close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2301995

код для вставки
Nov. 17, 1942.
Q_ M_ BACKER
2,301,995
RAILWAY sïGNALING APPARATUS
Filed Aug. l, 1939 `
6’
7)
10/
/ll
)
l
DA
4
M5
la'
-
25~
R4 C?
Y
f @www
I
R6
i 12a!
19 Cog‘po!
Cipeaz'ä.
Fig. 2.
'
lV ENTOR
Caf»
BY
'
H15
Bacher.
ArroRNEY
2,301,995
Patented Nov. 17, 1942
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,301,995
RAILWAY SIGNALING APPARATUS
Carl M. Backer, Pittston, Pa., assigner to The
Union Switch & Signal Company, Swissvale,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application August 1, 1939, Serial No. 287,731A
¿l Claims. (Cl. 175-32-0)
My invention relates tofrailway signaling appa~
ratus, and particularly to signaling apparatus-for
signal systems using coded current.
Railway code signal systems using time spaced
impulses of direct current have been proposed,
the codes being either of the polarity code type or
of the frequency code type. For example, in a
polarity code system-one code may consist of uni
formly recurrent impulses of current of positive
polarity, a second code may consist of uniformly
recurrent impulses of current of negative polaru
ity and such impulses of current alternately of
positive and negative polarity may be used for a
third code. In a frequency code type, the im
pulses of current may be all of the same polarity
but of different rates, such as a rate of 180, 120
or 75 impulses per minute. Of course, a combi
nation of different polarities and rates may be
used if desired. Also, in such code systems it
has been proposed to make the individual im
pulses of current of short duration, that is, the
duration during which current flows is short as
compared withrthe duration between successive
in response to code impulses of current which are
short in durationA as compared with the dura
tion between successive impulses. A further fea
ture of my invention is the provision of code re
sponsive apparatus of the type here involved
which automatically obtains substantially equall
“on” and “oit” periods of operation over a rela
tively wide range of different code frequencies
or rates.
Again, a feature of my invention is
the provision of code responsive apparatus of the
type here contemplated? which is economical in
construction» and’ operation. Other objects and
advantages of my» invention will> appear as the
specification progresses.
I shall describe two forms of apparatus em
bodying my invention, and shall then point out
the novel features thereof` in claims.
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia
grammatic view of one form of apparat-us em
20 bodying my invention when used with the train
carried apparatus of a cab signal system. Fig. 2
is a diagrammatic view of a modiñcation of the
apparatus of Fig. 1 which also embodies my in
vention.
impulses when no current ilows. Current im
In each of the two views like reference charac
pulses of short duration are desirable because 25
they can be made of relatively high peak voltage
as an aid to reliable operation of the signal sys
tem without an excessive energy output from the
current source- which ordinarily is a battery. In
ters designate similar parts.
Referring to Fig. 1, the reference characters la
and Ib designate the track rails of a railway and
to which rails code impulses of current are ap
such systems, a code following relay responsive
to such impulses of current is normally biased to
one position to which it is moved by its biasing
plied according to different- traifc conditions/'of
element when no code current flows and is ener
code impulses of current to the rails la and lb
and such apparatus is not shown for the sake
of simplicity. A form of such code transmitting
apparatus that may be used is disclosed and
claimed in an application for'United States Let
gized and operated to a second position while a
the railway. lViy invention is not concerned with
either the means or the manner of applying the'
code current impulse perisists. Thus, the code
following relay is operated to its second position
for only a brief period in response to each indi
ters PatentY Serial No. 222,883 filed August 3, 1938,
vidual impulse of current and is operated to its
by W. P; Place for Signal systems and now Pat
iirst position for a relatively long period between
the successive impulses of current. In other 40 ent No. 2,197,414.
It is suiiicient for the present application to
words, the code following relay is operated at
point out that the track rails la and Ib are sup
unequal “on” and “ofi” periods, the “on” periods
plied with impulses of direct current ofV diiîerent
when current flows being relatively short and the
polarity patterns'to reflect different trafiic con
“01T” periods when no current flows being rela
ditions or are supplied with impulses of direct
tively long. The decoding apparatus of such sys
current of ditïerent code rates or frequencies to
tems is selectively governed by the code follow
reiiect different traffìc'conditions. In as'far- as
ing relay according to the difîerent codes and a
the'instant case is concerned the signiñcant fea
more satisfactory operation of such decoding
ture of such impulses of current is the fact that
apparatus is effected when the code following re
lay is operated at substantially equal “on” and 50 the individual impulses are of short duration as
compared with the durationbetween successive
“oir” periods.
Accordingly, a feature of my inventionvis the
provision of novel and improved means where
With a code following relay or device is operated
impulses of the same code. Also'that the dura
tion between successive impulses of current may
be different for different codes. To'illustrate
with substantially. equalA “on” and “oiiï’ periods 55." such-circumstances, it-may beLpointed'A out that
2
2,301,995
when a code rate of 180 impulses per minute or
3 impulses per second is used, each code cycle is
of substantially .33 second duration with current
tacts I4 and I5 because of the short duration or'
the code impulses of rail current.
The code following relay MRI controls a de
flowing (impulse of current) for, say, .05 second
coding relay DR, the circuit for decoding relay
and no current ilowing for the remaining portion Ul DR including one terminal of a battery I8, front
of the cycle or about .28 second. Again, if a cede
contact IS-I'l of relay MRI, winding of relay
rate of '75 impulses per minute or 11/5 impulses
per second is used, each code cycle is of .80 sec~
ond duration with current flowing for, say, .05
DR and the opposite terminal of battery I8.
De
coding relay DR is slow releasing in character
and when periodically energized it remains picked
second the same as before and no current iiowing 10 up from one energizing impulse to the next.
for substantially .'75 second. Again, the impulses
De
coding relay DR controls at its front contact I9
of current may be of either positive or negative
a signal circuit as desired.
polarity, the duration of the impulses and the
rate of occurrence being the same for the dii
ferent polarities. It will be understood, of course,
decoding relay DR receiving an energizing impulse
that I do not wish to limit my invention to the
code rates and duration of impulses cited above,
and that other rates and durations may be used.
The reference characters 4 and 5 designate two
It is clear that with
_of current only during the “on” period of code
»» following relay MRI, it may not be eliectively
energized because of the short period the relay
MRI is picked up. That is to say, it is desirable
that front contacts I3-I‘I of code following relay
MRI be retained closed for an interval long
train carried coils or inductors mounted on a
train in the usual manner in inductive relation
enough for the energization of decoding relay DR
ship with rails Ia and Ib, respectively. rI‘he two
inductors 4 and 5 are connected together in such
manner that the electromotive forces induced
therein in response to a code impulse of current
ilowing in the rails are additive, and the two coils
To increase the “on” period of code following
relay MRI so that the “on” period is substantially
are connected across the input terminals of a de
tector-amplifier DA by means of wires 5 and 1.
The detector-ampliñer DA may be of any one
of several well~known types and it is shown con- .
ventionally only for the sake of simplicity since
its speciñc structure forms no part of my inven
to build up to an eiîective value.
equal to the "oiT” period and a more satisfactory
control of decoding relay DR is effected, I provide
equalizing apparatus which retains the code iol
lowing relay MRI picked up for an interval
after the impulse of current applied to the pick
up winding 8 ceases. This equalizing apparatus
comprises condensers CI and C2, a charging re
sistor RI, a discharging resistor R2, a by-pass
resistor R3, holding winding 9 of relay MRI
tion. The detector-amplifier DA may be that
shown in the aforementioned Place application
and circuit connections with battery I8.
The equalizing apparatus can best be explained
Serial No. 222,883 where electron tubes of the
by describing its operation. During the “oli”
controlled ionization type are used with the tubes
period of relay lVIRI and its :back contact I2~-I4
normally non-conducting and rendered momen
tarily conductive in response to each of the
individual impulses of current flowing in the
track rails.
A train carried code following relay MRI of
closed, the condenser CI is charged from battery
the direct current neutral type is provided with
two windings, the iirst winding being a pick-up
winding 8 and the second windingr being a holding
winding 9. The pick-up winding 8 of relay MRI
is included in the output or anode circuit of de
of battery I8. Also, condenser C2 is charged by
tector-ampliner DA by means of wires I0 and
II. It follows that when no electromotive force
is being applied from inductors 4 and 5 across
23 and 2| and to the negative terminal of bat
tery I8. The quantity of charge created on con
densers CI and C2 depends, Within limits, on the
time back contact I2-I4 of relay MRI is closed.
With the polarity of battery I8 as indicated by
the input terminals of the detector-ampliñer DA,
no current flows in the output circuit thereof and
pick-up winding 8 of relay MRI is deenergized so
that the contact lingers I2 and I3 of that relay
fall by gravity into engagement with back con
tacts I4 and I5, respectively. At least there is
no attractive force applied to contact fingers I2
and I3 by magnetic ñux created by winding 8.
I8 by a circuit that can be traced from the posi
tive terminal of battery I8 over resistor RI,
back contact I2-I4 of relay MRI, wire 2l), con
denser CI, wire 2| and to the negative terminal
a circuit which includes the positive terminal of
battery I8, resistor RI, back contact I2-I4 of
relay MRI, Wire 20, condenser C2, resistor R3,
wire 22, holding winding 9 of relay MRI, wires
the plus and minus signs, the right-hand plate
of condenser CI and the lower plate of con
denser C2 as viewed in Fig. 1 are positive and
the left-hand plate of condenser CI and the top
plate of condenser C2 are negative.
When the pick-up winding 8 of relay MRI is
energized in response to a code impulse of rail
current and relay MRI is picked up opening back
When an electromotive force is applied from in
ductors 4 and 5 to the input terminals of detec
tor~ampliñer DA in response to an impulse of cur 60 Contact I2-I4 and closing front contact I2-I5,
the condensers CI and C2 are disconnected from
rent ñowing in the track rails, an impulse of
battery I8 and are connected with the holding
current momentarily iiows in winding 8 of relay
winding 9 of relay MRI for discharge there
MRI and that relay is energized to attract con
through, condenser C2 being also connected with
tact fingers I2 and I3 into engagement with re
a closed discharging circuit to be shortly de
spective front contacts I6 and I'I. Consequently,
scribed. The discharge current from condenser
the pick-up winding 8 of relay MRI is momen
CI tends to ilow from its positive plate over wire
tarily energized in response to each code impulse
28, front contact I2-IG of relay MRI, resistor
of the rail current and relay MRI is picked up
R2, wire 22, holding winding 9 and wire 23 to
and released once for each code impulse of cur- ,_ the negative plate of condenser CI. The dis
rent, the “on” period of relay MRI during which
charge current from condenser C2 tends to flow
Contact lingers I2 and I3 engage the respective
from its positive plate over wire 20, iront contact
front contacts i6 and Il being short as compared
I2~-I6 of relay MLRI, resistor R2, resistor R3 and
with the “ofi” period during which contact iin
to the negative plate of condenser C2. The dis
gers I2 and I 3 engage the respective back con 75 charge current from condenser C2 creates a volt~
3
2,301,995
age drop across resistor R2 which is of the same
polarity as the voltage drop across resistor R2 as
detector-amplifier DA in response to a code im
pulse of current flowing in the track rails, an
created by the discharge current from condenser
CI. Hence, the discharge from condenser C2 in
impulse of current momentarily flows in the
winding 24 of relay LR and that relay is picked
creases the total IR drop across resistor R2 and
such increase in the IR drop has the same effect
as an increase in its ohmic resistance as far as
, up opening back contact 25-21 and closing front
the discharge current of condenser Cl is con
cerned. ri‘his action delays the discharge of con
denser Ci. Condenser C2 is shortly discharged
relay MR are connected in parallel across the now
charged condenser C3. To be explicit, condenser
so that the IR drop across resistor R2 lessons and
condenser Ci then discharges more quickly. The
connection of winding 9 is such that the dis
charge current flowing therein creates a mag~
netiofflux that aids the flux created by the cur
rent impulse iiowing in pick-up winding 8. Con
sequently, the flux created by winding Si tends to
retain the relay MR! picked up. The parts are
so proportioned and adjusted that relay MRI is
retained picked up by means of ñux created
through holding winding t for a period after the
current impulse ceases t0 now in the pick-up
winding 8 and relay MR! is operated with sub~
stantially equal “on” and “oiî” periods. It the
code rate is that of 75 impulses per minute, the f
time back contact iii-_i4 of relay MRi is closed
is relatively long and the charges created on con
densers Ci and C2 are correspondingly large so
that relay MRi is retained picked up by the dis~
charge current through holding winding il for a
correspondingly long period and substantially
equal “on” and “oir” periods of operation of re
lay MRE obtains. Again, if the code rate is that
of 180 impulses per minute, the time baci; con
tact !‘¿-‘4 is closed is correspondingly short and
the charges built up on condensers Ci and C2 are
correspondingly small so that the discharge cur
contact 28-2ß~
With front contact 26
23 of
relay LR closed, condenser C4 and winding 2g of
, C3 discharges through condenser C4, resistor R1,
front contact 26--28 of relay LR and resistor R4;
and also through winding 29 of relay MR, resis
tors R5 and R1, front contact 2?-23 and re
sistor R4. Since the current impulse operating
`relay LR is short, that relay immediately re
leases to reconnect condenser C3 with battery IB.
The charge built up on condenser Cit now `dis
charges through winding 29 of relay MR and
resistor R5. Relay MR is thus picked up and
retained energized for an interval after the im
pulse of current from the detector~ampliñer DA
ceases to flow in winding 24 of relay LR and re
lay LR releases. Condenser Cê soon discharges
and relay MR is then released ready for the next
code impulse. The extent to which condenser C3
is charged depends, within limits, on the time
baci; Contact Zâ-«Z'i of relay LR is closed and
hence the charge built up on condenser C4 in re
sponse to the discharge from condenser C3 is pro
portional, within limits, to the rate at which re
lay LR is operated, with the result that the time
relay MR is retained energized in response to the
discharge from condenser C4 due to the charg
ing thereof by the discharge of condenser C3 is
greater for the slower code rate than for the
higher Code rate. In other words, the relay MR
is retained picked up for a longer period at the
lower code rate than at the higher code rate.
IV~ have found that with proper proportioning of
the parts the relay MR is operated with substan
tially equal “on” and “oii” periods at both the
75 and 180 code rates. Furthermore, I have found
that two code following relays when used as
shown in Fig. 2 give substantially equal “on”
and “oit” periods and critical adjustment in re
cies.
sistances and capacitors are not necessary. Also,
In Fig. 2, the train carried inductors 4 and 5
contact adjustments of the relays are not criti
are mounted in inductive relation with track rails
ia and Ib, and are connected with the input ter~
cal.
minals of detector-amplifier DA the same as in
It is to be pointed out that resistors R6 and Rl
Fig. l. In Fig. 2, the code following relay means 50 are provided to prevent sparldng at the contacts
consists of a first code following relay LR whose
of relay LR. Hence, it is clear that resistances
operating winding ‘24 is interposed in the output
R6 and Rl may be omitted if desired, 'I‘hat is
circuit of detector-amplifier DA, and a second
to say, the resistors R‘4, R6 and R1 of Fig. 2 may
code following relay MR which is controlled by
be combined into one resistance R4.
the first relay LR through equalizincr apparatus
Although I have herein shown and described
embodying my invention. The eoualizing appa
only two forms of apparatus embodying my in
ratus of Fig. 2 comprises condensers C3 and C4;
vention, is it understood that various changes and
rent retains relay MRi picked up after the cur~
rent impulse flowing in pick-up winding 8 ceases
is correspondingly short and substantiaily equal
“on” and “ofi” periods of relay MRI obtains.
Consequently, nearly equal “on” and “oiî” op~
eration periods of relay MR! are eiifected over
a relatively wide range of different code frequen
resistors R4, R5, Rb“ and Rl; and connections
with battery Iß, The code following relay MR
modifications may be made therein within the
terposed in a signal control circuit the same as
claim is:
l. In combination, a relay having a iirst and
a second winding and biased to a ñrst position
and operable to a second position when current
momentarily iiows in said ñrst winding, a ñrst
scope of the appended claims without departing
of Fig. 2 in turn controls at its front Contact 25 60 from the spirit and scope of my invention.
decoding relay DR whose front contact I8 is in
Having thus described my invention, what I
in Fig. 1.
When no electromotive force is supplied from
inductors 4 and 5 to the input terminals of de
toeter-amplifier DA of Fig. 2, no current ñovvs in
the output circuit thereof and relay LR is de~
energized closing its back contact 26 21. With
relay LR thus released, condenser C3 is charged
and a second condenser, a source of direct cur
rent, a resistor, means including a Contact of the
relay closed at said first position to connect said
from battery I8 over a simple circuit which in 70 condensers with said source to charge the con
cludes positive terminal of battery IS, resistor
densers in parallel, means including said resistor
R6, back contact '2E-_21 of relay LR, resistor R4,
and a contact of the relay closed at said second
condenser C3 and negative terminal of battery
i8. When an electromotive force is applied from
inductors 4 and E across the input terminals of
position to connect said first condenser with said
second winding for energizing said relay after
current ceases to now in the first winding, and
4
2,301,995
said second condenser connected across said re
sistor over said last mentioned relay contact to
prolong the discharge of the first condenser
second Winding to retain the Contact at its seo
ond position due to the discharge of the first
condenser once said contact has been operated
through said second Winding.
to said second position due to energization of said
2. In combination, a relay having a first and a
second Winding and biased to a first position and
first Winding, and said second condenser con
operable to a second position when current mo
mentarily flows in said ?rst Winding, a first and a
second condenser, a source of direct current, a
ond position oi said contact to control the rate at
Which said ñrst condenser is discharged through
nected across said second resistor over said sec
the second Winding,
`
first and a second resistor, means including said 10
4. In combination, a two winding relay biased
first resistor and a ñrst position contact of said
to a first position and operable to a second posi
relay to connect said source with said condensers
to charge said condensers in parallel, means in
tion when either one or both of its windings are
energized, means connected to one of said Wind
cluding said second resistor and a second position
ings to momentarily energize said one Winding to
contact of said relay to connect said ñrst cori 15 operate the relay, a ñrst and a second condenser,
donser with said second Winding to energize the
a first, a second and a third resistor, a source of
relay, and said second condenser connected across
direct current, a ñrst circuit including a biased
said second resistor over the last mentioned relay
position contact of said relay and said first re
Contact to increase the voltage drop across that
sistor to connect said direct current source to said
resistor by the discharge from said second con
first condenser to charge the ñrst condenser, said
denser to prolong the energization of said relay 20 second condenser in series with said third re
by the discharge from said first condenser,
sistor and the other one of said windings con
3. In combination, a relay having a first and
nected in parallel with said ñrst condenser to
a second winding and a circuit controlling con
charge the second condenser by said ñrst circuit,
tact biased to a ñrst position and operable to a
a second circuit including an operated position
second position when either or both of said -»vin/i 25 contact of the relay and said second resistor to
ings are energized, a ñrst and a second condenser,
connect said first condenser to said other Wind
a source ol direct current, a ñi'st and a second
resistor; a first circuit including said first resistor
and said ñrst position of said contact to connect
ing to energize said other Winding by the dis
charge of the ñrst condenser to retain the relay
at its operated position, and said second con
said source or” direct current across said ñrst con
denser in series with said third resistor connected
denser to charge the first condenser, said second
across said second resistor over said operated po
condenser in series with said second Winding con
sition contact of the relay to increase the voltage
nected across said ñrst condenser to charge said
drop across the second resistor due to the dis
second condenser in parallel with said ñrst con 35 charge of the second condenser to prolong the
denser by said ñrst circuit, a second circuit in
energization of said other winding by the dis
cluding said second resistor and said second posi
charge of the ñrst condenser.
tion of said contact to connect said first con
denser to said second Winding to energize the
CARL M. BACKER.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
670 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа