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Патент USA US2300752

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NOV' 3', 1942- v
Filed Juiy 15, 1941
_//v VENTO/#es
Nov. 3, 1942.
Filed July l5, 1941
2 Shee'ts-She'e't 2
Patented Nov. 3, 1942
Harold A. Wagner and Gustave H. Wagner, Port- l
land, Oreg.
Application July l15, 1941, Serial No. 402,462
13 Claims. 4 (Cl. 192---17)
This invention relates to improvements in com
bination clutch and brake mechanisms, and con
trol means therefor.
`In': driving arrangements such as for hoist
winches and the like, it is desirable to provide
a combination clutch and brake mechanism
whereby the winch drum may be driven in one
direction by a prime mover through engagement
of the clutch or controlled in either direction
of rotation by application of the brake. To sim
plify the control of such mechanism both the
clutch and the brake means may be connected
to a single manually operable lever. The lever
tion will appear from the following description
taken in connection with the accompanying
drawings, while the features of novelty will be
pointed out with greater particularity in the ap
pended claims.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is a longitudinal
cross sectional View illustrating the combined
clutch and brake mechanism constructed in
accordance with one form of the invention; Fig
ure 2 is a sectional view taken along the line
2--2 of Figure l; Figure 3 is a sectional View
taken along the line 3--3 of Figure l; Figure 4
is a detail sectional View taken along the line
‘1_4 of Figure 2; Figure 5 is a detail sectional
brake and clutch mechanisms should be such 15 View taken along the line 5_5 of Figure 2; Fig
ure 6 is a side elevation of the clutch and brake
that complete control may be had at all times
mechanism illustrating further the control means
of the driven shaft.
therefor; Figure 7 is an end view of the arrange
It is an object of the present invention to
ment shown in Figure 6; and Figure 8 is a frag
provide a new' and‘improved combined clutch
and brake mechanism comprising a relatively 20 mentary view of the clutch control means illus
trating the mechanism in variousv positions of
few parts of simple design and of low manufac
turing cost.
Referring more particularly to Figure 1, a drum
A further object of the invention is to pro
l attached to a hub 2 as by bolts 3 is mounted
vide a new and improved `clutch mechanism
which is relatively rugged so as to be capable 25 upon the end of a driven shaft 4 and secured
thereon by nut 5.v In order further to prevent
of transmitting heavy loads, easy to adjust and
relative rotation between the drum and the driven
shaft 4 a suitable `key E’ is provided between
A further object >of the invention is to pro
the hub and the tapered shaft end-portion l.
vide a new and improved manual control ar
rangement for a combined clutch and brake 30 A drive shaft 8 aligned with the driven shaft
li has a clutch unit mounted upon the’ end there
of internally of the‘drum l. The clutch unit
In accordance with the illustrated embodi
comprises a carrier plate or' disc 9 which is se
ment, the invention comprises a driven shaft
curely fastened to the shaft »8 as by means of
having a drum ñXedly mounted upon the end
thereof and within which is arranged a clutch 35 key 20. Mounted upon the carrier plate 9 are
a pair of oppositely extending contr-ol arms SA
mechanism mounted upon the end of a drive
and lil Which arms are pivoted at their outer
shaft. The clutch mechanism is of a new andV
ends to lugs ll by means of pins l2. The lugs
improved expanding shoe type of a simplified
Il are secured as by Welding to the outer face
design, operable by> means of a sliding collar
provided on the drive shaft and which is con 40 of the carrier plate 9 and at diametrically op
posed points near the'edge ofl the plate. rl‘he
nected for operation to a control lever. Sur
arms SA and lil extend toward eachother and
rounding the drum is a brake vband which is
toward the center of the plate in a generally
lalso connected to the manual control lever. The
parallel relation on opposite sides of the shaft
Aimproved control arrangement includes connec
8. The arms 9A and Iii are biased toward each
-tions between the manual control lever and the
` other and toward the carrier plate 9 by lmeans
brake band and also between the sliding collar
of tension springs I3 and Iii, the arrangement
of the clutch mechanism whereby movement of
ofwhich is shown more clearly in Figure 3. The
the control lever in one plane controls the clutch
springs I3 and ill secured to suitable points on
and movement of the lever in a second plane
at right angles to the ñrst controls the brake, 5:0 the arms 9A and l0, respectively, are anchored
to the carrier plate as indicated at l5, and tend
while movement of the control lever in diagonal
to keep the arms SAand i8 in close to the shaft
directions between the two planes effects simul
a, .while the drive shaft is being rotated by a
taneous proportional control of both clutch and
prime mover connected thereto. Bearing Vtips
arrangement including the connections to the
Further objects and advantages of the inven- li5_l l5 and lï :are provided on the ends of the con
trol arms ID and 9A, respectively, adjacent the
of the control arms 9A and I0 upon operation
shaft 8 and which are adapted to be coopera
of the collar I8.
The clutch shoes 26 and 21 are normally held
in the disengaged position relative to the brake
by means to be described hereinafter for effecting
drum by means of a pair of springs 43 and 44,
operation of the clutch.
shown more clearly in Figure 2, which springs are
The hub of the carrier plate 9 is mounted
connected to the free ends of the corresponding
on the drive shaft 8 a slight distance from the
shoes as indicated at 45 and 46 and anchored at
end thereof so that the end portion of the drive
their opposite ends as at 41 and 48 to the sup
shaft 8 extends into a cylindrical extension 22 10 porting disc 9. Springs 43 and 44 are sufficiently
of the drum hub 2. A suitable bearing 2I is.
strong as compared to springs I3 and I4 so that
provided between the end of the shaft 8 and
arms 9A and I0. will normally be biased outwardly
the cylindrical extension 22 so as toy permit of
with respect to disc 9.
free relative rotation therebetween, while at the
Referring more particularly to Figures 6 and 7,
same time maintaining the shafts 4 and 8 in
a brake band 49 having a suitable liner 50 is ar
alignment with each other.
ranged around the outer periphery 5I of the drum
tively engaged bya sliding collar I8 mounted
upon the shaft 8 and which is in turn controlled
The clutch shoes 28 and 21 are arranged around
the supporting disc 9 and are each pivotally at
I and is fastened at one end 52 to any stationary
support 53. The opposite end of the brake band
tached at one end to diametrically opposite points
of the disc by means including bolts 3.5 extending
49 is secured by link 55 to one end of a lever arm
56. The link 5,5 extends through the cooperating
opening 51 in the` opposite end of the brake1 band
through'the -shoe flange portions 3.4. A pair of
bars 36 and 31.. which Áare welded intermediate
as shown more clearly in Figure 6,l so that a
their ends to the supporting disc 9'r have. their
centered pull may be exerted through the lever
arm 56. The arm 56r is rigidly secured at right
angles to the operating shaft 5x8 which is jour
opposite ends spaced from the disc 9 for coopera
tively receiving therebetween the adjacent end 25
portions of the shoe flanges 34. The boltsy 35, as
naled adjacent opposite ends in suitable bearings
shown more clearly in Figure _5, extend through
59 and 6_0. For rotating the shaft 58.i and thereby
one end ofthe 'bars 36, 31 and through the sup
effecting adjustment of the brake band a man
porting disc 9, and are provided with a cam 40
ually operable lever 63 is secured atone end there
providing a pivotal bearing surface on the end
of the corresponding shoe mounted thereupon.
Upon the opposite ends of the bolt 35 are nuts 38
to, the lever being pivoted between a pair of lugs
6I and 62 rigidly secured to. and extending at
right angles from the opposite sides of the shaft
58. The shaft 58 is hollow and through which.
and 39 to secure the bolt 35 against movement.
By loosening the nuts 38 and 3_9 the bolt 35, and
hence the cam 40, may be slightly rotated toy
extends a rod 64 attached at one end to> a.` clutch
effect outward adjustment* of the. ends of the
operating link 65. The. link 6.5 is pivoted inter
mediate its ends upon a suitable. stationary. brack
et 66. and has its opposite end extending inwardly
clutch shoes as may be required as the clutchA
lining'llI and 4 IA becomesworjn.>
'The outer end portionsu 23 cf the control arms
9A and I6, which are pivotally mounted upon the
adjacent the drive shaft 8 for cooperative engage
ment of the bearing surfacev I9 of the sliding colf.
lar I8. The opposite end of the rod 64 is pivòtally
connected to a central point of link 61, the lower
supporting lugs I i, extend at an angle withl respect
to the main portions of the arms. sof thatthe arms
end of which. is pivotally connected to the` end of
are in thefiorm of cranks. Pivotally'secured to
a bracket arm 68 which is rigidly añìxed‘ as. at
`the end portionsy 23> of the control arms at at 3.3J
6_9 to the adjacentv end of the shaft 58. The
ere e. peil? of expansion. reds 24 and 2.5. which
extend in, elígnmentwith the respective arms. Se.
endy [email protected] ’te the Opposite Sides of. the.> elise 9.. the.
upper end of the linkV 61 is. connected by cross>
link 10 to the manual control lever 68 as- at 1I.
extreme ende ef the expanden rods. being cen-_
nected te the Clutch eheeeA 2.6. and 2.'.1. As illus:
trated more> clearly in the view> of Figure. 4, the.
disc 9 is> provided with a pair of relatively largel
mined position which will normally correspond
A catch 1.2 secured to a stationary support 18 isA
provided for holding. the. handle 673 in a predeter
to the engaged, or set, condition for thefbrake
band 49.
openings 3Q and 3AI adjacent theA periphery there
of through which the angularly bent ends 0f the.
expansion rods extend for connection to the.
flanges 34 of the clutch shoes.r The flanges 3.4. of
the clutch shoes are providedl with openings for
cooperatively receiving the ends of the. rods. 24,
and 25, the rod ends being secured thereto such
The operation of the combined clutch and brake
mechanismA through manipulation of the control
as by means of cotter pins 28. The holes. 3l)> and
3I being of relatively large diameter permit out
ward movement of the rods 24 and 25. for effect
shoes into engagement with the. inner surfaces.
32 of the drum I_. The flanges 3.4. of the clutch
shoesl are held against the side. of the disc edge.
of the shoes 26Vand 21.
Adjusting nuts 42 are. provided upon the rods. 24,v
and 25 whereby the eiîective length of the respec
tive rods can be varied. Thus. the rangeA of the,
outward mpi/ement 0f the clutch shoes. can be ad
justed to correspond with the range of movement
follows. It will be understood thatthe" drive'
shaft 8 is normally rotated by a prime mover con
nected thereto and hence the clutch` mechanism
will rotate with the drive shaft. To release the
brake and effect driving engagement of the clutch,
the handleI 63 is ñrst moved clear of the 'latch 12
by movement thereof in the directionv of thelon
ing outward or expansion` movements of the clutch
portion by suitable guides 29, while the. ñanges .
at the free ends of the` shoes are guided between
the ends of bars 36, 31 and disc 9. The. ends of
the bars 36 and 31 also act as stops for the. endsl
means therefor as described isv substantially as
gitudinai axis of thfe shaft 52a.` It wilibe observed
that such movement of the handle. 6,3 will not
effect a rotation of the shaft 58 nor,l consequently,Í
e release ef the. brake band.- Tereleesethebreke
the handle is then moved; radially with respect
to the axis of theshaft58-to the position A, shown'
in dotted lines in Figure.. 7,`W`hich will cause rota
tien ef the Shaft 58. the. eleelswise direction
and. hence, aL release of the brake band. For
elfeetine engagement er the. durch. the. handle
Q3 is moved inA the, direction longitudinally olf-the
shaft 8 to the right to some such position
dieated by. dotted; linee 3.11.1. Eig/ure; 6„ which.. will
' cause movement of the rod 64 through the shaft c
atone end to said plate, expansion rods connect-1`
58 to the right. vSuch movement of rod 64 will
cause thelever 65 to pivot upon bracket 66 toithe
position indicated in dotted lines in -Figure 8,
shifting the sliding collar I8 into engagement with
the ends l 6, l1 of the clutch control arms 9A and
ing the opposite ends of said shoes to said arms,
guide means fastened on said plate, spring means
secured to said plate biasing said shoes intoa
disengaged position against said guide,A means, a»
Inward movement of the clutch control arms
slide collar mounted on said shaft, a brake `band
mounted about said drum, and means operatively
connected to said slide collar and said brake
band for effecting either separate or simultaneous
actuation of said brake band and said clutch
8A and I0 toward the disc 9 will effect outward,
or expansion movement of the clutch shoes 26
and 2l into engagement with the inner surface
of the drum I against the bias of the springs
43, 4d.
. To effect disengagement of the clutch mech
3. In a device of the class described, the com
bination'comprísing a drum having an expanding
anism the lever 63 is merely pivoted in the re
verse direction longitudinally of thev shaft 58,
type clutch mounted internally thereof, clutch
whereupon the drum I is released for free move 15 actuating means, a brake band mounted around
ment independent of either the clutch or brake
the outer surface of'saíd drum, a control handle
as when lowering loads. For effecting engage
hingedly secured to a rotatably journaled hollow
ment of the brake, the lever 63 is pushedback to
shaft, said handle being hingedly movable in the
ward the stationary support 13, causing rotation
longitudinal direction of said shaft, an arm se
of the shaft 58, in which position it may be locked 20 cured to said shaft and extending outwardly
by snapping it behind the catch '12. It will be
therefrom, a connection between said brake band
observed that the transition from -the driving to
and said arm, a rod extending through said shaft,
the braking conditions of adjustment, and vice
said rod being operatively connected at one end
versa, may be effected by means of control ar
to said clutch actuating means, and means con-
rangement described without at any time releas
necting the opposite end of said rod to said con
ing the control of the drum. Instead of moving
trol handle.
the lever ñrst in a straight line axially of the
4. In av device ofthe class described, the com
shaft 58 and then at right angles to rotate the
bination comprising a drum having a hub, a drive
shaft 58, the lever 63 may be shifted angularly,
shaft, the end of said shaft being journaled in
or diagonally, between the two positions, B and 30 said drum hub, a clutch plate mounted on said
C, so that the brake is gradually applied simul
shaft, a pair of expansion shoes mounted on said
taneously with the gradual release of the clutch
plate, said clutch plate and shoes arranged with
engagement. The same transition of control may
in said drum, a brake band positioned around said
be effected from braking to driving.
drum and securely fastened at one end, a ro
It will b_e seen that the combined clutch and 35 tatably mounted hollow shaft, a lever fixedly se
brake device as described comprises relatively few
cured to said shaft, a connecting link between
parts and which, furthermore, are of a relatively Y
said lever and the free end of -said brake band, a
simple design requiring a minimum of machining
sliding collar on said drive shaft for effecting en- `
operations for the manufacture thereof. It will
gagernentand disengagement of said shoes with
be obvious that the new and improved clutch 40 said drum, a rod extending through said `hollow
mechanism may be used in combination with the
shaft, a manuallyoperable lever, hinge means
brake as described, or independently thereof as
securing said manually operable lever to said
a separate unit.
in what is considered to be a preferred embodi
ment thereof, it is desired that it be understood '
hollow shaft for movement in the longitudinal
direction of said shaft, a rod extending through
said hollow shaft and operatively connected at
one end to said sliding collar and at the other vend
that the specific details shown are merely illus
to said manually operable lever.
Having described the principle of the invention
trative, and that the invention may be carried ,
out by other means.
What We claim is:
5. In a device of the class described, the com
bination comprising a drive shaft„a driven shaft,
50 a drum fastened tov said driven shaft, av brake
1. In a device of the class described, the com
bination comprising a drum having a clutch
band arranged around said drum, a clutch mech
anism fastened to saidv drive shaft and mounted
mechanism including a plate mounted internally
of said drum, a pair of clutch shoes adjustably
pivoted at one end to said plate, a pair of in- '
wardly extending clutch control arms pivotally
mounted on said plate, a pair of expansion rods
being attached to said clutch shoes, a shaft sup
porting said plate extending outwardly between
within said drum, a `rotatably mounted hollow
shaft, means connecting said hollow shaft to said
brake band for effecting' setting of said brake
upon rotation of said hollow shaft, a rod extend
ing through said hollow shaft and movable axially
therethrough, said rod being >operatively con
nected at one end to said clutch mechanism, a
said control arms, spring means between said
clutch shoes and said plate biasing said clutch
handle connected to said hollow shaft for effect
ing rotation thereof and to said rod for effecting
shoes to a disengaged position, means on said shaft
longitudinal movement thereof.
for engaging said control arms and expanding said
clutch shoes against the inner surface of` said
drum, power take-off means attached to said
drum, brake means mounted on said drum, and
a single control means operatively connected to
said brake means and said clutch mechanism;
2. In a device of the class described, the com
6. In a driving arrangement for mounting be
tween a drive shaft and a driven shaft, a brake
bination comprising a drum, a drive shaft ex
tending coaxially of said drum, a plate secured
to said shaft and positioned internally of said
drum, a pair of arms hingedly fastened to said
plate','a'pair of clutch shoes extending around said
plate, adjustable cam means fastening said shoes
element, a clutch element, means for manually Y
controlling said elements comprising an Vouter
shaft, a lever arm affixed to said outer shaft `
and connected to one of said elements, a manual'
operating lever connected to said outer shaft
70 for rotating said outer shaft and effecting ad
justment of said one element, said operating
`lever being hingedly connected to said outer
shaft for pivotal movement in the plane of the
axis of said outer shaft, an inner’ shaft "extend
ing through said outer shaft and connected Sat
one-fend to the second. of saidI elements,- andi link
age means connecting the opposite: endlV of' saidi
inner shaft, to- said manuali opera-tingI levery
whereby pivotal movement of said operating
face of said drumv against thel force of said bias"
10..In; a devicev of the class.- described, the
combina-tion comprising; a drum, a shaft extend
lever on said outer shaft effects movement of 5. ing coaxially of said drum, a. supporting plate
secured to said shaft and arranged within said
said inner shaft axially of' said outer shaftl for
drum,. a pair of friction shoes, cam means piv
adjusting said second element.
otally connecting one end. of each of said shoes
'7. In a device of theclass described, the comto diametrically opposed points of said plate', a
bination comprising a drum, a shaft- having` oneà
pair of crank. arms pivotally mounted on. said
end extending into said drum coaxially thereof,
plate on opposite sides of said shaft, said armsv
a disc secured to the end of said shaft within
said drum,.a pair of`clutch shoes arranged around
the periphery of said disc for cooperatively en
gaging the inner surface of said drum, means:
pivotally attaching one end of'each of said shoes:
to. said disc at diametrically opposite points, a
pair of crank arms pivotally mounted on said-I
disc at opposite points adjacent’ the edge of said
disc, said; arms extending towardv the center- of.
said> disc on opposite sides of said? shaft, rods~
connecting said; arms directly to the free ends
of corresponding ones of said. shoes, spring- means
normally biasing said shoes.. to the disengaged
position, a sliding collar mountedl on- said. shaft,
control` means for moving saidL collar along:` said.
shaft into engagement with the ends of> said
crank arms for movingv said. crank. arm; ends
towardy said disc to cause outward-r movement ofv
said. clutch shoes intofrictional engagement, withy
extending inwardly to points adjacent said~ shaft,
rods pivotally connected to said armsy adjacent
the pivotal support thereof,I said rods extending.
transversely of said plate and.` connected at thev
opposite end directlyy to the free ends of `said
shoes;, means slidably mounted on said shaft.
for engaging with said arms and moving said
arms. toward said disc> toeffect expansion move
ments.> of.- said shoes; into engagement with the
inner surface of said drum, said rods including.
means for adjusting the length thereof.
1-1. A driving: mechanism comprising a drum., a4
shaft lextending coaxially of said drum, a sup»
potting plate secured to said; shaft andl arranged
within said1 drum„ a pair of clutch shoes, means
pivotally,v connecting4 one end of each of said
shoes»l to diametrically opposed points on said>
plate,` a pair of crank arms pivotally» mounted on
said: drum.
30 said plate at. diametrically opposed points». adja
cent theîouter edge thereof, said arms extending,
8. Ina device ofthe class. described, the com.
inwardly to‘ points adjacent opposite sides-of said
lcinationÍ comprising aA drum, ashaft extending'
shaft; spring> meansY between the ends of saidv
coaxially of said drum,.a.supporting disc. secured:
arms and saidplateforurging said armsrtoward
to said, shaft and: arranged within said drum,
said shaft,_rods pivotally- connected to said crank
a pair of clutch shoes arranged around the
periphery. of. said; disc,. means. pivotally connect-y
ing one end of each of .saidsl'ioes atdiametrically
opposed pointsto said disc, a pair. of arms` piv.
otally mounted on said disc at diametrically
opposed points, said armsextending.. toward the
center. of said. disc adjacent said shaft, rodsrv
pivotally secured to. said arms. adjacent the piv
oted. end thereof, said. rods extending acrosssaid'.
disc and connected at theother. end directlyrv to.
the, free. endsv of corresponding. clutch shoes,
spring means. biasing, said clutch. shoes to- thedisengaged position, andomeans. mounted; om saidv
shaft movable. into, engagement with` the:y ends: of
said. arms for causing outwardmovement of; said
shoes` into frictional. engagement with, the` inner.
surface of said drum.
9. In= a deviceofi the class described,- the com.
bination` comprising> a_ drum, a.-. shaft extending
coaxially of. saidj drum,_a supportingdisc secured.
to~ said: shaft and arranged Within said; drum,
a~ pairv ofV clutch; shoes: arranged.- around, the
periphery of said; disc, meanspivotally. connect-V
ing one end of. each of: said shoes-to diametrically.
opposedpoints of saidldisc, a paiìl off crank arms
pivotally` mounted on saidY disc at' diametrically
opposed points thereof; said arms extending in»
wardly toward thecente-r-'of said disc-onopposite
sides of said shaft, rods pivotally secured to- said
crank arms adjacent the pivoted end" thereof;
said rods extending across said’ disc to the op
posite sides thereof and connected at the other
end to the free endsof’ said clutch shoes, means.
normally biasing said clutch shoes to the disen.
gaged position whereby the endsy of. said crank
arms: adjacent thev pivotaly mountingV thereof, said
rodsrextending transversely of: said plate'on. op
posite` sides of said shaft, said- rods being. con'
nected at‘the'opposite- ends directly to said clutch.
shoes whereby movement of said ends of said
armst'owardsaid disc effects outward movement
of.> said clutch' shoes into engagement. with the
inner surface of said drum, means biasing. said
clutch shoes to the disengaged` position, and
45 means slidably mounted on'v said shaft. for mov
ing the endsfof saidv arms toward said plate;
12;-> A. combined clutch- and brake mechanism
comprising a. driveshaft, a drivenshaft, a. drum
affixed to said driven shaft, a- supporting plate
50 mounted on said drive shaft andìarrangedzwithin
said.` drum,. a'- pair of clutch-v shoes'. arranged
around saidplate, saidshoeslhaving; inner radial
flanges, means-l pivotally,` connecting. said: flanges
at one end.A of said. shoes. to opposite-.points of
55. said' plate, . means f for' holdingi said: flanges f at . the
free ends of» said. shoes against. thel side. ofîsaid
plate,_ ai pair of' crank arms» pivotallyl mounted
on said/»plate„the free-ends of. said arms. extend
ing inwardly to points adjacent to: said drive
60 shaft,_adjustable rods pivotally.I connected to said
crank'. arms adjacent'. to the». pivotal. mounting.
thereof; said rodsextending. inthe direction of
said arms. to ~ the.~ opposite sides of: said v. plate and
connected, to the-free 4ends of» correspondinggones.
65 of said; clutch» shoes,rmeans biasingthe ends, of
said arms'~toward-saidz shaft„spring means con
nected, to; saidî shoes.v biasing said shoes.. to the
disengaged. position and simultaneously biasing
said.` arms away from said plate, a .clutch operat
701 ing slide.y collar». mounted on~ said drive shaft,. a
arms are normally held in a position away from
said disc, and means for engaging. with the ends
of said armsA for moving said.crank-arms toward
brake-bandi surrounding'said. druml and control
means `forr selectively. actuatingl said'A brake ;- band
said ,disc .andeffecting'outward movement of said
13.1.. A:.drivinggarrangementlcomprising.; av.drumi
aeshafmextendingßoaxially of'saidí drum>.a,sun.-;with;the„.innen'surè
porting disc secured to said shaft and arranged
connecting said crank arms to the free ends of
said clutch shoes, spring means connected be
tween said disc and said clutchshoes biasing
said arms away from said disc, means slidably
arranged on said shaft movable into engagement
with said arms for moving said arms toward said
the side of the edge portion of Said disc, a pair v
disc and moving said clutch shoes outwardly
of crank arms pivotally mounted on said plate on__
into engagement with said drum.
opposite sides of said shaft, said arms extending
inwardly to points adjacent said shaft, means 10
within said drum, a pair of clutch shoes havingy
inner radially extending ñanges, cam means piv‘-v
otally connecting one end of the ñange of each
said shoe to diametrically opposed points of said
disc, means for holding said shoe flanges against
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