oi said control means being
said controlling means aiter reception oi a norm
'
‘
1O
2,297,880
operative in response either to continuous ener
gization for a predetermined period or to in—
.termittent energization for a longer period to
ber of such switches which comprises supplying
operate the respective switch, said predetermined
period and said longer period being different for
ber of pulses being determined in accordance with
the number of said switches to be operated.
15. In a remote control system for a plurality
to all of said means a succession of pulses spaced
apart in time by less than said interval, the num
the different switches, the method of operating
of loads on a power system from which such loads
any desired number or said‘ switches to control
may be disconnected during periods of peak de
the connection or any desired number of said
loads from said system, which method comprises
mand, each of said loads being connected to or
supplying to all of said control means successive 10 disconnected from said power system by a ther
pulses ‘of su?‘icient number to cause operation of
mally actuated switch, each of said switches hav
ing substantial heat storage capacity whereby
a desired number less than all oi’ said switches.
14. In a remote control system having a plu
actuation thereof is delayed for a substantial
rality oi remotely controlled switches operated in
time after a control impulse is applied to such
response to pulses received from a common point, 15 switch, the di?erent switches being responsive
each of said switches having means associated
.to such control impulses of different durations
therewith to store the energy of said pulses for
to connect or disconnect the associated loads, the
an interval whose duration is a function or the
method of adiusting the number of such loads
connected to said power systems which comprises
amount or stored energy and to operate the re
spective switch to one position when said stored 20 transmitting a control pulse to all of said ther
energy exceeds a certain predetermined value
and to the other position when said energy ex
mally actuated switches of such duration that a
desired number less than all of said switches are
ceeds a different value, said predetermined values
being ‘unavoidably different in the di?erent
means, the method of operating any desired num- i
actuated.
JOHN L. WOODWORTH.
'
‘CERTIFICATE
OF
CORRECTION.
1
' -Patent_ 10. ‘2,297,580.
_
V
September 29, 19!;2.v
JOHN L. 'NOODWORTH.
I 'It is he'reby certi?ed that error appears in‘ the printed speci?cation
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 8', sec—
ond columny line' 59, claim 1,1 before "'number'I insert "corresponding";
line 65,‘ claim}, for 'desponse" rend e--response--; and that the sold Lot
,a'ters Patent should be read with this correction therein_‘ that the sanie may _
conform to the record of the case in_ the Patent_0ffice.
Signed and sealed thislOth day of November, A. D. 19141.
.
(Seal)
Henry Van Arsdsle,
_
I
r
‘
Acting-Commissioner of Patents.
-
‘CERTIFICATE OF
CORRECTION.
' '
' 'Patlent no. '2, 297,380
‘
w
September 29, 1&2..
JOHN L. woopwon'i'?.
K 'It is ho'reby cortii-‘ied that error appearé in‘ the printed speci?cation
of the above numbered patent requiring correotion'as follows: vPage 8', sec
ond oolumxhI line' 59, claim 1,-. bofore "number" insert "corresponding";
line 63,‘ claim}, for ‘deaponse' rend .--response--; and that-the sold Let'
-,-;~tora Patent should be regd with this correction thoreinl' that tho sanie may _
'conforni to the record of the case inv the PatentOffice.
Signed and-sealed this__10th day of Novembor, ‘A. 1), 191,2.
Hénry Van Arsdale,
(Seal)
Acting’commissioner of Patents.
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