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Патент USA US2360707

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Oct l7, 1944-
I.A E. MouRoMTsEFF ET AL
2,360,707
ELECTRON DI SCHARGE DEVICE
Filed Feb. 14, 1942
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f4' Ameli/ua:
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2,360,707
Patented Oct. 17, 1944
UNITED STATES PATENT oFFIcE
2,360,707
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Ilia E. Mouromtseff, Montclair, and George
M. Dinnick, Bloomfield, N. J., assignors to
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Gom
pany, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of
` Pennsylvania
Application February 14, 1942, Serial No. 430,918
8 Claims.
(Cl.
Z50-27.5)
v
material and the carrying of the same to the
.grid or opposite anode or cathode electrode sur
This invention relates to electrical discharge
devices and more particularly to such devices
face, thereby materially affecting vthe stability
of the type employed in the radio iield and still
of the electrical characteristics of the device,
more particularly to such devices employing an
lowering the operating eñiciency of the same,
ode and cathode electrodes, the surfaces of at
and in many instances materially shortening the
least one of which are covered with relatively
operating life of the device.
loose material presenting a roughened surface
We have found that devices incorporating
to the electrical forces passing thereto during
cathodes of the v thermionically active oxide
operation of the device.
One of the objects of the present invention is 10 coated type are particularly subject to the de
fect hereinabove described. We have further
to prevent disintegration of the roughened sur
found that devices incorporating anodes either
faces of the said electrodes.
surfacd with carbon or comprised of carbon
Another object is to prevent electrostatic
. (graphite) also are particularly subject to the
sparking on the said roughened surfaces of the
said electrodes.
defect hereinabove described; and that devices
'
incorporating both oxide coated cathodes and
Still another object is to improve the stability
and operating efficiency of electrical devices in
carbon or graphite surfaced anodes are more
particularly subject to the defect hereinabove de
scribed.
face of at least-one of which is comprised of
relatively loose material presenting a roughened 20 As a specific embodiment of the present in
vention, but not as a limitation thereof, the
surface to the electrical forces passing thereto
adaptation of the same to an electrical discharge
during operation of the device.
deivce incorporating an oxide coated cathode
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
and a carbon or graphite anode will be described.
as the invention is more fully hereinafter dis
cluding anode and cathode electrodes the sur
25 Such a device is known in the art as a mag
netron, high voltage transmitting tube,~ or other
In accordance with these objects we have dis
wise, according to its detail structure. `
covered that the stability and operating effi
For further disclosure of the present inven
ciency of electron discharge devices of the gen
tion reference should be made to the accompany
eral type known in the art as radio tubes which
include anode and cathode electrodes at least 30 ing drawing wherein
Fig. 1 is a broken-away side elevational view of
one of which is surfaced with relatively loose
a typical electrode assembly of an electric dis
material presenting a rough or uneven surface
charge device adapted for use in the radio ñeld;
to the electrical discharges passing therebetween
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the same along
are markedly improved by use of the present in
closed.
vention. This improvement is accomplished by
disposing in front of the said roughened or un
even surface an electrostatic shield member com
prised of highly refractory metal, such as tung
sten, tantalum and molybdenum. Said shield
35
plane 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a similar sectional view iucstrating v
the improved anode electrode of the present in
vention; '
Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary view illus
is provided with a plurality of' openings therein 40 trating the improved cathode .electrode of the
present invention, and
and is preferably highly foraminous for the sub
Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional view of the
stantially free and unobstructed passage of elec
trons therethrough and is electrically connected
same.
The electric discharge device of the type illus
to the electrode over the surface of which it
is disposed to„be at substantially the same elec 45 trated customarily comprises an envelope (not
shown) provided with a re-entrant stem I0 ex
trical potential.
`
tending upwardly into said envelope and termi
It is known that the electrostatic forces with
nating in a press I in-whîch are secured and
in an electricalV discharge -device between the
through which extend a plurality of leading-in
anode and cathode electrodes tends to concen
trate on the high spots of the electrode surfaces 50 wires I2, I3 and I4 to the interior of the en
velope, and on which is sustained an electrode as
and we have found that where-the electrode sur
sembly consisting of an oxide coated cathode C,
face consists of relatively loose particles of ma
a metallic grid G and anode A, which may be
terial the electrostatic forces during tube opera
of carbon or graphite.
tion are suiiîcient to cause at least progressive
dislodgement of the projecting particles of loose 55 The electrode assembly and sustaining means
2
2,360,707
therefor may be identified as comprising a flex
extensions of the anode.
ible metallic band I5 wrapped around the stem
insulator32, similar t0 the spacer I9, also has
openings therein adapted to accommodate the
standards I1 which extend therethrough and
project irpwardly therefrom.
ID below the press thereof and in írictional en
gagement therewith by means of the nut and bolt
arrangement I6. At one side of said press are
a plurality of standards I1 and I8 whichrare
A cruciform spacer or
The spacer 32 has openings adapted to ac
commodate the conductors 20 and 23 which
extend therethrough. Short cross bars 33 are
welded to the upper portion of the conductor 28
ards are secured to said band at the other side
of said press. The standards I1 and I8 con 10 immediately adjacent and above the insulator
Welded to said band I5 and extend upwardly in
said envelope. A corresponding pair of stand
32, A cross bar is also welded to the lower p0r
tion of the conductor 23 immediately adjacent
tion where the standard I8 terminates. The
and below the spacer I9. Hooks 29, which sup
standard I1 has the major portion thereof ex
port the upper bights of the ñlament, have the
tending upwardly in said envelope and substan
tially parallel to the longitudinalv axis thereof 15 shanks thereof integral with springs which rest
in small recesses in the upper face of the insu
an appreciable distance above the upward limit
lator 32, with the shanks thereof extending
> of the standard I8.
through openings in said insulators.
A cruciform spacer or insulator I9 having dia
Resting upon the insulator 32 and adjacent
metrically disposed openings in one of the cross
arms thereof has the upper portion of the stand 20 the outer portions thereof and welded to each of
the standards I1 above the insulator is an in
ardsI I1 extending through these openings, with
verted U-shaped rod 35 having the sides thereof
the cross arm of the spacer I9 resting upon the.
welded to the standards I1 and I8 at the places
upper limit of the standards I8. The other cross
where the sides of said U-shaped rods and stand
arm of the Spacer I9 has a plurality of openings
therein adapted to accommodate conductors and 25 ards intersect. A conductor 3E is electrically
connected to one of the standards I1 and is
supports 20, 2|, 22 and 23. A suitably sized wire
hermetically sealed to a portion of the envelope
is helically wound and placed around the con
other than the press and extends exteriorly of
ductors 20, 23, and serves as the grid element
said envelope to form a terminal for the anode.
G of the tube. An M-shaped filament C hav
Cathode C is an oxide coated cathode and
ing its ends secured to the conductors 2l and 22
consists of either a round or flat electrically con
and having its upper bight portions secured to a
ducting metal base (b1) surfaced with a ther
pair of hooks serves as the cathode element. A
mionically active coating (c), as indicated in
small shallow carbon disc 24 having a circular
Figs. 4 and 5, and in the present showing is
opening therein is mounted on each of thev
35 IVI-shaped.
standards I1.
The improvement of the present invention con
A rigid composite unitary anode A surrounds
sists in the provision of electrostatic shields
the grid G and cathode C. The anode A com
SS’ disposed on opposite sides of grid electrode
prises an elongated hollow member consisting of
G and closely adjacent the facing surfaces of
two ñat sides 26 of sufficient width and arranged
parallel to eachI other and integral with two 40 anode and cathode electrodes A and C respec
tively.
curved portions 21 forming the other sides. A
In accordance with the present invention, the
cross sectional view of said anode A, at right
relatively rough and uneven surfaces of each of
angles to its major- axis, is in the form of a
the electrodes A and C are protected from the
rectangle having rounded- ends' as indicated in
Figs. 2 and 3. At the mid-width of each of 45 deleterious effect of the electrostatic forces
within the device by electrostatic shieldsV S-S’
said ñat sides and extending along the entire
comprised of refractory metallic material, such
length thereof are outwardly extending lateral
as tungsten, tantalum and molybdenum. Elec
extensions 30. Each extension 30 is of appre
trostatic shields S-S’ may be helically wound
ciable cross-sectional area and has a longitudi
nally disposed opening 3| along the entire length 50 coils, substantially as shown, or, alternatively,
may consist of wire mesh material.
thereof parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof.
We have found that by providing electrostatic
The carbon or graphite anode A, which is a
shields S-S’ in front of the rough surfaced
single element structure, per se; forms no part
anode and cathode electrodes the field lines of
of the present invention except in combination
with the electrostatic shield means of the pres 55 the electrostatic ñeld between vthe electrodes A
and C concentrate thereon and prevent or inhibit
ent invention. It may be readily- formed by- a
the pulling olf of loose or projecting particles of
machining operation or it may be` manufactured
by extruding a suitable plastic of graphite and
material from the said anode and cathode sur
faces and the migration of these loosened par
easily carbonizable binder after which extrusion
step the plastic element may be> ñred to com 60 ticles to the surface of the opposite electrode or
plete carbonization and dryness as heretofore dis
to the surface of grid electrode G.
closed in the art. This composite unitary anode
In any given adaptation the present inven
is composed essentially of graphite for good heat
tion employs an electrostatic shield consisting of
radiating properties which is one of the desir
a helically wound coil of refractory metal. The
able features of an anode.
particular wire diameter and spacing between
The anode A, as heretofore described, may be
the coil turns may be varied widely without es
readily assembled on the assembly by merely
sential departure from the present invention and
sliding the standards, such as I1, through the
in general the spacing between the coil turns
longitudinally disposed openings 3| therein.- The
is relative to the electrostatic field normally
diameter of the openings 3l is substantially the 70 present in the device. We have found that for
same as that of the standards I1. A small shal
most purposes the spacing between the wire
low disc 24', the same type as the discs hereto
turns should not exceed twice the diameter of
i‘ore described, has openings therein through
the wire comprising the shield S and for most
which the upper portion of the standards l1 ex
purposes a wire diameter of 2 to 10 mils is
tend so that these discs rest upon the lateral 75 adequate for the present invention. As in most
verge and are welded to each other at that por
2,360,707"
electrical discharge devices of the type herein
above described the spacing between the cath
ode grid and anode electrodes is closely con
trolled, in general wehave found it preferable
3
face of, and electrically connected to, the said
electrode having the projecting particles, said
electrostatic shield being non-emissive and pro
jecting from said surface of said electrode having
the projecting particles and thereby providing for
the location on said electrostatic shield of the
electrostatic lines of force in preference to the
to employ relatively small wire diameter with a
large number of coils turns per unit area.
In most instances we have found that it is
location. of said lines of force on said electrode
sufñcient for the purposes of the present inven
surface havingthe projecting particles, and said
tion to dispose the shields S-S’ in close contact
with the anode and cathode surfaces substantial 10 electrostatic shield providing for the passage
therethrough of electrons to and from said elec
ly as illustrated. Where the electrostatic forces
trode surface having the projecting particles.
are relatively high, however, close spaced relation
. 3. An electric discharge device including spaced
ship of the shield to the electrode surface is pre
anode and cathode electrodes the surface of one
ferred with one end of the shield electrically
connected to the anode or cathode so that the 15 of which electrodes is covered in part with loose
and outwardly projecting particles of material
shield S-S’ will be of the same electric potential
subject to being removed therefrom by the elec
as the anode or cathode.
trostatic forces between the two said electrodes,
In electric discharge devices of the type illus
means to prevent the removal of said particles of
trated wherein anode A is comprised of metal
and cathode C is surfaced with thermionically 20 material, said means comprising an electrostatic
shield comprised of a helically wound wire coil
active material such as an oxide coating, shield
having a coil-turn spacing and extending in con
S next the anode may be dispensed with and only
tact for its full length with said electrode having
shield S’ next the cathode employed. In electric
the projecting particles, said coil being of highly
discharge devices of the type illustrated, wherein
cathode C is comprised of thermionically active 25 refractory non-emissive metal and being electri
cally connected to said electrode having the pro
metal and anode A is surfaced with, or comprised
jecting particles, said coil having its convolutions
of, carbon or graphite, shield S’ may be dispensed
exposed in front of said electrode having the
with and shield S only employed to protect the
projecting particles and in front of said projecting
surface of anode A.
Having hereinabove described the present in 30 particles, said coil providing for the location
thereon of the electrostatic lines of force in front
vention generalically and speciñcally, and given
of said electrode surface having the projecting
one specific embodiment thereof, it is believed ap
particles and in front of said particles in pref
parent that the same may be widely varied With
erence to the location of said lines of force on the
out essential departure therefrom and all such
modifications and departures are contemplated 35 said electrode surface having the projecting par
ticles, and said coil providing for the passage be
as may fall »within the scope of the following
tween the convolutions thereof of electrons to
claims.
and from said electrode surface having the pro
We claim:
jecting particles.
1. An electric discharge device including spaced
4. An electric discharge device comprising a
anode and cathode electrodes the surface of one 40
cathode electrode, an anode electrode comprised
of which electrodes is covered in part with loose
of carbon, and an electrostatic shield member dis
and outwardly projecting particles of material
posed in front of the anode electrode and in con
subject to being removed therefrom by the elec
tinuous contact for the entire length of the shield
trostatic forces between the two said electrodes,
means to prevent the removal of said particles of 45 member .with the surface of the said anode,
electrode and electrically connected therewith,
material, said means comprising an electrostatic
said shield member consisting of a highly refrac
shield comprised of a refractory metallic mate
tory' non-emissive metal and having a plurality
rial disposed in continuous contact throughout
of openings therethrough for the passage there
its length and exposed in front of the surface of,
and electrically connected to, the said electrode . 50 through from one electrode surface to the other
electrode surface.
having the projecting particles, said electrostatic
5. An electric discharge device comprising a
shield being non-emissive and projecting from
cathode electrode provided with an electron emis
said surface of said electrode having the project
sive surface consisting of relatively loosely ad
ing particles and thereby providing for the loca
tion on said electrostatic shield of the electro 55 herent material and an electrostatic shield mem
ber substantially in its entirety overlying and
static lines of force in preference to the location.
. exposed in front of and extending from end to
of said lines of force on said electrode surface
end of the surface of said electron emissive sur
having the projecting particles, and said electro
face and in contact therewith throughout the
static shield providing for the passage there
through of electrons to and from said electrode 60 length of said shield member and electrically con
surface having the projecting particles.
nected to the electrode, said shield member con
sisting of highly refractory non-emissive metal
2. An electric discharge device including spaced
and having a plurality of openings therethrough
anode and cathode electrodes the surface of one
of which electrodes is covered in part with loose
for the free passage of electrons to and from the
k
and outwardly projecting particles of material 65 electrode surface.
subject to being removed therefrom by the elec
6. An electric discharge device having a therm
ionically active cathode, a grid electrode enclosing
trostatic forces between the two said electrodes,
means to prevent the removal of said particles
the cathode and an anode electrode having a sur
face consisting of carbon and graphite particles,
of material, said means comprising an electro
static shield comprised of a refractory non 70 said anode surrounding the said grid electrode, an
emissive metallic material selected from the group
electrostatic shield means disposed in front of and
of tungsten, tantalum and molybdenum disposed
extending from end to end of the anode surface
in continuous contact throughout its length
and in electrical contact with the said anode
against and exposed in greater part in front of
throughout the length of said shield means, said
said projecting particles and in front of the sur 75 shield means having ya plurality of openings there
4
'2,360,707
through for the substantially free passage of
electrons therethrough to the anode surface.
ing the cathode and an anode electrode sur
rounding the said grid electrode, the said anode
'7. An electric discharge device having a cath
and cathode surfaces each being covered with
ode surfaced lWith relatiwely loosely adherent
loosely adherent particles of material presenting
thermionically emissive material, a grid electrode
a relatively uneven surface to the electrical dis
charge between the two electrodes, an electro
static shield means disposed over the anode sur
enclosing the cathode, and an anode electrode
surrounding the said grid electrode, an electro
face and in electrical contact with the said anode,
static shield means disposed substantially in its
and an electrostatic shield means disposed over
entirety in front of and extending from end to
end of the emissive surface of the cathode and in 10 the cathode surface and in electrical contact
with the said cathode, each said shield means
electrical contact at the under part only of the
projecting substantially in its entirety in front
shield means With the said emissive surface of
of its respective electrode on which it is disposed
the cathode throughout the length of said shield
and each said shield means being provided With
means, said shield means providing openings
therethrough for the substantially free passage of 15 openings therein for the substantially free pass
age of an electron current therethrough.
electrons from the emissive surface of the cathode
to the said anode.
ILIA E. MOUROMTSEFF.
8. An electric discharge device having a therm
GEORGE M. DINNICK.
'
ionically active cathode, a grid electrode enclos
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