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Патент USA US2299864

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Oct. 27, 1942.
2,299,864 `
Filed Oct. 14, . 1940
Patented Oct. 27, 1942
f . .
Maury L. Webster, Los Angeles, Calif.`
Application October 14, 19405 Serial No. 361,126
4 claims.
(c1. 724-4191)
present invention may be considered as an
length. ` Where the reenforcement of this inven
improvement on or a further development of my
tion is present and the wall contracts on cool
patent for Wall constructi‘on'No. 1,880,561, issued
ing the wall returns to its normal and original
position as to length. This longitudinal reen
forcement also reacts when the brick-work of
October 4, 1932.
\» This patent among other features disclosed
the bonding ofthe refractory brick or blocks of
the‘inside lining of `the furnace and the outside
.common blocks or bricks, these latter havingv `a
much thicker bed of'the conventional mortar,
In addition, my; patent presented metal reen
forcements worked into the ‘ common brick or
blocks binding the wall to an exterior metal ccn
In» practically all types offurnace construction
utilizing refractories on the inside bonded with
common blocks or bricks on the outside there is
a longitudinal expansion ofthe wall due to the
high temperatures of the furnace and the heat
the common bricks is expanded longitudinally
due to the stresses developed by the heated re
fractories even if'fthe temperature of the com
mon bricks is insufficient to cause a longitudinal
expansion. In this case 'the metal reenforce
ment‘undergoes a stretch and when this is with
in the elastic limit of the metal, returns to its
original length when the wall cools and therefore
again contracts the wall. A preferred type of
longitudinal reenforcement is a metal and Wire
fabric formed with a plurality of longitudinal;y
strands as for instance three wires spaced apart
and intersected by‘ltransverse connecting wires.
These need not belvery close together but to pur
not only expanding the refactory bricks but
causing -the common bricks either by expansion 20 chase material now on the market I utilize the
or by movement developed from the inside re
conventional square or rectangular mesh wire
fractories to slightly lengthen the Wall longitudi
fabric. These reenforcements are made in long
strips and are embedded in the mortar joint be
tween adjacent tiers of the common block or
The common practice to assure the re
turn of the wall to its original and normal length
when the furnace ‘is cool ‘employs tie rods con-`
necting metal posts or similar structures at the
‘j brick.
end of `the wall. These tie rods may be periodi.
Another feature of my invention is the em
ploymen'tof a vertical reen'forcement of the com-`
cally tightened by threading up a nut at one or
mon blocks or bricks by use- of vertical reenforce
both ends in order to `forcibly pull the wall back
to theÍorîginal length. Manifestly this construc
ment rods embedded in the vertical mortar joints
tion. each time the Wall expands there develops
a stretch of the tie rod. Mostly this is Within the
vertical rods `pass through the different layers
ofthe horizontal reenforcement strips and aid'
materially in‘bondin'g the horizontal reenforce
elastic limit of the rod so that when the wall cools
the- tie rod Will return the wall-to its original
length. Howevenin practice it is found that the
tie rods stretch and hence require the periodical
tightening of the nuts to exert the proper ten
of thecom'mon brick portion of the wall. ` These i
ment tothe common brick4 portion of the Wall.
The vertical reenforcement by having the rods
placed `in alignment transversely to the wall in
addition develop a reenforcernent restraining the
wall from bulging between .the top and bottom.
sion and hence the inward pull on the ends of
They also act to restrain the wall from vertical
the common brick facing of the wall.
In accordance with my present' invention I 4:0 expansion. In addition the `use `of the two types
of reenforcement with‘the types of joints `for the
embed longitudinal reenforcements of metal in
common _and thel refractory ‘bricks ‘ produces' a
the common block or ccmmonbrick in aportion
much lighter weight wall for the same strength
of the furnace wall spaced from the refractoryY
portion thereof. . Such reenforcement is bonded
andA refractory properties than that of my pat- i
with the commonbrick portion of the wall in
partlby being embedded in. the >mortar joint.
This metal reenforcement has substantially the
ent above‘noted and theordinary practice.
` AV further object ‘and feature‘of my invention
,same coefficient of expansion of the common
involves a supporting frame engaging the bricks
or blocks of the wall'at different heighths be-'
blocks 4or bricks and hence when the `wall eX
tween the top and the bottom, this involving an `
pands lengthwise the reenforcement metal also
outside supporting structure with columns and
expands. However, `where thelbricks are not re
` horizontal‘supporting’` members engaging outside
enforced in `this manner with the tie rod binding
or common brick or blocks. `These horizontal
- members may be vangles each with a horizontal
omitted the mortar joints do notrdevelop a `tenf
silev pull to return the bricks to their-original po- .
Iiange fitting in the-‘mortar joint, therefore asl
sition and bring back` the wall to its original ,55.v ,rows of bricks‘on'the outer- face` of the wall are
supported at tiers spaced apart vertically as on
mon bricks of a lower and an upper tier. The
narrow ledges, a supporting member is provided
vertical flange 23 is indicated as secured to the
which carries a good deal of the weight of the
flange of the I-beam by a bolt 24 or the like. The
brick equipment to a distance between the vari
horizontal flanges may be considered as forming
ous ledges. This is due to the bonding of the Ul a horizontal ledge. These ledges are spaced the
bricks of both the refractories and the common
desired distance. apart vertically and as shown in
so that the diagonally downward thrust from the
the illustration of Fig. 1 as six tiers apart. Due
inside of the wall to the outside is transferred to
to the bonding of the brick, the components of
a ledge. A further object and feature of this
pressure have a. diagonal line of thrust due to
construction in giving an individual support isr 10 the bonding extending for instance in a diagonal
a series of Vertical tiers of bricks or blocks results
sloping line from each ledge upwardly towards
in a restriction of the expansion and inward
bulge of the refractory lining between the top
and bottom of the wall, Usually when subject
to heat there is a large inward bulge between the
top and the bottom of the wall. Although my
construction does not prevent the expansion, it
restricts the bulge to a series of much smaller
bulges in tiers of a distance equivalent to that
between the ledge type of supports on the outside l
of the wall.
Another characteristic of my invention is
building up the wall with a light weight type of
refractory brick having a composition such as
that with sawdust incorporated therein which
burns out leaving a large number of hollow cells.
With this I use a quick setting cement mortar.
My invention is illustrated in connection with
the accompanying drawing, in which:
the inside face of the nre wall. These ledges
of course do not carry the full weight of the
complete wall or the full weight of the brick
between the different ledges spaced vertically.
However a considerable portion of the weight of
the amount of brick between ledges is supported
or partly supported by each ledge. 'I'his gives
a type of support so that the inward bulge due
to the expansion of the refractory bricks between
the top and the bottom of the wall is broken up
into a series of small bulges each of approxi
mately the length of the vertical distance from`
one ledge to the next above although these bulges
do not necessarily coincide with the particular
number of tiers between any two ledges. As they
posts 20 and the angles or other structures form
ing the ledges are not subject to heat, there is
comparatively little expansion and contraction of'
Fig. 1 is a vertical section through a furnace 30
these metal supporting structures and as the out'
wall as to a portion of the wall and may be con
side common bricks have but little expansion or
sidered as taken on the section line I-I of Fig.
2 in the direction of the arrows. This shows
typical mortar and cement bedding for the com
mon and refractory bricks but is not intended -
to define a particular line up or section of indi
vidual bricks.
contraction due to temperature changes, the mor
tar binding the common bricks does not disinte
grate. However the ñre clay mortar or bedding
of the refractory bricks of course more or lessv
disintegrates as in the ordinary type of furnace
Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken on the line
The longitudinal reinforcement to return thel
2_2 of Fig. 1 in the direction of the arrows.
wall to its original length after expansion and
This omits indication of particular bricks but 40 cooling is by means of a horizontal reinforce
shows the general overlapping line between the
ment assembly indicated at 3U. This is shown as
common and the refractory bricks to secure bond
rods or wire 3| which extend length
ing through the wall.
wise of the wall and bedded in mortar joints of`
In the> above illustration in Fig. 1 the bricks
the outside or common brick. In order to main
or blocks are illustrated as set up somewhat in
tain these rods at the correct distance apart I
the manner shown in my Patent No. 1,880,561
preferably employ transverse connecting wires
as above noted. In this the refractory blocks or
32 welded or otherwise secured to the wires or>
bricks are designated by the numeral II on the
rods 3l. In fact, a simple way to secure this
inside of the wall and the common bricks on the
type of construction is by the use of rectangulary
outside by the numeral I2. The refractory bricks 50 wire mesh fabric slit to provide two or three longi
are embedded in mortar I3 preferably made of
tudinal wires however if the material is made up
fire clay mixed with water to a desired consist
especially for the work, the transverse connectingI
ency to space the bricks of the various tiers the
wires 32 may be spaced a considerable distance
desired distance apart. The common bricks are
apart. It is not necessary that the ends of thev
usually slightly thinner than the refractory
wire at the end of the ñre wall be secured to an
bricks and thus require a thicker mortar joint
outside structure.
indicated at I4 which may be made of a quick
The functional action of the horizontal rein
drying cement mortar such as that made incor
forcement is substantially as follows: When the
porating calcium chloride and Portland cement.
furnace is brought up to its operating tempera
In the illustration the wall may be considered as
60 ture and maintained at this temperature for a
having a series of tiers I5 in which the common
and the refractory brick form each tier.
considerable length of time, heat is transferred
from the refractory lining outwardly to the com
are built up with headers and stretchers in the
mon bricks although manifestly not t0 such a
conventional manner however in each tier the
high temperature. The horizontal reinforcement
refractory and the common bricks are inter 65 becomes heated in proportion as the common
bonded as indicated by the dotted line I6 of Fig. 2.
bricks rise in temperature. I have found that
In order to develop the support for different
the expansion and contraction of the horizontal
tiers of bricks I have provided a series of posts
reinforcement rods or wires is about equivalent'
20, these being shown as I-beams spaced apart a
to that of the common brick including the mor
suitable distance and being of sufñcient length 70 tar joints so that there is no breaking of the
to extend from the foundation at the bottom to
bond between the reinforcement rods or wires and
the top of the wall. As the wall is built up, a
the mortar of the joints. As is well known, the'
series of supporting beams 2| are utilized. These
refractory lining expands on increase andvmain
are illustrated as angles having a horizontal
tenance of high temperature causing the whole
_In part- ofl thisY ex
ñange 22 fitting in a mortar joint between com- 75 wall to expand lengthwise.
pansion the metal longitudinal reinforcement
rods 3| expand equally with the furnace, that is,
the outer common brick but as the common brick
are forced outwardly in a longitudinal direction
due to the bonding with the refractory lining, the
lengthwise wires or rods are placed under a ten
sion and may actually stretch to a certain extent.
There is no particular harm or disadvantage
ranged in interlocking relationship vertically as
well as horizontally, and metal rods extending'
lengthwise through the common brick portion of
the wall adapted to be stretched or expanded
when the wall is heated and serving to contract
the wall lengthwise upon cooling of the wall to
return it to substantially its initial condition.
2. A furnace Wall construction having outer
tiers of common bricks and inner tiers of re
in the lengthwise expansion of the wall while the
furnace is in operation and the wall is under the 10 fractory bricks, the common bricks and refrac- ‘
tory bricks being arranged in interlocking rela
usual high working temperature. When the fur
tionship in their corresponding tiers, and in inter
nace cools however if there are no means for again
locking relationship in a vertical direction, and
pulling or forcing the' wall back to its original
metal rods extending lengthwise through the com
position as regards its length, it would be left in
mon bricks portion of the wall adapted to be
the longitudinally expanded condition for al
stretched or expanded when the wall is heated
though the individual refractory bricks will cool
and serving to contract the wall lengthwise upon
or contract as will the common bricks, there is
cooling' of the wall to return it to substantially
no tensile bond for the respective tiers of bricks.
its initial condition, said rods being arranged in
However the horizontal reinforcement 30 is not
expanded or stretched beyond its elastic limit. 20 the joints between the common bricks, and trans
verse rods connecting the longitudinallyl extend~
By this construction therefore the contraction of
ing rods in the joints in which they are disposed.
the horizontal rods 3| due to loss of heat from a
3. A furnace wall construction having outer
relatively high to a moderate temperature pro
common bricks and inner refractory bricks, the
duces a pulling action on the common brick and
in additionthe return of the rods from a stretched 25 common bricks and refractory bricks being ar
ranged in interlocking relationship both hori
to a normal length also reacts in this same man
zontally and vertically, supporting columns ar
ner, hence the wall when cooled practically al
ranged adjacent the outer side of the wall, means
ways returns to its original length as long as the
ledges on the columns extending into
bricks or blocks remain intact.
the common brick portion of the wall and longi
The vertical reinforcement indicated at G0 is
by means of a series of vertical rods 4l. These ,i tudinally extending metal rods embedded in the
mortar joints between the common bricks adapted
bed in the vertical mortar joints of the common
to be stretched or expanded upon heating of the
brick. Although three rods are shown in a row
wall and serving to contract the common brick
from the front towards the rear, these may be any
number desired. The brick mason setting up the 35 portion of the wall on cooling.
4. A furnace wall construction having outer
wall may easily make his vertical joints to accom
modate these rods. They need not be attached in ' common bricks and inner refractory bricks, the
common bricks and refractory bricks being ar
any manner to the horizontal reinforcement b-ut
ranged in interlocking relationship both hori
these rods act as Vertical reinforcement mem
bers restraining any tendency to bulge of the com 40 zontally and vertically, supporting columns ar
man brick due to thrust action by the expanding
refractors, that is, bulges which might develop
between the top and bottom of the wall outwardly.
Various changes may be made in the details of
the construction without departing from the spirit
or scope of the invention as deiined by the ap
pended claims.
ranged adjacent the outer side of the wall, means
providing ledges on the columns extending into
the common brick portion of the wall and longi
tudinally extending metal rods embedded in the
mortar joints between the common bricks adapted
to be stretched or expanded upon heating of the
Wall andserving to contract the common brick
portion of the wall on cooling, and transverse rods '
connecting the longitudinal rods in the joints in
1. A furnace wall construction having outer
common bricks and inner refractory bricks, the 50 which they are disposed.
common bricks and refractory bricks being ar
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