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Патент USA US2360808

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Oct. 17, 1944.
Filed Opt; 15, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Oc't. 17, 1944.
Filed ‘(J-0t. 15, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
/6 207
Oscar 27- M15 Q7",
Jose/s75 TMilJLa/H
Patented Oct. 17, ‘1944
Oscar J. Wilbor and 'Joseph T. Misiak, Chicago,
Ill.,- assignors to Chicago By-Products Corpo
ration, Chicago, 111.,» a corporation of Illinois
Application October 13,1941, Serial No. 414,734
I 1 1 Claim. ‘ (01. 209-90)
The present invention relatesto ore separators
and more particularly to ore separators of a
driven turn-table type for the separation of
ing to thickness. This fact.
substantially tablet-like or ?ake-like material
from solid material whose three dimensions are
more nearly equal.
bath with ?akes of widely] varying thicknesses
since the thinner ones, when through this treat
ment, lie. in the bath taking up the space Where
Though our invention is adapted .to-separate
any substantially ?ake-like material from lumped
material in ores, it was developed speci?cally for
action on such natural ores as “Nermiculite,”
“Biotite,” Je?’ersite” and the like. These ores
comprise layers or ?akes of silica inter-laid with
earthy material. When such ore is leached‘ with
‘quite apparent
when one considers that the thinner ?akes may
be fully treated in 6-8 hours and thicker ?akes or
I tabletsv not completely leached in twice that time.
Since that is so, it is wasteful to fill the acid
further unleached material could otherwise be
Our invention, therefore, contemplates means
for separating the ?akes or tablet-like material
from rock while simultaneously classifying or
sulphuric acid, the earthy material is dissolved
separating such ?akes according to thickness‘.
and the thin silica ?akes remain. The resulting 15 These and other objects and‘ advantages of the 7
product goes by the name of “Lamisilite” and its
present invention will be apparent to those skilled
production and properties are ‘fully set forth in
in the art after a“ consideration of the following
the patent to one of present applicants andhis
detailed description; taken in conjunction with
co-inventor in Patent No. 1,898,774.
the accompanying drawings, in which:
‘ ~
This “Lamisilite” has great adsorptive powers, 20 , Figure 1 is a plan view of the ore separator
adsorbing as much as 20% of its weight in ‘mois
with the hopper cut away along the 'lines l-l
ture. For commercial production, then, it is es
of Figure 2;
sential to separate the ?at ?akes or tablets, which
have a certain amount of earthy material; in
them, from the lumps of rock and earthy material
of the crushed ore.
wall as one traces said gap around ‘the four di
visions of the circumference of said retaining
Figure 4 is a diagram indicating the varying
width ‘of the discharge gaps when two turn
aration must take frequent rest periods for the
tables are used in series, the-dotted lines which
' lead down from the upper gapindicating the
tion was therefore necessary since the tablets or
, ?akes, after this separation, must be treated for
discharge of the material in compartment IV to
the lower turn-table;
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic longitudinal sec
tion of an ore separator having‘two turn-tables
a certain length of time in baths of sulphuric acid
to eat out or dissolve the earthy material scat
tered through the minute interstices of the ?akes.
If much rock is put in the sulphuric acid, less
commercial productresults," for the rock takes up
width of the discharge gap between the edge of
the two materials are of substantially the same
color much of the time. Workers doing such sepT
. A faster and more accurate method of separa
' r
the rotating turn-table and adjacent retaining
curate because the glare of either arti?cial or
the lines 2—2 of Figure 1;’
Hand separation is slow, and it is often inac
protection‘ of their eyes.
25 I ‘Figure 3 .is a diagram indicating the varying
real light re?ected from both the ?akes and the
rock tends to affect the workers’ eyesight. Also
_ Figure 2 is a longitudinal section taken along
in series’; and
the space of the’ tablets or ?akes‘and the acid
must take more rock and earthylmaterlal into
Figure 6 is a perspective view of the tablet
like ?akes compared with other material which ‘
has "its three dimensions substantially equal to
the smallest dimension , of these ?akes.- ‘The
representation is about two times normal size.
solution, thus reducing the acid’s e?ectiveness and
I Referring now to Figures land 2, numeral 5
speed of action on subsequent batches or ma.
terial. Consequently, one of applicants’ aims was
to obtain ‘rock-free'batches of ?akes in greater
indicates generallythe stand for supporting the
separator mechanism. f'I'he‘numerals Bindicate
- the feet of the stand 5,‘ and ‘l‘indicates theup
quantities and in shorter periods of time.,
rightsv'to which are clamped the hopper '9', the
,_ A second aim was to speed up the leaching 50 retaining wall I 0 and the outer'wall 'l I. ‘ Brackets
process. Flakesof- greater thickness require a
l2 and I 3 support the o're'chute‘ld below the
greater length of time foracid treatment than
do the thinner ?akes. Therefore, it was neces
sary after separation of therock from the ?akes,
to further separate the ?akes or tablets accord 55
discharge mouth l5 offthehopper?whereby ore
?ows from the hopper into ,the' chutei_l4 and
thence on to the outeredge of’ the turn-vtable
_l6.~ A' rubber strip H is fastened‘ to and'de
. 2,360,808
33 on the axle extension 22 to rotate and stir
pends from the inside lower edge of the retaining
the ore so that it will continuously pass by force
wall [0. The turn-table l6 has a diameter
of gravity through the discharge mouth l5 of the
slightly greater than that of the wall II). There
hopper 9 into the chute l4 and thence onto the
is a discharge gap 20 between the strip l1 and
Gr outer edge of the rapidly rotating (about 63
the race of the table “5.
This gap varies in
R. P. M.) turn-table Hi.
Width as it passes completely around the wall In.
It will be~remembered
that the gap 20 is its narrowest just opposite the
The chute I4 discharges to the turn-table l6
discharge end of the chute l4. As- soon‘ as the
adjacent the narrowest part of the discharge gap
ore falls onto the turn-table, it. instantly slides
20 whence the-rotation of the table 16 carries
or rolls toward the gap between the rubber strip
the material-to-be-separated past the increas
IT and the turn-table l6 due to centrifugal force
ingly widening portions of the gap 20 during‘
of the turn-table I6. The thinnest ?akes in
each revolution of the table IS.
stantly slip through the narrowest portion of
The turn-table I6 is mounted on the axle 2|
the gap, strike the outer wall II or ba?les 34,
drop to.a slide 35 and slide to a hole 36 and
thence‘to acontainer 31. When the ore comes
down the chute l4, some of the ?at ?akes are
of'such a substantially circular shape that they
may, on reaching the turn-table I6, land on their
thin edge and start to rolllike a wheel. The
centrifugal force will immediately cause them
to rollover to the retaining wall 10 where they
which also bears an upper extension 22v and a
pulley wheel 23. The pulley wheel 23 is driven
from a motor 25 through a gear reducer 26',
' pulley-wheel 21 and pulley belt 24.‘ Said pulley!
wheel 23 drives the axle 2| which is borne in
an end bearing 30 and a journal 3| which forms
a part of the cross-bars of. the stand 5. The ex
tension 22 of the axle 2| passes through a close
?tting hole of the chute l4 and extends up
through‘ the discharge mouth‘ 15 and into the
will rub along the wall tending to rotate in the
direction of the turn-table but at a much lesser
speed. If the retaining wall were just sheet
metal without any rubber strip; these rolling
hopper I0. Across piece 33 fastened to the eX
tension 22 rotates‘ with the driven axle 2| and
prevents the ore in the hopper 9 from stopping
?akes would have a tendency to» rub along them
for such a period of time that they would roll
up the discharge mouth l5.
' The outer wall H stops the peripheral dis
past the proper portion of‘ the discharge gap.
charge of the ?akes which are driven off the edge
So to stop these ?akes which come rolling down
of the rotating turn-table l6 through the gap 20' 30 the chute l4 we have used the-rubber strip I‘!
by centrifugal force. The space surrounding the
which has the tendency, due-to friction, to both
gap—-i. e., the space between the outer wall II
and retaining wall Ill-is, in the illustrated de
stopthe rolling ?akes and to immediately knock
them over ?at so-that they will slip through the
vice,v divided into four equal compartments M1
by ba?ies 34. In each compartment so formed
between said baffles are oppositely inclined slides
35'. each of‘ which lead downwardly to a hole 36
through which the ?akes drop to be caught in
containers 3'! .
To more clearly explain the action of our in
gap 20' at the position corresponding to their
compartments could'be used-to classify the ?akes
if desired. A tabulated experiment Of a machine
40 with ?ve such compartments will follow shortly.
At the same instant and atthe same spot where
the thinnest ?akes are shotv out through the gap,
the thicker ?akes and rocks strike the strip I‘!
vention, we willnow describe a sample operation
of the illustrated device.
Itis apparent, of course, that more than four
The raw ore is ?rst crushed.“ This results in a
mixed mass of rock and ?akes. Nearly all of
these ?akes are flatland substantially round; the
average diameter ‘being about one-half inch and
the average thickness about 2/64 to %4_inch. There
are thinner ?akes and thicker onesi. The‘thick
est ones being“ about 1%.; inch through. The rock
is all, with a minute exception, more nearly equal
but can’t get through. They therefore rapidly
been distributed into thefo'ur compartments and
containers and graded according to thickness.
Since the chute‘ I 4'is made to discharge-outwardly
from the center of the turn-table l6 and at its
periphery at the point where the gap 20 is nar;
rowest, and since the table 16* is rotatedrvery
inits three dimensions. The greatest part of) it
has a diameter greater than the thickness of the
thickest tablets or ?akes. A certain small pro
portion of the rock‘ is made up of dust and gran
ules whose diameter is about that" of the thick
travel along said strip l‘! in the direction of rota
tion of the turn-table until the gap widens
enough to let them through. At the end of one
rotation then the original‘batch of ore ‘will have
rapidly the ?akes will' be flung against the gap
or strip I‘! immediately upon reaching the turn,
table. Therefore the thinner‘ ?akes will not have
bits of rock are substantially equal in their three
time to ride around and be discharged with the
dimensions, whereas the ?akes (even the smallest
thicker flakes at a point wherefthe gap 20 is
ones) are wider than the diameter of, these rocks,
Otherwise; most‘of the ?akes, both thick
the ‘small particles of ‘rock may be initially
and thin, would fall into the compartment hav
screened out by a screen with a suitable mesh.
ing the widest gap openingrinto it. In-operation,
This will prevent such rock material from being
of course, a certain small portion of the ?akes
classi?ed by our machine along with the desired
are carried along and'?ung' into a compartment
?akes or tablets.
Figure 6 compares the shape of the ?akes and 65 where'the gap is a sizelarger than the thickness
of the ?akes. Butthishappens to a very small
rocky material just above described. The illus
ness of the various tablets. But since these small
tration is about two times life size.
percentage of ‘the ?akes.
Since the hopper 9 ‘is full to begin- with, a
continuous discharge of'ore is made to the turn-'
crushed ore to get rid of the smaller rock par
ticles and... rock dust. This screening will result 70 table I5" via the chute’ [4. This separation» con
' ‘Therefore, the ?rst step is to screen the
in only‘ the most‘ minute bits of ?akes being
screened out, which loss is negligible. The re
maining mixture is then dumped into the hopper
9. Then- the motor'25' is started'andthis causes
‘the turn-table l6v to revolve'and‘the cross-bar
tinues as long as ore remains in or is fed'to the
hopper. When the operation ceases,v there will
be four sizes of ?akesv in the, four containers.
Inthe last container there will-be a mixture of
rock and thick ?akes.- This mixture may be
‘mixed with a'new‘ batch ‘of ore which is intro
bouncing of I the ore and‘ thus release "more
duced tofthe hopper 9. '
?akes.‘ Furthermoravsuch of the thin ?akes as
In Figure 3 the retaining wall l0 and its rubber
strip I‘! have been cut through right at the point -
where~ the left-hand baf?e 34 (Figure 1) touches
the ‘wall l0, and then unfolded and laid ?at
against the sheet of drawings.
not the same as in Figure 1.‘)
(The scale is
TheRoman nu
accidently were cast into compartment IV will
be reclassi?ed properly upon‘being repassed. ~
Since this repassing produces over seven pounds
of ?akes having less than 1% rock content, we
found it desirable to construct a separator having
two turn-tables as represented diagrammatically
meral ‘I is at the left of Figure 3 and represents
the compartment I of Figure 1. As will be seen
from the chart, the gap 20 increases in width,
from left to right, i. e., clockwise starting from
the left hand ba?ie 34 of Figure 1. The distance
between the strip l1 and the turn-table I 6 for
the illustrated device is'0nly 1%4" at the left of
the chart but increases to'1%4" or it""at the
by Figure 5. The upper turn-table» l6 and the
secondary tum-table l6’ are both fastened to the
same axle 2|. Compartments I, II, and III of the
upper table [5 discharge directly into containers
such as 31 (see in the illustration the catching of
?akes from compartment II). But compartment
IV dischargesdown the slide 38-onto the turn
right side. From left to ‘right on Figure 3 rep
resents the complete circle of the wall It) and
reclassi?ed into compartments V, VI, VII and VIII
surrounding the retaining wall I 0’. The ?akes
slide from compartments V, VI, VII'and VIII
table l6’ whence the size #4 ?akes and rock are
the vertical dot-dash lines represent the places
along such Wall'where the ba?le plates “form 20 down slides such as 35' into containers such as
the four compartments into which the ?akes are I
31'. It will be noted that the size #4 ?akes are
dropped on the periphery of the secondary turn
In an actual test run on one ore separator
table I6’ adjacent the'qnarrowest part of the gap .
(having ?ve compartments instead of four) we
-20'_ between the strip I1’ and table I6" just as is
used ‘100 pounds of, sieved ore and fed it at a 25 done for the upper turn-table.
speed of ?ve pounds per minute (300 lbs. per hr.). '
Referring now to the diagram in Figure 4 which
The rock content of‘ this ore was 4.55%. Now - is comparable to Figure 3 except that two retain
prior to development‘ of this separator it took
ing walls,‘ two rubber strips, two gaps and two
each individual man over eight hours to separate
turn-tables are shown. Thegap 20' may corre
one hundred pounds of the orefand no worker 30 spond in size to that of gap 20 ormay be larger.
(There is no object in making the gap smaller
could be allowed to work more than six hours
since the contents of compartment IV consist of
a day. In twenty minutes with our machine We
separated the 100 pounds as follows:
rocks and thick ?akes.) For‘example, for com
partment V thegap may'correspond in size to the
Corresponding to—— Pounds
35 gap of compartment II of the upper'turn-table.
Remarks '
In practice this last-mentioned plan is used for
Compartment I...
8. 77
Compartment IL.
41. 76
Compartment III.
Compartment IV.
Compartment V1 .
25. 57
12. 31
ll. 59
0.15% rock.
5.15% rock.
35. 75% rock.
such of the thinnest ?akes as failed to pass origi
Practically rock free.
nally into compartmentyI generally have slipped
into compartment II or III so that the ?akes in
compartment IV, which are the ?akes to be re
passed, contain none or practically none of the -
1 in the illustrated device there are only four compartments.
?akes that'should have passed into compartment
I. The gap 20' then may be about'%4" at its
Sizes'#1', 2, and 3~were ready for leaching at
smallest end and increase to about 1%.!’ or 1A.”.
once in separate baths of acid. Size ‘#1 leaches
more quickly than the others for the ?akes ar V45 So the ?akes from‘comxpartments II and V would
be combined as would those from III and VI.
Then We took size #4=12.31 lbs. and the re
The material inv compartment VII could then be
mixed with fresh ore and that from compartment
the thinnest of themall.
J'ects=11.59 lbs. and repassed the mixture; we
VIII could be discarded.
Ore. used‘________________ __- _______ __'_ 23.90 lbs.
Feeding speed________ 2 lbs/min. (120 lbs/hr.) ‘
Rock content
It will be clear from the above, that the classi
?er and separator of our invention comprises a
retaining wall and a subjacent supporting surface
de?ning between them a gap or slot increasing in
Size #1_-_______.__',__ 0.51 lb. vpractically rock free
height in one ‘direction, the supporting surface be
Size #2 _________ __ 1.93 lbs. practically rock free 55
ing driven in one direction such that, during
Size #3 _________________ __ 4.77 lbs. 0.89% rock‘
travel thereof the ?at pieces of material lying
Size #4__________________._ 6.85 lbs. 5.27 %.rock
thereon are constantly urged toward the wall and
Rejects ________________ __ 9.84 lbs. 41.75% rock
held in edgewise contact therewith and are con
tinuously moved along the wall in the direction of
As thepieces of
material reach the areas of the slot through
If these quantities are combined with that of
the ?rst separation, we have—-
Size #1-
60 increase in height of the slot.
9.28 lbs.
Size #2 __________________ -1 _______ __ 43.69 lbs.
Size #3
30.34 lbs.
Size #4 _______________ __ 6.85 lbs. 5.27% rock
Rejects _____________ .._v_.._ 9.84 lbs.»41.75%. rock
Sizes #1, 2, and 3 represent 83.31% of the ore.’
Size #4 can then be mixed with fresh ore for .
which they can pass, they are no longer restrained
by the wall and are discharged through the slot
by the force urging them outward in the direc
tion of the wall. In that manner the pieces of
material are quickly separated and classi?ed ac‘
cording to their different thicknesses, and that
is accomplishedwithout subjecting them to any
7 I
considerable agitation or breakage or other abuse
The repassing of size #4 causes many of the 70 or producing excessivewear upon the mechanism.
thicker ?akes to break up into thinner onesas
The separating and classifying operation com
further recovery.
they drop from the hopper into the chute and
then to the turn-table. In addition such of the
ore as consists of rock joined to ?akes will often
be'knocked apart by reason of the dropping and 76
prises disposing the ?at‘ pieces of material ?at
wise on a supporting surface de?ning with, a re
taining wall a slot increasing in height in one
direction, and driving the supporting surface in
such ;a direction '
to .urgev the pieces into edge
Wise contactwith thewall and holding them there
under; suitable pressure ‘toward the wall, while
moving=them,along,the wall inthedireCtiOn of 4
increase, in height of the slot, anddischarging
the pieces edgewise through the slot by the out
ward component of force to which theyare sub
Brie?y, then, applicantshad two, goals: (1) a
means for separating the flatflakesfrom, the rock,
and (2) means, for grading the flakes according‘
tothickness afterzthey were-,so separated. In this
onedevice,‘ asjdescribecl; and as substantially il
lustrated, applicantsiweremable toaccomplish the
two.’ goals.
Since furtherchang'esmay be made in the fore
jected, as they pass out of contact with the re
going constructions, and different embodiments of
tainingwall into ‘an area of the slot through
which they will readily pass‘, vermiculite and 10 theeinvention'may be‘. 'made without departing
fromfohe scopeuthereoi'it is intended that all
similar, materials have pronounced planes of
matter, shown inthefaccompanying drawings or
cleavage and, in general, the individual pieces
describedhereihbefore- shall be interpreted as il
thereof will ‘be of flat or tablet-like. If a piece of
lustrative and ‘not in a ‘limiting, sense. .
suchlmaterial be of varying thickness, due to the
Wejclaimiaspur invention:
presence of foreign materials, it may in the
Inianore-~ separator, in combination, a feeding
?rst instance pass but part way through the slot.
funnel, ,a chute from said. funnel for discharging
In that event, sucha piece will continue to travel
oreon to, the outer edgeof adriventurntable
withthe supporting surface until it reaches a
in a radial direction .so thatsaid driventurntable
higher. portion of the slot, through which .it will
be discharged. The travel of the supportingysur- _
face in one direction, as above, is of importance
as eliminating jamming of the material between
the retaining wall and the traveling supporting
surface. The materials with which our invention
is concerned are siliceous and abrasive in char
acter, and the contained foreign materials, such
as the pieces of rock, are quite hard. We have
wi1l,; itscentrifugalforce, fling saidore out
wardly: against a, circular, wall disposed around
and'slightly above said turntable, a rubber strip
fastened on the inside of said, circular wall about
its lower edge so that ‘it may, by its frictional sur
face, stop the wheel-like rotation of any flat ma
terialon the‘ revolving turntable, a gap between
thesurface of said turntable and the bottom edge
of said' circular. wall,,said gap having its narrowest
found by experience that any jamming or bind
point, adjacent the discharge chute so that the
ing of the pieces of materials, betweenthe re
taining wall and the traveling supporting surface, 30 thinnest. material can immediately be ?ung
therethrough, said gap increasing in width around
soon results in objectionable wear and damage to
the, circumference ofsaidcircular wall in the di
both parts in addition to causing excessive break
rection of rotation ofthe turntable so that. the
age of the material under treatment. If thesup
thicker material will be carried around on said
porting surface were driven in alternately oppo
site-directions, pieces of material jammed in the 35 turntable and be flungv out at a point where the
gap is substantially the width of said material, an
slot would become jammedmore tightly, aggra
axle forcarrying the turntable and a pulley which
vating the objectionable wear and breakage re
is connected to the source of'driving power, an
ferred to.. By driving the supporting surface con
extension, on said axle projecting upwardly into
tinuously in one direction we avoid that difficulty
and ‘ move the pieces of material continuously 40 said feeding funnel, a crossbar on said extension
adapted to stir the ore in the funnel so that it
along, the slot in the direction of increase in‘
will feedthrough constantly when the axle is ‘.be
ingadriven and is.v turning, the turntable, and .com
partments, spaced around -the-_ outside of ,said gap
height thereof, which has the further advantage
of greatly expediting the separating and classify
ing of the pieces of materials. The rubber strip
I'l,which constitutes the retaining wall against
which the pieces of material are pressed outward
and along which they‘ travel, is not readily
for segregatinglmaterial of substantiallythe same
abraded by the materia1 and has long life. In
the event it becomes worn to an objectionable
extent, it may readily be replaced.
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