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Патент USA US2299548

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Oct. 20, 1942.
' A. R. MAIER
2,299,548
OIL WELL DRILLING APPARATUS
Original Filed June 15, 1936
5 Sheets-Sheet l
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ORNEY.
.Oct. 20, 1942.
A. R. MAIER
2,299,548
OIL WELL DRILLING APPARATUS
Original Filed June 15, 1936
* 5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Oct. 20, 1942.
A. R. MAIER
2,299,548
OIL WELL DRILLING APPARATUS
Original Filed June 15, 1.936
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Oct. 20, 1942.
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Oct. 20, 1942.
A. R. MAIER
2,299,548
OIL WELL DRILLING APPARATUS
Original Filed June 15, 1.936
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Patented Oct. 20, 1942
2,299,548
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
2,299,548
011. WELL panama APPARATUS
August R. Maier, Dallas, Ten, assignor to Oil
Well Supply Company, a corporation of New
Jersey
Original application June 15, 1936, Serial No.
85,398. Divided and this application Septem
ber 7, 1939, Serial No. 233,861
3 Claim.
This invention relates to improved control
means for a plurality of engines arranged to be
coupled together, and more particularly to a com
bined steam control and valve gear operating
mechanism of the character hereinafter more
fully shown, described and claimed.
The present invention is a division of the in
vention disclosed in my co-pending application
Serial No. 85,398, now abandoned. For a more
(01. comm
driving the hoist. However, the conditions re
quired to supply the power required for the hoist
ing mechanism are not such as to favor the ef
flciency of the engine through the relatively
longer periods when it is driving the rotary, and
the e?iciency of the engine is, therefore, very
much smaller during the rotary-driving periods
than could be obtained if an engine were used at
this period suited to the power requirements of
complete understanding of the present invention 10 the rotary. The power requirements for the mud
and the novel features which distinguish it from
pumps are also quite different from those of the
the teachings of the prior art, reference should
rotary and hoist, and the best results are ob
be made to the following detailed disclosure,
tained when the pumps are driven by individual
the accompanying drawings, and the appended
engines.
claims.
‘
15
In my present invention, an arrangement of in~
In drilling wells, such as oil wells or gas wells,
dividual engines for the rotary and pumps and of
by means of a rotary drilling apparatus, a ver
a size to give an efficient use of steam during
tical drill stem carrying a bit on its lower end~is
the rotary drilling operations, is provided and
rotated about its axis by means of a “rotary”
arranged so that they may be combined to drive
having a horizontal rotating table through which ‘ 20 the hoist during the hoisting operation, and to
the drill stem passes and which is squared to per
provide sufficient power for this latter purpose,
mit the latter to gradually ‘be lowered during ro
The engine driving the rotary must be revers
tation. The drill stem is hollow and mud is
ible so that the rotary table may be turned in
pumped downwardly through this drill stem into
the bottom of the well and flowing up about the
drill stem carries with it the cuttings, which are
separated, and the mud returned. The pumping
of the mud and the rotation of the rotary and
drill stem occur simultaneously and continue un
til the top of the squared part of the drill stem ‘
reaches or approaches the rotating table of the
rotary. At this point the rotation of the drill
stem and, the pumping of mud through it are
stopped and the drill stem is hoisted from the
well so that an additional joint of the hollow
stem may be joined below the squared element
which is called a “Kelly,” whereupon the drill
stem is again lowered until the squared part or
"Kelly” engages the rotary table. Thereupon the
rotation of the drill stem and the pumping of mud
are resumed and the stem gradually lowered as
either direction, and both engines when combined
for hoisting must be simultaneously reversible so
that the hoist clutches, which are ordinarily of
the jaw type, may be disengaged.
In the usual arrangement of drilling rigs and
apparatus, the rotary is situated at the center of
the derrick floor and a draw-works including a
hoisting drum is arranged at one side of the der»
rick floor. The driving engines are outside of
the derrick, generally arranged between the mud
pumps, draw-Works and hoisting drums. This
arrangement may also be used in my invention
and the engine for driving the rotary may be con
nected to the jack shaft of the draw works and
thence to the rotary, the hoisting drum being
disconnected or unclutched from the jack shaft
while driving the rotary. The engine for driving
the pump is aligned, or has its driving shaft
aligned, with that of the rotary driving engine,
and is provided with a clutch whereby this driv
or until oil is found or the hopes of ?nding it
ing shaft may be clutched to the shaft of the ro
are abandoned. As the drilling proceeds also the 45 tary driving engine, so that the power from these
well is lined with casing to prevent cave-in, etc.
two engines may be combined and transmitted to
The hoisting of the drill stem requires a large
the jack shaft of the draw-works. The rotary
amount of power, as the weight of the drill stem
being disconnected or unclutched from the jack
and associated tools, or of the casing pipe when
shaft, and the hoisting drum clutched to be driven
the well becomes very deep, is very great; some 50 from the jack shaft, the combined power of the
times as much as 300 tons. The power required
two engines may be applied for driving the hoist.
to drive the rotary is relatively very small, as is
During this period the pump driving engine will
also the power required to drive the mud circu
be disconnected or unclutched from the mud
lating pump. Heretofore the same engine has
pump.
the drilling proceeds. This sequence of operation
continues until the well reaches the desired level
generally been used for driving the rotary and 55
An embodiment of the invention is illustrated
2
2,299,540
by way of example in the accompanying draw
ings, in which:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of a ro
tary, draw-works, engines and pump, embodying
a preferred form of the invention;
Figure 2 is a plan view of the‘ rotary and mud
pump driving engines;
Figure 3 is an elevation of the rotary and mud
pump driving engines;
32 are continuously driven by the shaft 22 and
may be alternatively clutched to the 'shaft 31,
and that the shaft 31 may be clutched to the
sprocket wheel 40 to drive the rotary 43 or may
be unciutched therefrom. This shaft 31 may be
clutched by means of a clutch 44 to a sprocket
wheel 45 at the end of the shaft opposite the
sprocket wheel 40 or may be clutched by a clutch
46 to a sprocket wheel 41 intermediate the
Figure 4 is an‘ end view taken from the right 10 sprocket wheel 35 and the sprocket wheel 40.
The sprocket wheels 45 and 41 may drive a hoist
01' Figure 2;
ing drum 48 alternatively through chains 49 and
Figure 5 is a plan view of a control mechanism
50 respectively.
for the engines, and
Through the above arrangement it will be ap
parent that when the clutch 26 is unciutched and
the clutch l1 engages the clutch element IS, the
engine ID will be connected only to the mud
pump H. The engine l2 may drive the jack
shaft 31 of the draw works 30 through either of
In the embodiment of the invention shown in
the sprocket chains 3| and 32. When it alone
the accompanying drawings, an engine ill for
drives the jack shaft 31 the clutch 4| may be
driving a mud pump II, and an engine I2 for
engaged to drive the rotary 43. When the hoist
driving a rotary, both of these engines being re
ing drum 48 is to be driven, the clutch 4| is de
versing engines, are mounted on a common
clutched, as is also the clutch member l1. Clutch
foundation, as, for example, on a pair of skids
element 26 is clutched with the clutch element
I3. The engine I0 is provided with a drive shaft
25, whereupon both of the engines in and I2
I4 which projects from each end of the engine.
combine to drive the jack shaft 31. This jack
A clutch element l5 connected to a sprocket i6
shaft 31 may be connected to the clutches 46 or
is rotatably mounted on the outer projecting end
44 to drive the hoisting drum 48, with the com
of the shaft opposite a complementary clutch ele
ment ll, slidably keyed on the projecting end 30 bined power of both of the engines l0 and 12.
The engines l0 and 52 are of su?lcient size to
of the shaft l4. When the clutch element I5 and
furnish ample power for the pump and the ro
sprocket are clutched to the shaft i4, the engine
tary respectively, with an early steam cut-off and
drives the pump H through the sprocket IS, the
Figure 6 is a somewhat diagrammatic perspec
tive view illustrating the unitary control mecha
nism which is effective to control the admission
of steam to both engines and also the respective
points of cut-off and reversal thereof.
chain l8 and a, sprocket E9 on the pump.
The
therefore with a good steam e?iciency.
When
engine I2 is also provided with a driving shaft
these engines are used for hoisting after the well
20 which is coupled by means of a coupling 2!
to a connecting shaft 22, aligned with the shafts
l4 and 2B, and carried between the pair of bear
long line of drill stem or of casing to be sup- I
has reached a great depth and when there is a
ported and hoisted, the power required necessi
tates a longer supply of high pressure steam to
ings 23 and 24 on the skids l3. A clutch element
25 is mounted on the end of the shaft 22 nearest 40 the engine pistons, and therefore it is necessary
to lengthen the cut-off to very nearly the end of
the engine i 0 and is slidable to engage and clutch
the stroke of the engines.
'
with a clutch element 26 on the adjacent end
When the two engines are combined for hoist
of the drive shaft [4. Through the above mech- '
ing, suitable mechanisms are provided for simul
anism it will ‘be apparent that the shaft i4 may
taneously and uniformly controlling the cut-off
clutch at one end to drive the mud pump it and
and the reversing of both engines and for con
at the opposite end may be clutched to the con
trolling the admission of steam to them from the
necting shaft 22. A control lever 27 is provided
driller’s station which is near one end of the hoist
to throw the clutch 25 to clutching or de-clutch
drum. This mechanism consists in a shaft ro
ing position. Another clutch lever 2'l' is con
nected by means of a link 28 to a clutch lever 50 tatable to control the steam supply and having
a telescoping or sliding part which is connected
29 engaging the clutch element ll. Consequently
through a link to a rocking lever for controlling
the engine I ll may drive either the pump l i or
the cut-off and the reversing of the rotary drill
the connecting shaft 22.
ing engine l2. This rocking lever is connected
The rotary driving engine i2 is permanently
connected or coupled to the shaft 22. The shaft 55 through a shaft to the rock shaft on the pump
engine it] so that the two may be coupled togeth
22 drives the jack shaft 31 of a draw-works 32.
er by means of a clutch and simultaneously oper
For this purpose it may be connected to the draw
ated by the driller to obtain identical cut-offs
works by any suitable means, as, for example,
for and reversal of both engines.
by a sprocket chain. Any suitable type of draw
A specific embodiment of this control mecha
works may be employed, a two-shaft draw-works 60
nism is diagrammatically shown in the accom
being shown in the accompanying drawings by
panying drawings. Figure 6 shows the essential
way of example. In this type, the draw-works
elements of the control means detached from the
may be driven alternatively by either one of a
other operating parts, in the interest of clear
pair of driving chains 3! and 32 which are trained
ness. In this view a number of parts carried by
about respective sprocket wheels 33 and 34 and
the main engine shaft are omitted for the pur
keyed on the shaft 22. The chains serve to drive
pose of simplicity of illustration.
sprocket wheels 35 and 36 respectively on the
A single throttle valve 5! is adapted to control
jack shaft 31 of the draw-works 30, to which the
the admission of steam to both engines l0 and
sprocket wheels may be alternatively clutched by
clutches 38 and 39 to drive the jack shaft at 70 12. This throttle valve has a spindle connected
to a rotatably controlled shaft 52 which tele
either of two selected speeds. A sprocket wheel
scopes into a rotatable slidable member 53 car
40 rotatably mounted at one end of the shaft
31 may be clutched to the latter by a clutch 4i
ried in a bracket 54 on a strut secured to a leg
so as to drive a chain 42 which drives a rotary
55 of the draw works or derrick 30. The outer
43. It will be apparent that the chains 3! and 75 end of the slidable member 53 is provided with
2,299,548
a.hand wheel 56 which is so mounted that it
can be rotated about its axis and moved longitu
dinally thereof, Member 53 may also be held in
any predetermined position of longitudinal ad
justment, by means of a latch 51 suitably mount
ed on bracket 54. Rotatab1y,mounted on the
inner end of the member 53 near its connection
with the shaft 52 is a block 58 which prevents
the longitudinal movement of the member 53.
This block has ‘an upwardly extending lug 58a 10
to which is plvotally connected a link 59 which
is in turn pivotally connected to a cut-off, con
trol, and reversing lever 58 for the engine II.
The block ":8 permits rotation of the slidable ele
ment 53 on which it is rotatably mounted with 15
out changing its position, but it is so held on said
element 53 as to move longitudinally with the
latter and thereby to swing the cut-off, control
and reversing lever 80 to different positions or
angles as member 53 is shifted to different axial 20
or longitudinal positions. The lever 68 is secured
3
slotted link, the shaft“ carries a downwardly
extended arm 18 which is connected therewith
by a member 18, as shown;
The engine I! is equipped with similar eccen
trics ‘|8—18,. which similarly actuate a slotted
arcuate link 18 having a block 88 for transmit
ting motion to the slide valve 121: through a
valve rod 8|. The link 18 of the valve mecha
nism is connected by a member 18a to a lever 82
secured to the shaft 6|. Thus the point or cut~
off for engine i 2 can also be varied or the engine
can be reversed upon shifting of the shaft 8|
through lever 68 to the proper angular position.
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that when
the clutch elements 85 and 68 are engaged, the
respective valve mechanisms for the two engines
coupled together by the clutch 28 may be oper
ated in proper synchronismso that optimum op
erating conditions will be maintained. It is ad
vantageous, when the two engines are operating
in unison, to control the supply of steam from a
single point. This is effected by the steam con
trol arrangement best shown in Figure 6.
When the engine Ill is driving the pump H, the
steam supply coming from the steam main 83 is
to a rock shaft 6| of engine l2 which is aligned
with a similar rock shaft 82 of engine If). Shafts
GI and 62 are adapted to be connected with one
another through an intermediate shaft 63 which 25
is connected by a universal joint 64 with the
controlled by a valve 68 which is connected With
shaft 62 and which is arranged to be coupled at
a by-pass pipe 84 and also connected by a pipe 85
will with a shaft 6| when the clutch elements 65
with a pipe 86 which in turn connects the steam
and 66 are engaged. When the engines operate
chests of both engines. The valve 89 ‘in the pipe
individually, the clutch elements 65 and 66 will 30 86 is only open when the engines are combined to
be uncoupled, but when the two engines are com
operate at tandem. During such tandem oper
bined or coupled in tandem, the clutch elements
ation the valve 68 will be closed. Thus the sup
65 and 66 will be engaged. When so engaged.
ply of steam to both engines from the main 83
the movement of cut-off, control and reversing
will be controlled by the throttle valve 5|. When
lever 68 will act through shaft GI and connecting 35 the engine in is driving the mud pump II, the
shaft 63 to simultaneously and equally shift the
steam supply is controlled through the valve 68.
cut-off and reversing lever 61 mounted on the
At such times the valve 69 will be closed, and
shaft 62 to thereby control the cut-off of engine
therefore the throttle valve 5| will control only
In or the reversing thereof. Likewise lever 61,
the engine l2.
when rotated to an extreme position, is effective 40 ., By utilization of the unitary control mecha
to either change the point of cut-off or to reverse
nism shown and described, it will be apparent
engine I0 independently of the operation of en
that the rotary and the mud pump may be in
gine 12 at such times as the clutch elements 65
dependently driven by their individual engines
and 86 are disengaged. The same is true of the
under conditions most suitable for the efficient
lever 60 when the clutch elements are disengaged.
use of steam. When hoisting is to be done, these
When the two engines are combined or operat
engines may be disconnected from the rotary and
ing in tandem, it is important that the valve con
pump and coupled together, then used to drive
trol mechanism thereof be properly synchro
the hoisting drum. During this latter operation
nized. The reverse drive for engine I0 is held
their cut-offs may be interconnected so that the
in quadrant notches by a set screw on a lever 61
cut-offs of both engines may be controlled as a
in cooperative engagement with the notches as
unit simultaneously with the control of the
shown in Figure 6, while operating the pump.
throttle valves, these controls all being operable
This locking means is disengaged when the en
from the controller’s station near the draw
gines are operated in tandem, as for hoisting pur
works. Through the above invention, therefore,
poses, so that the reversing mechanism for the
the steam may be utilized most efficiently during
combined engines l8 and I2 can be instantly con
the pumping and rotary driving operations and
trolled from the driller’s position, as shown.
be capable of furnishing the maximum power re
Synchronization is obtained by the coordination
of parts described, which act in concert with the
respective reversing and cut-off mechanisms of
the two engines. Each engine is equipped with
the conventional form of slide valve I02] and I21;
which controls the admission of steam from the
steam chest of each engine to the cylinders
thereof. The engine I0 is equipped with a pair 65
of eccentrics 10 which are connected by means
of eccentric straps shown‘with the curved arou
ate link 12 which is slotted for sliding engage
meent with the block 74 suitably connected with
the actuating rod 15 of the slide valve lilo. This
valve mechanism, known in the art as the Steph
enson link motion, is effective to vary the point
of cut-off of the slide valve I01), and also, when
shifted to proper position, to reverse the direc
quired for the hoisting drum.
While I have described quite speci?cally the
construction and arrangement of the parts herein
shown, it is to be understood that various struca
tural changes may be made and rearrangements
of the parts may be resorted to without departure
from the invention as de?ned in the appended
claims.
I claim:
1. A power plant and control mechanism there
for comprising two steam engines each adapted to
independently drive separate units, means for
coupling said engines together for driving a third
unit requiring greater power than either of said
units, and a unitary control mechanism for both
engines comprising a steam line connecting both
engines, a shut-off valve therein, a steam supply
tion of rotation of the engine. For shifting the 75 main, respective pipes connecting said main with
4
4
'
2,299,548
said steam line on opposite sides of said valve, a
throttle valve in one of said pipes and a shut-oi!
valve in the other of said pipes, whereby one of .
the engines may be controlled by the throttle
. nected therewith for operating said actuating
means and the throttle valve to selectively control one or both oi’ said engines. '
3. The combination with two steam engines
valve while the other engine is independently 5 each equipped with a slide valve and each having
operated, and permitting control of both engines
actuating mechanisms therefor capable of re
by said throttle when the engines are coupled
versingand varying the point 01' cut-oil, clutch
together.
\
'
ing means to couple both slide valve actuating
2. A power plant and control mechanism there
mechanisms for simultaneous operation, an ac
for comprising two steam engines each adapted 10 tuating member common to both valve mecha
to independently drive separate units, means for
nisms when said clutching means are engaged,
coupling said engines together for driving a third
a steam supply main, a throttle valvev connected
unit requiring greater power than either of said
therewith, a pipe connection between both en
units, and a unitary control mechanism for both
gines communicating with the throttle valve. a
engines comprising a steam line connecting both 1.5 shut-on’ valve in said pipe connection normally
engines, a shut-off valve therein, a steam supply '
open when both engines are coupled together and
main, respective pipes connecting said main with \ closed when they operate independently, a by
said steam line on opposite sides oi.’ said valve, a
pass pipe line from said supply main around said
throttle valve in one of said pipes and a shut-off
throttle valve and said shut-o? valve, a control
valve in the other of said pipes, whereby one of 201 valve in said by-pass line normally closed when
the engines may be controlled by the throttle
the engines are coupled together and adapted to
valve while the other engine is independently
control the operation of one of said engines when
operated, and permitting control of vboth engines
said shut-off valve is closed, and manual control
by said throttle when said engines are coupled to
means operatively associated with said throttle
gether, reversing mechanisms for each of the two 25 valve and said actuating member, whereby the
engines, means operative to actuate the reversing
mechanism for the engine separately controlled
by the throttle valve, 9. common actuating means
admission oi! steam to the two engines, the cut
o?s thereof, and the direction of rotation thereof‘
are controllable from a single operating station
upon actuation 01 said manual control means.
a the engines are coupled together, and means con- 30
AUGUST R. MAIER,
for both reversing mechanisms operable when
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