Патент USA US2369456код для вставки
_. Feb. 13, 1945. J". H. HAMMOND, JR ' STEERING MECHANISM FOR VESSELS Filed March 18, 1942 2,369,456 4 I l' 4 sheets-sheet 1 NIU’N q I2, S INVENTOR ` . *__-_EI y o I n JOHN y' HAYs-HAMM0ND,JR. my“ l l A v4 _ Feb. 13, 1945. > J, H. HAMMOND, JR 2,369,456 STEERING MECHANISM FOR VESSELS Filed March 18, 1942 ‘7g REPEAT E R MOTO-R y - > 4_Sheets-Sheet 2 REPEATER 2'9 MOTOR INVENTOR _. ' . __El‘: ' E ‘ ‘ 3dorm HAvs HÁMMoND, JR. i' ' 3%( NEY > Feb. 13, 1945. J. H. HAMMOND, JR \ 2,369,456 STEERING MECHANISM FOR VESSELS `FIíled. March 18, 1942 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 . . . . . ... . _ . . . . _ . . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . . IBI I3 247 24's 233 IIE llIIt huslllm 9‘3 9'4- _p80 Laan 1 INVENToR JOHN HAYs HAMMoND, JR.. B NEY ` Feb. 13, 1945. J. H. HAMMOND, JR 2,369,456 .STEERING MECHANISM FOR VESSELS Filed March 18, 1942 4 Sheets-Sheet ’4 255 2.51 256 252 254 '255 INVENTOR J OHN HAvs VHAMMo No, JR. BY` Ó NEY ' ` Patented Feb.` 1945 ` 2,369,456 1 l VUNITED STATES PATENTQFFICE y y p "2,369,453` p ¿ f ` ` STEERING MECHIANISM FoR‘vEssELs ` y " John Hays Hammond, Jr.,` Gluucester,"Mass`.l ‘l Application Marchis, isßlayserial No. lisait?` Í ~ ` ‘y solaires. y(c1. iis-sn ` " This invention Í relates to variable pitch pro~> Figure 4 is afragmentary section taken " on pellers andhas‘ for‘an" object to provide‘mech anism forV automatically varying the pitches of line l-äoflFigure 3, a plurality of propellers in accordance With'the Figure 6" illustrates ‘ cause the pitches `of a plurality of` propellers‘to " - ` ` i l \ y diagrammatically the c ` iary propeller control. ` ` `Like reference characters denote like parts in vary in such a manner as to assist in the‘steer ‘ ‘ ‘ courseof a vessel with and without the auxil \ with the steering mechanism of the vessel to i l ofthe control apparatus', andl operation l The invention of the steering 4provides means.` means ` in ` connection i ing of the vessel. l Figure 5 is `_an end elevation of the upper part the several figures of the drawings. i‘ l ` i ‘_ 'lin the‘followin‘g description and in the claims parts will be identified `by `speciilcünarnes` for ` More specifically the invention` provides means to control the pitches of` the propellers convenience, but they;V are intended to be ` as generic'in` their application to` similar parts as `of a twin screw vessel so that when the vessel is steered to port the pitch of the port propeller the art willïperrnit; ï ‘ ` .i ‘ i ` will be‘îdecreased and the `pitch of ‘the‘starboard 15 `In accordance withthe present invention, the' propeller increased andl `when the ‘vessel «is ‘ port and starboard propellers are provided‘with steered to starboard the :reverse action Will take i ` pitch changing mechanisms having a follow up indicator `and are connected for individual man ual setting by‘control` handles mounted on a place; ` In this manner the >manoeuvering of the ves sel is greatly facilitated and the steering accel-` erated. If desired, the steering maybe accom plished entirely by varying the pitch of the pro pellers `witho-ut‘the use of the rudder. Means are also provided for varying the relationship standard near the steering wheel. Provision is `made for disconnecting the‘control by theman ual control handles and connecting the` pitch changing mechanisms for" automatic operation by an element actuated with the‘rudder so that `between the steering `mechanism‘and `the pitchï i in. making a turn, thepitch of the outer propel `- ‘ 1er is increased and the pitch ofthe inner pro The invention also‘provides means for`allow-; `ing the rudder‘to `be `moved thru a predeter-` ' peller is decreased. 'Suitable linkage are pro ‘changing devices. ‘ " mined adjustable angle either‘to port or star-_ ‘i board before the propeller pitch changing mech:` vided for Varying the ratio of the rudder move `ment to that of the pitch changing mechanism. 30 `An adjustable lost motion device permits a lim~A anism comes into action,` Means vare `also pro vided for rapidlybhanging the propeller pitch control mechanism from automatic `to manual ited movement of the rudder as desired Without bringing the pitch changing mechanism into op `eration.ì Suitable clutches permit the steering l control mechanism‘to be operatively disconnect» i ‘ The invention alsoconsists in certain new and 35 ed from the rudder and connected only tothe or vice versa. pitch changing mechanism so that steering can original. features of construction and combina-1 beeiîected by thepropellers alone. ‘ i tions of parts hereinafter‘set forth and claimed, ‘y Referring to the accompanying drawings, and Although the novel features which are be more particularly to` Figure 1, a diagrammatic lieved to be characteristic of this invention will -be particularly pointed out in the claims ap<` 40 layout of the propeller control " mechanism is shown which includes a `rudder l0, a rudder con pended hereto, the invention itself., `as to its ob trol I|,ï port and starboard variable pitch pro Iiects and‘advantages, the mode of i its operation and the manner of its organization may be bet-` \ pellers IZP and IZS‘respectively, variable pitch, mechanisrnsilSP and Í3S for varyingthe pitch of ter understood by referring to the Vfollowing de the propellers [2P and I2S respectively, two scription taken \ in connection with theaccom e governor controlled prime movers MP and MS ‘ panying- drawings forming a `part thereof, in for driving the propellers ‘I2P and I 2S, a hand which; l l v ` c steering wheel l5 for `manually operating the p Figure l illustrates diagrammatically the sys rudder'v I (l, gyro pilot 16‘ for steering the‘vessel tem y for `controlling the» propeller» pitches, by 50 automatically and a control mechanism l1 for ,means 'of the` steering mechanism of ‘the vessel, \ Figure 2 isalfront elevationpartly1 in section of the control apparatus;` " " ‘y u y ` y `FiguzreßA is a transverse section of the con trol apparatus taken» on line 3_1-3 of Figure 2,. m 65 varying the pitch of the propellers |2P'and 12S in accordance with the throw‘of therudder I 0. The gyro pilot ts is provicie‘d‘with a hans wheel' p ‘ ` IB. n The propellers l IZP and 12S are provided with 2 2,369,456 pitch mechanisms i3P and |3S, which may be off any well known and standard construction thread. Secured to ther upper end of the shaft 95 is a bevel pinion 96 which meshes with a bevel gear 91 secured to a shaft 98. Mounted on the shaft 98 is a knurled knob 99 and a pointer |00 such as thatl manufactured by the S. Morgan Smith Company, of York, Pennsylvania, the de mounted on the front of the case of the control adjustable blades 20 and are Lattached to hollow shafts 2| which are connected to the variable which registers with a scale |0| (Figure l) tails of which form no partof the present in vention and are accordingly not specifically set forth herein, mechanism I1. ‘ Meshing with the worm 85 is a worm wheel |65 which is secured to a shaft |06 which has a bear The mechanism in general com ing in an arm |01 of the bracket 8|. Secured to the shaft |00 is an arm |08 to one end of which is attached a counter-weight |09 and to the other end a pin |03 to which is pivotallycon ` nected the lower end of a link I I0. Mounted on the bracket si is’a T-shaped block m to which is secured two flat springs ||2 and | |3. Secured tached to a nut 26 which is provided with inter nal threads 21. Threaded into the nut 26 is a ‘ to the worm wheel |05 is a pin ||ii which is nor 'mally positioned between the two springs |12 and member 28 which is attached to the slow speed II3. shaft 29 of a reduction gearing 30. The high prises a rod 22 slidable longitudinally- within the shaft 2| and connectedto control the pitch of the blades 20. The rod 22 is prevented from ro tating with respect to the shaft 2|v by means ofv \ a key 23 which slides in a keyway 2.5 cut in the shaft 2|. The inner end of the shaft 22 is at ‘Secured to the link ||0 is a pin ||6 which slides in a slot ||1 provided in the head of a speed shaft 3| of this gearing is driven by a motor 32.' : l ~ ’ . The motor 32 is also 'connected to the high speed shaft 33 'of a reduction gearing 35, the low speed shaft 36 o'f which is connected to Sel syn repeating motor 31. All of'this mechanism is 25 ' ' with a‘threaded bore which is engaged by the . threaded end of a rod |20. The rod |20 is pro- ' vided with a V-shaped groove |2| (Figure 2) which is engaged by >a set >screw |22. This pre vents longitudinal motion of the‘rod |20 but al mounted in the casing 38'which forms part of the drive shaft 2|. T-shaped member IIB. The member I IS‘ís slid ably mounted in a bracket `| |9 and is provided ' Secured to a bracket 39 of insulating material are three brushes 40, 4| and 42 Awhich engage lows‘it to..be> freely rotated. three slip rings 43,44 and 45, which are mount- . |20 is a knurled knob |23 and a pointer |25 which registers with a scale |26 (Figure l) edron but insulated from-the casing 38. The Secured to the rod slip rings 43 and 45 are connected to the revers. mounted on the front of the case of the control ing windings of the motor 32 and the slip ring mechanism |1.- ' I Y , -Secured to the upper end of the link ||0 is a 4'4 is connected to the return lead fromwthese windings. The brushes 40, 4| 'and 42 are con pin |30 which slides in a slot I3! provided in Secured to the bracket 39 are‘ñve brushes an arm |32 which is rotatably mounted on two shafts |33 and |34 (Figures 2 and 4) which are 48-52 which engage ñve slip rings 53-51 which journaled «in two brackets |35 and |36 (Figure nected toV reversing‘relays 41B and 41S; ‘ - 2) mounted on a cross frame |31. Mounted on are mounted on but insulated from 'the -casing 38. The slip rings 53--51 are connected to the 40 but insulated from the arm |32 is a segment |33 of conducting material (Figure 4) which is en Selsyn motor 31. vThe brushes 48-52 are‘con gaged by a brush |39 which is mounted onY but nected to >control boxes 58P and 58S. . ' insulated from the frame |31. Secured to the `The rudder l0 is provided with the usual rud segment |38 are two-brushes |40 and |4!. The der quadrant 60 which is connected by means brush |40 cooperates with two semi-circular con of cables 6| and 62 to acable drum 63. The drum ducting segments |42 and |43 which are mount63 is attached to a gear 65 which meshes with a pinion 66 which is mounted on a shaft 61. - The ed on one yside of a circular drumk |45‘of insu lating material which is secured to the shaft |33. shaft 61 is connected thru a clutch 63 to a bevel The segments |42 and |43 are electrically con pinion 69 which meshes with a bevel gear 10. Meshing with the bevel gear 10 are three other V50 nected to two slip rings |46 and |41¿respectively bevel pinions 1I, 12 and 13. The pinion 1I is. ' mounted on the periphery of the drum I 45. En gaging the slip rings |46 and |41 are two brushes connected thru a clutch 15 'and bevel gears l16 |43 and |49 which arek mounted on but insulated to the hand steering wheel I5 and the pinion 12 from the frame |31. ` ' is connected thru a clutch 11 and bevel gears 18 to the gyro pilot I6. , . 55 The brush |_4I cooperates with two semi-cir The pinion 13 is connected _to a shaft 80 which is rotatably mounted in brackets 8| and 82 (Fig cular conducting segments which are mounted theshaft 00. Attached to the upper end of the shaft 30 is a bevel pinion 86 which meshes with the frame |31. Slidably mounted on the shaft |33 is a collar | 51 which is provided with akey |58 which slides in a'keyway |59 provided in the shaft |33, so that the collarv |51 may slide longitudinally. on the shaft |33 but cannot rotate with respect thereto. The collar |51 is provided with a groove |60 which is >engaged by ‘a piny (not shown) carried on the endof an arm |6|. The arm |6| is secured to the, lower end of the shaft |62 which has a bearing in on one side of a circular drum |52„which is se _cured to the shaft |34, and are electrically con ures 2 and 3) in the control mechanism I1 and nected to two slip rings |53 and |54 mounted on is provided with a keyway 83. Slidably mounted on the shaft 80 is a worm 85 which is provided 60 the periphery of the drum |52. The slip rings |53 and |54 are engaged byvtwo brushes |55 and with a key (not shown) which slides in the key way 83 which causes the worm 85 to rotate with |56 which are mounted on but insulated from a bevel gear 81. The gear B1 is attached to a shaft 88 to the outer end of which is secured a pointer 8_9 which registers îwith a scale 90 (Fig ure 1) mounted onthe front of the case of the control mechanism I1 and'which is graduated in degrees of rudder angle. ' Slidably mounted on the shaft 80 are two mem; bers 9| and 92 which are also slidablyrnounted on two rods 93 and 94 and which are threaded on a shaft 95, the member 3| having a right hand thread and vthe member'92'havíng a' left -hand 65 an extension of the bracket |35. . Secured to the upper end of theshaft |62 is a segment of a worm 75 gear~.|63 which engages a‘worm |65.,secured to .a 4 2,869,456 is turned counterclockwise which causes 'the members 9| and 92 to move closer together. " The clutch 11 is then opened and the rudder | 0 is brought to a central position by turning the hand steering wheel l5 in the usual manner. The mechanism will now be in the neutral posi tion as shown in Figure 3. f - When it is desired to have the pitch changing mechanism function in |conjunction with the rud der the handle 241 is moved to the left into the The knobs |68 and position.shown in Figure 2, thus throwing the ` 2|| are turned so that the pointers |69 and 2|2 indicate the, normal pitch angles which have been set on the port and starboard propellers. By turning the knob |68 the worm |65 will be switches 231 and 240 to the right and left respec rotated, which in turn will rotate the worm wheel and |56 to the 4reversing relay 41S. tively, which connects the brushes |48 and |49 to the reversing relay 41P and the brushes |55 , ' The 4vessel is now steered in the usual manner |63. This motion will be transmitted by means of the shaft |62 and arm |6| to the collar |51 which will be moved to the right and at the same time rotated thru a small angle, as the pin |13 slides in the diagonal’slot |12. The rotation of the collar |51 will be transmitted to the shaft |33 by means of the key |58. »As the shaft |33 rotates it will rotate the drum |45. When the pointer |69 indicates the pitch angle to which by means> of the steering wheel I5, which acting thru the bevelgears 16,\1|, 10 and 69, rotates the pinion 66, which by means of the gear 65 rotates the drum 63. The rotation of the drum 63, act ing thru the cables 6| and 62, turns the rudder |0 in a well known manner. During the operation the bevel gear 13 will be rotated which will, by means of the shaft 80, ro tate the worm 85. As the gear |05 is held in a central position by means of the springs ||2 and | I3 the worm 85 will merely slide along the shaft pointerv |96has been set as above described, the y insulation between Athe `segments -|42 and |43 will be under the brush | 40. » By turning the knob 2|| the bevel pinion '208 80 until it comes up against one or the other of the ' members 9| or 92 depending on whether will be rotated, which, by means of the bevel gear 201 will cause a slight rotation of the differen 25 vthe rudder is turned to the port or starboard. tial housing 206 which will, in a well known man The amount that the rudder l0 may be'turned from a central position without turning the _ ner cause a small rotation of the shaft |34. As the shaft |34 rotates it will rotate the drum' |52. gear |05‘is determined by the spacing ofthe When the setting of the pointer 2|2 corresponds members 9| and 92, which, as already described, to that of' pointer 235 the insulation betweenl 30 is set by rotating the knob 99. In Figure 2 the the semi-circular segments will be under the members 9| and 92 are shown in a mean posi _ tion, which, 'for example, may allow the rudder peller pitch to the rudder throw, the knob |23 I0 to be moved'thru an angle of five degrees on either side of the central position without aiîect brush | 4|. ‘ For varying the ratio of the change of pro is turned until the pointer |25 registers the de 35 ing the gear |05. ' ` i If the rudder l0 is turned more than five de sired ratio on the dial |26. ' Thus for example, if it is desired to have a high ratio of propeller grees, say to port, the worm 85 will slide up along pitch to rudder angle the kn`ob |23 is turned to the shaft B0, when it is turned, until it engages the member 9|,- which will prevent any further the right, which will cause-the threaded shaft |20 to be rotated in a clockwise direction-thus en 40 longitudinal movement of the worm 85. When the shaft 80 is rotated further the worm 85 will tering the member ||8 which will be moved to the left, as the shaft |20 is restrained from longi tudinal movement bythe set screw» |22. As the member ||8 moves to the left the link | I0v will be rotated by means of the pin ||6 thru a small angle in a counterclockwise direction about the pin |03. The pin |30 will slide to the left in the slot |3| so that the lever arm from the shaft |34 to the pin |30 will be less than the lever arm from the shaft |06 to the pin |03, thus increasing the ' ratio of rotary movement between the shafts |06 and |34. ‘ ‘ cause the gear |05 to start rotating in a counter clockwise direction, as seen in Figure 3; -This motion, acting thru`the lever |08, will cause the link || 0 to be moved upward, which will by means of the pin |30 cause the arm |32, segment |38 and brushes |40 and |4| to be rotated in a counterclockwise direction. The brush |40 will `then engage the segment |43 which will close a circuit from the battery '246, switch 245, conductor 243, brush |39, seg ment |38, brush |40, segment |43, slip ring |41, brush | 49, switch 231, conductor 239, reversing ` If it is desired to decrease the ratio of change of propeller pitch to rudder throw the knob |23 is turned to the left, causing the member |88 and the pin |30 to be moved to the right to decrease the ratio of the rotaryfmovement between thefshafts |06 and |34. As shown in ‘ Figure 3 the mechanism is set for a mean ratio. In order to- vary the angle thru which the ' rudder may be turned before affectingthe pitch relay 41P back to the battery 246. This will operate the reversing relay 41P which will sup ply current from the source 249 to the motor 32, . the rotation of which will be vtransmitted thru the reduction gearing 30 to the member 28 which will be rotated in such a direction as to cause it to move out of the nut 26. As the member 28 is held fixed longitudinally this will cause the nut 26v and shaft 22 to be moved downward to of the propellers the knob 99 may be manipulated decrease the pitch of the blades 20 of the port until the pointer |00 registers the desired 'rudder propeller |2P. . y \ ' f throw on the dial |0l. Thus if it is desired to (i5 At the same time that the motor 32 rotates the increase this angle the knob 99 is turned clock member 28 it will, by means of the reduction wise which by means of the bevel gear 91 and gearing 35, rotate the Selsyn motor 31 thru a bevel pinion 96, will cause the shaft 95 to be ro . tated in a clockwise direction, as seen from above. ' fraction of a revolution. This motion will be repeated to the‘Selsyn motor |19, which by means This rotation will cause the two members 9| and 70 of the bevel gears ITT-|18, will transmit the ro tation to the drum |45 which will be rotated un v92 to move apart, due to the right and `left threads cut on the shaft 95, which will permit til the insulation between the segments |42 and |43 is under the brush |40 at which time the the shaft 80 before it engages these members. relay 41P will be operated to stop the motor 32. If it is desired to decrease the angle the knob 99 75 At the same timethe brush |4I will engage the the worm 85 to slide a greater distancer along 5 >lower semi-circular »segment `onu‘the side the the curves‘zss andïèä'ß'oi Figure o; läy turning drum |52, which in a manner similar to that Í‘just i `the knob „l2-3 in a ocunter`-elockwise direction "the opposite effect iS produced and the vessel will described willenergize the reversingrelaylls. As this relay is `wired up in ‘an opposite manner . Itorri with a `greater radius as indicated by 'the to that‘of the relayl‘lP,V itwill operate to supply curves'251 and 258. current from the source 269 to the motor `32' so ` ‘Y If Ait is desired to use the gyl‘o pilot I6 the rud ‘der I0 isbro'ught‘to a central positioiiby‘me‘ans as to cause the member 2_8 to move into the hut ¿26, which together with the shaft 22 will be‘inoved ` :er the steering wheel is andthe clutch it is dis upward to increase the pitch of the blades '2liÍ yof engaged. The fh‘and wheel I8 oi the gyro pilot the starboard propeller I2S. ‘Thismotion is re-4 islbro'ught to a central position and the clutch peated back to thedrum |52 by the Selsyn mo ‘il is engaged; The vessel is then steered by ina tors 3T and 2I9 until the brush ‘Ill rests on the i " nipnlating the hand wheel la of the gyro pilot insulation between the semi-*circular ‘segments `ltin a well known manner ‘that need not be more when the motor `32 will stop. t ‘ ‘ ‘t `fully described herein. The steeringl ‘motion is transmitted to theßsha‘ft 18u which operates to e It is thus seen ‘that when the rudder l0 is turned to port thru an angle greater than that set on the dial |0| the pitch ofthe port propeller :vary .thepropeller n ehesas' already describedì , riso desired the vessel may be steered entirely;r I2P will be decreased and the pitch of the star bythe Iactionioi the `propellers without the use board propeller I2S increased an amount pro' therudder l0. in case the rudder In is set y ` 'portional to the angle thru which the rudder IU 2o ì in a central îposition by means of the steering is turned in addition `tothe angle set on the dial wheel |15 and the clutch 68 is opened.. The knob IUI. In this way,‘the turning `moment "to port I es" is turned ihïaicounterecloclswise direction-ias i ci the vessel is augmented by the vactlonof the propellers, as the thrust of the port propeller I`2P `is decreased due to the decrease of pitch andthe thrust of the starboard propeller IZS is increased dueto the increase or pitch.` ` `„ ` _ far »as possibleî thus bringing the members 9| and 92 into engagement with the `ritorno tlsa ‘The ‘ knob 123 is turned in a clockwise direction `as rarr as possible, -thus giving the maximum `action of I the propeller pitchchanging mechanism. i AFigure 6 shows in a general Way the actionhof l ‘ the pitch changing mechanism on the turning radius of the vessel. The curve 25| indicates the course or the vessel when it is steered` to port `Under these conditions when the .steering wheel ` I5 isturned theïshaftâû will be rotated thus rol so with the control handle 241 thrown `to tlre‘iright, so that the propeller pitch changing mechanism is inoperative and curve `2`52`shows the course ‘of the vessel when it is steered to port, llolding‘the "same rudder angle, but with the‘control handle `2Il'l` thrown to `the left, so that the( propeller pitch changing mechanism is operative. i It is "seen `from‘these two `curves that’the vessel can be manoeuvered much more rapidly with the use of the propellerpitch changing mechanism in ad dition "to the conventional action ofthe rudder. "When the vessel is steeredto starboardthe reverse action takes place and the pitch of the t starboard propeller- |2s is decreased and the pitch of the port propeller [2P is increased, this toting the-worin c5 the vaction or which will be immediately transmitted‘by the gear W5 and link I||u to the brushes |46 and ¿4|5 which will, as already described,` operate the pitch changing mechanisms |3P1faiid 1|3s `at a maximum rate. This will causen a turning moment ‘to be' produced `which will steerftl'le vessel to‘po'rit `or starboard 4as desired. `Itisthus seenthatin case the rud by the use ofthe propellerïpitch changing 'mecha Áanism alone. t ` ' i ` ‘Ii it is` desired to put `the automatic pitch changing mechanism out ci operation the handle `241‘is“thrown to the rlghttlius throwing the switchgztl tothe left and the switch 24u to the l right. `This willrijjnalie the brushes |40 and |4| inoperative and the brushes we and `2lb opera; change of pitch being proportional to theangle tive. ‘ 'lï‘he blades zufot the port and. starboard ‘ thru which the rudder I0 is turned in addition >to the angle indicated on the dial IUI , the courses `followed by the vessel when it is steered to star- f to their normal pitchangles, as indicated by the board without and with the propeller pitch con in e, manner similar to that already' described trol are indicated `by the curves 253 and `254 reg spectiyely. ` v ‘ j “ As already stated the angle thru ‘which th `rudder may be turned without bringing into `ao tion the propeller pitch changing mechanism can be Varied by turning the knob 9'9. If desired this angle may be `decreased _tozero by bringing the two members 9| `and 92 into engagement with pr'opellers I zP‘andz 1| 2s `will: then be v brought back poiiittersws and 235,.` this action ‘taking place connection with vthe manual setting of pro» lbeller pitches, The pitches of. the propel-1ers |21#` ‘ and |25 may- `now be changed as Ydesiredfby maà nipulating the handles |95 and 233 as already descrilcfed.;` Under' these conditlons‘ïsteoring will bouche-entirely by the action of the rudder lll. 4«ritter:the propellers |12P` and |253 «have been .- ‘ openedr set vat the thusputting Ádesired:pitch the the pitchswitch: changing 245 mecha? may be the worm 85. ` lUnder these conditions the pro-l oo peller'pitch changing mechanism will become op-` erative as soon as‘the rudder I0 is turned from its central position.` " ` ‘ ‘ ` I The ‘rate at whi‘cllthe propeller pitch-changes` in relation to the rudder'throw may be varied `by turning the knob |23. If' this knob is turned 'in' i a` clockwise direction so as to cause the member I I8 to bef‘moved‘ to the left, as seen in' Figure 3, the lever arm from the shaft |34 to _the pin |30 nismlsoompletely out of operation. The proe pellets «will ‘then :act as‘propellers of ñxed pitch ~ and cannotbezchangeäïlrorn the bridge, Aitnoughonly a'iew or the various `iornfis ` wliichthis invention may be einbodiedhave been shownîherein, it is to be `understood that the iti volition iis-»not limited to any speciñc construction but might be embodied in various forms without' departing `from the spirit or the invention: or the Will be decreased, so lthat tl'le` Contacts H0 arid' 70 "'W'hättïisclaiined is! ‘ i ‘ rudder throw/*thus increasing the change* of the l. A steering system for vessels `hai/ing port I pitch of the ‘Propellers ïwllich‘in turn"` will iii-‘ `arid-Istarl‘coardvariable pitch propellers', compris- ‘ crease the:` turning moment of the vessel causing e ing pitchïohangihg mechanisms connected re-V it to turn with a" shorter' radius asfindicated `by 75 spectively‘fto‘lehange the-pitch diede-n. or said ‘scopeofltheîappendedclaims; "IM will be moyed'thru a ‘greater angle for a given ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ 6c 2,369,456 spectively to change the pitch of each of said propellers, control circuits including reversing propellers, individual actuating means for inde pendentlyvactuating each of said pitch changing mechanisms, joint actuating means for simulta neously actuating both of said pitch changing contacts connected to actuate said pitch chang ing mechanisms, rotatable drums carrying said mechanisms in opposite sense to increase the Cl ‘ contacts, a brush selectively engaging the con tacts on each drum, a control arm carrying said pitch of one of said propellers and to decrease brushes, steering control mechanism connected the pitch of the other of said propellers, steering to shift said arm for selectively closing said con ,control mechanism connected to actuate said tacts in accordance with steering requirements, joint actuating means, and means selectively connecting said individual actuating means or 10 and manual means to adjust independently the setting of/each drum with respect to its brush said joint actuating means to operate said pitch for varying the pitch response characteristics changing mechanisms. I of said propellers. 2. Af‘steering system for vessels having port 6. A steering Vsystem rfor vessels having port and starboard variable pitch propellers, compris ing pitch changing mechanisms connected re 15 .and starboard variable pitch propellers, compris ing pitch changing mechanisms connected re spectively to change the pitch of each of said spectively to change the pitch of each of said propellers, individual actuating means for inde propellers, control circuits «connected to actuate pendently actuating eachof said pitch changing said pitch changing mechanisms, and manual y mechanisms, manual control means for said in dividual actuating means for setting said pitch 20 and automatic control means’for said circuits .comprising a. pair of rotatable drums for each of to a pre-determined value, joint‘actuating means said circuits, reversing contacts for said circuits for simultaneously actuating both of said pitch carried Vby each of said drums, brushes selectively changing mechanisms in opposite sense to in engaging the contacts of each drum, steering crease the pitch of one of said propellers and to decrease the pitch of the` other of said propel 2.5 control means connected to shift one of said brushes [for selectively closing said contacts in 1ers, steering control -mechanism connected to actuate said joint actuating means automatical ly for steering said vessel by said propellers, and accordance with steering requirements, manual `means connected to shift the other of said brushes, switch means selectively connecting the means selectively connecting said individual ac tuating means or said joint actuating means to 30 contacts of one or the other of said drums to said circuits, follow-up mechanism including re operate said pitch changing mechanisms. peaters actuated by each of said pitch changing mechanisms to cause corresponding rotation of 3. A steering system for vessels having port and starboard variable pitch propellers, com prising pitch changing mechanisms connected respectively to change the pitch of each of s'aid propellers, individual pitch indicating means to indicate the pitch 4setting of each propeller, re both of said drums for breaking said circuits When said pitch has been changed to the desired value, and adjusting mechanism to adjust the relative positions olf said drums for»~ varying the pitch response characteristics of said propellers. peater mechanisms actuated respectively by each '7. A steering system for vessels' having a steer of said pitch changing mechanisms and con ing rudder and port `and starboard variable pitch nected to actuate said pitch indicating means, 40 propellers, comprising pitch changing mecha individual actuating means for independently nisms connected respectively to change the pitch actuating each of said pitch changing mecha of each of said propellers, pitch actuating means nisms, manual control means for said individual for simultaneously actuating both of said pitch actuating means for setting said pitch to a pre changing mechanisms in opposite sense to in-> determined value, joint actuating means for si crease the pitch of one of said propellers and to multaneously actuating both of said pitch chang Adecrease the pitch of the other of said propellers, ingA mechanisms in opposite sense to increase steering control mechanism connected to actuate the pitch of one of said propellers and to de said rudder and said pitch-actuation ‘means Vfor crease the pitch of the other of said propellers, steering control mechanism connected to actuate 50 automatically varying the pitch olf said pro pellers inl a sense to aid the steering of said said joint actuating means automatically for vessel, lost motion mechanism between said steer steering sai-d vessel by said propellers, and means ingV control mechanism and said pitch actuating selectively connecting said individual actuating means or said joint actuating means to operate said pitch changing mechanisms. means to- permit a predetermined limited move 55 ment of said rudder from center position before said pitch actuating means begins to operate, 4. A steering system for vessels having port and starboard variable pitch propellers, com and adjusting mechanism to adjust the amount of movement of said -lost motion mechanism. ` prising pitch changing mechanisms connected `8. A steering system for vesselshaving a steer respectively to change the pitch of each of said ing rudder and port and starboard variable pitch propellers, control circuits including reversing 60 propellers, comprising pitch changing mecha contacts connected to actuate said pitch chang nisms connected respectively to change the pitch ing mechanisms, rotatable drums carrying said.v of each of said propellers, pitch actuating means for simultaneously actuating both of said pitch mechanisms in opposite sense to in brushes, steering control mechanism connected 65 changing crease the pitch of one of said propellers and to to shift said arm for selectively closing said con decrease the pitch of the other of said propellers, tacts in accordance With steering requirements, steering control mechanism connected to actuate 'and follow-up mechanism including repeaters said rudder and said pitch-actuation means for actuated by said pitch changing mechanisms to contacts, a brush selectively engaging the con-I tacts on each drum, a control arm carrying said cause corresponding rotation of said drums for n breaking said circuits when said pitch has been changed to the desired value. and mechanism to» disconnect said rudder from said steering control mechanism to permit steer 5. A steering system for vvessels having port ` ing of said vessel solely by said propellers. ' and starboard variable pitch propellers, compris V ing pitch changing mechanisms connected re automatically varying the pitch of said propel 1ers in a sense to aid the steering of said vessel 75 9. A steering system for vessels -having Aa 2,369,456 ‘ y „7l of said propellers, steering control` mechanism pitch propellers, comprising pitch changing connected to -actuate said rudder and said pitch ""m'echanisms connected respectively ‘to change `actuation means‘for automatically varying the the pitch of each of said propellerspitch actuat pitch of said propellers in a sense to aid the steer--` ` ‘ing means‘for simultaneously actuating both off `ing of said vessel, and-means varying the‘ratio "said pitch changing mechanisms in opposite ` o-f movement of said pitch actuating means to steering rudder and port and starboard variable sense to increase the pitch of one of ysaid pro- " said rudder. pellers and to decrease the pitch of the other ` JOHN HAYS HAMMOND, JR.