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Патент USA US2369490

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Patented Feb. l3, 1945 '
2,369,490
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
2,369,490
STABILIZERS FOR OILS
Wayne A. Proell, Chicago, 11].‘, assignor to Stand
an! Oil Company, Chicago, 11]., a corporation of
Indiana
No Drawing. Application June 16, 1941,
Serial No. 398,238
‘
17 Claims. (CI. 44-66)’
The present invention relates to hydrocarbon
prevent this adherence to the metal surfaces and
oils such as petroleum oils which‘may be used
keep the engine clean.
Fuel
. Although I have described the e?ect of the
oils are generally prepared by cracking certain
as fuel or furnace oils or as lubricating oils.
stabilizers with reference to fuel oils and lubri
cating oils, it will be clear that the dispersion of
solid particles and water by the use of my stabi
fractions of hydrocarbon oils with the result that
certain amounts of suspended carbon,vasphaltic
lizing compound will be effective in other oils as
the ?nal product. Some fuel oils, on the other
It is an object of the present invention to sta
hand, consist of blends of comparatively light
petroleum oil fractions and tarry fractions, the 10 bilize petroleum oils by dispersing any solid mat
ter contained therein or subsequently formed
latter also containing some solid particles. Lu
therein or contaminated therewith, by the addi
bricating oils when used, for instance, in internal
tion of small amounts of stabilizing agents.
combustion or other types of engines tend to
A further object is to prevent varnish deposits
deposit a ?lm of so-called varnish on surfaces in
,15 on metal surfaces caused by deterioration of lu
the engine.
'
'
.
bricating 011.
In the case of fuel oils the solid matter presents
Another object of my invention is to prevent
- serious problems since it tends to settle out in .
bottom
'settlings in fuel oils which may cause
storage tanks and consequently'clog'outlet pipes.
serious trouble in the operation of fuel oil fur
Also the solid matter collects ‘at the nozzles of 20 naces.
burners and eventually clogs the nozzles. In ad
Still another object is to provide fuel oils which
dition, small amounts of water with which fuel '
will not clog feed lines, nozzles of burners and
oil may become contaminated in the course of
the like and will not leave deposits in preheaters. ‘
handling and storage, settle out and cause ir
According to my invention certain oil-soluble
regular burning of the oil.
‘
and resinous matter, and sulfur are contained in
well.
A fuel oil which gives a deposit of 1.0% or more
is considered unstable while a deposit of less than
- 1.0% is considered stable.
This is, of course, a
somewhat arbitrary classi?cation but does corre
spond generally with the amount of deposit be
-
‘
' metal soaps together with certain organic pro
moters are used as stabilizing agents.
The metallic soap may be the stearate, oleate,
palmitate, recinoleate or other radical of a fatty
material or naphthenate of a metal such as iron,
aluminum, chromium, or nickel, although I pre
road which serious di?lculties are encountered.
Various ways have been suggested for over
coming these disadvantages, one of which is the
‘addition of an emulsion breaker to cause the de
posits and water to settle out more quickly than
. arylamines, as‘ well as soaps of organic amines
usual so they can be removed from the oil more
phenylamine naphthenate or the like. The me
easily.
'
fer to use iron or aluminum naphthenate. The
organic promoter may beone or more alkylamines, . -
such as diphenylamine, diphenylamine oleate,
ethylene diamine oleate, triamylamine oleate, di
tallic soap may comprise 10% to 90% o'fvthe addi
I have found that certain- compounds when
tion mixture although equal amounts of the me
added to the oil will stabilize the oil not only'by
tallic soap and organic promoter are preferred.
40
preventing the deposition of the particles and
The metallic soap is the active agent in the sta- .
water for greatly extended periods of time but
bilizer, and the function of the promoter is to
' also by causing-a dispersion of a deposit which
enhance the stabilizing action and to render the
has already settled out. This latter featureis, of
stabilizing action of the soap permanent. The
course‘, highly desirable since the stabilizing com 45 addition of about 0.05% to about 0.5% of the
pounds may be merely added without-agitation
[above stabilizers decreases the sediment to an
to oils which have been standing for some time
amount corresponding to a highly stable fuel oil,
_ and have already aecumulateda deposit.
and thus will change an unsalable oil into a satis
It is customary in some types of furnaces to‘ ‘factory oil. Obviously, this small amount of
.heat the fuel oil before it is ignited. This is 50 metal-soap will produce substantially no thicken
usually carried out in a “preheater” and the solid
ing of the oil. I have found that about 0.1% of
matter in the oil tends to deposit therein. The
stabilizer gives the most satisfactory results, bear
stabilizing compounds according to my invention
ing in mind ,the question of cost. The terms
prevent or minimize these preheater deposits.
While lubricating oils do not contain solid mat
ter initially, such solid matter develops during
use of the. lubricating oil. This‘ solid matter
‘ ,ilnally adheres to variousmetal surfaces causing
' al‘fvarnish" ?lm and other deposits in the engine.
“alkylamines” and‘ “arylamines" aslused herein
55 and in the claims are intended to refer to those
amines in which the hydrocarbon alkyl or aryl
groups are attached directly to the amino ni- .
trogen.
.
“
When “preheater" deposit is of especial con
The stabilizers according to the present invention 60 sideration, I have found that the addition of a
3
QASQQAQO
only limited by the scope of the appended claims.
small ‘amount of betacnaphthol or the like to
Having now described my invention and the
manner of carrying the same into effect, What
gether with the metal soap and organic promoter
greatly reduces such deposit.
I
I claim is:
Although anyone of the aforementioned metal
'
l. Aiuel oil composition containing a (large
soaps may be used with advantage, I have found
amount of a mineral oil having fuel oil charac
teristics and normally tending to form a sedi
ment, an oil-soluble metal soap in an amount in
suf?cient to cause any substantial thickening of
the oil and a. small amount of at least one com
pound selected from the group consisting of al
that'iron and aluminum naphthenate give the
best results. it has also been found that di
phenylamine oleate and ethylene diamine oleate
are very satisfactory as promoters. It is to be
noted that more than one of the‘promoters may
be used at the same time if desired.
In Table i, which follows, four examples of
stabilizing agents are given, each of. which has
kylamines, arylamines and soaps of organic
amines, whereby the formation of sediment is
greatly reduced.
2. A fuel oilcomposition containing a large
given excellent results as can be seen from Tables
if, m and IV. Table II shows the effect that
Examples 1 and 2 have on freshly prepared fuel
oil in preventing sediment. Table III, on the
other hand, shows the dispersion effect of Ex
amount of a mineral oil having fuel oil charac
teristics and normally tending to form a sedi
merit, an oil-soluble metal soap in an amount in
su?icient to cause any substantial thickening of
. ample 3 on a fuel oil which has already accumu
the
oil and a small amount of at least one com—
lated a sediment. Table V shows how Examples 20
pound selected from the group consisting of al
i and 4 reduce preheater deposit.
lrylamines, arylamines and soaps thereof, where
by the formation of sediment is greatly reduced.
3. A fuel oil composition containing a. large
Table 22’
iron
Alumi'
naph-
523i
thcnote
.
Per ce'nl
Example L.
‘
Diphenyl- ‘Ethylene
amine
thenam
oleate
Percent
50
Example 3; -
50
Example ‘5.-
50
_
-~
-
25
oleate
Per cent
________ __
Erampldl
I'
dlamine ‘B31351!’
Per cent
50
Per (mt
__________________ __
__________ i_
50
________ . _
25
25
........ __
30
l0
10
Example 1 Example-2 Control
.
0. ll
Days standing
0. ll
phatic amine oleate, whereby the formation of
sediment is greatly reduced.
4. A fuel oil composition containing av large
amount of a mineral oil having fuel oil charac
teristics and normally tending to form a sedi
ment, an oil-soluble metal soap in an amount in
su?lcient to cause any substantial thickeningvof
the oil and a small amount of at least one aro
' matic amine soap, whereby the formation of
Table if .
I Quantity of stabilize? added
- par can . -
amount of a mineral oil having fuel oil'charac
teristics and normally tending vto form a sedi
ment, an oil-soluble metal soap in an amount in
su?icient to cause any substantial thickening of
the oil and a small amount of at least one all
0
sediment is greatly reduced.
7
5; A fuel oil composition containing a large
amount of a mineral oil having fuel oil character
istics and normally tending to form a, sediment,
Sediment content
_ an oil-soluble metal soap of a fatty material, the
4.5
‘rams iii ,'
metal being selected from the group consisting of
iron, aluminum, chromium and nickel,‘ the
amount of said metal soap being insu?lcient to
cause any substantial thickening of the oil, and
a small amount of‘ at least one‘ compound selected
‘ from the group consisting of diphenylamine, di
Example 3
Quantity added ........ .. .-.__'_ ............ “per cent:
Days standing
2
Sediment
content
phenylamine oleatc, and ethylene diamine oleate,
whereby the formation of sediment is greatly
reduced.
-
6. A fuel oil composition containing a large
amount of a mineral oil having fuel oil character.
istics' and normally tending to form a sediment,‘
a metal naphthenate in an amount insufficient to
' cause any substantial thickening of the oil, and
a small amount of an organic amine soap, where
by the formation of sediment is greatly reduced.
7.. A fuel oil composition as claimed in claim 6
and further containing a small amount of beta
naphthol.v
, Table ll!
Example 1 Example 4. Control
Quantity added. ..._ .per cent.. I
0.5
v
0. 1.
0
n
8. A fuel oil composition containing a large
amount of a mineral oil having fuel 011 character
istics and normally tending to form a sediment,
an iron naphthenate in an amount insu?lcient to
cause any substantial thickening of the oil, and
a small amount of an organic amine soap, where
by the formation of sediment is greatly reduced.
Preheater deposih. . . grams.
0. 218
0.173
0.687
"Although the-foregoing description has re
ferred.- to several speci?c embodiments of the
present invention, it is to be understood that the
' present-invention is not limited thereby but is
9. A fuel oil composition containing a large
amount of a mineral oil having fuel oil character
istics and normally tending to form a sediment,
an aluminum naphthenate in an amount insu?l
cient to cause any substantial thickening of the
oil, and a small amount of an organic amine soap.
25,389,400
whereby the formation of sediment is greatly
reduced.
_
10. A fuel oil composition containing a mineral
oil having fuel oil characteristics and normally
tending to form a sediment, an oil soluble metal
soap in an amount insu?icient to cause any sub
stantial thickening of the oil, and a small amount
of diphenylamine oleate, whereby the formation
of sediment is greatly reduced.
'0
11. A fuel oil composition as claimed in claim
10 wherein the composition contains from about
0.01% to about 0.1% of the metal soap and from
‘Ti
14. A stabilized fuel oil containing a mineral oil
having fuel oil characteristics and a small amount
of a stabilizer consisting of about 50% aluminum
naphthenate and about 50% ethylene diamine
oleate.
,_
15. A stabilized fuel oil containing a mineral
oil having fuel oil characteristics and a small
amount of a stabilizer consisting of about 50%
aluminum naphthenate, about 30% diphenyl
amine oleate, about. 10% ethylene diamine oleate,
and about 10% beta naphthol.
16. A fuel oil composition containing a large,
about 0.01% to about 0.1% of diphenylamine
amount of a mineral oil having fuel 011 character
oleate.
istics and normally tending to form a sediment,
12. A compound for reducing the formation of
sediment in mineral oils having fuel oil character- ~
an- oil-soluble metal soap in an amount insu?i
cient to cause any substantial thickening of the
oil, and a small amount of the reaction product
istics and normally tending to form such a sedi
ment consisting oi‘ from about 10% to about 90%
' of at least one aromatic amine with a fatty acid.
of an oil-soluble metal soap and the balance a
promoter selected from the group consisting of ‘
' sediment in‘ a fuel oil normally tending to form
17. A method of reducing the formation of
dipheny1amine,- diphenylamine oleate, and ethyl
such a sediment comprising incorporatingthere
ene diamine oleate.
with an oil-soluble metal soap in an amount in
su?cient to cause any substantial'thickening of
13. A stabilized fuel oil containing a ‘mineral
the oil and‘a small amount of at least one com- '_
oil having fuel oil characteristics and a small
amount of a stabilizer consisting of about 50% 25 pound selected from the group consisting of alkyl
iron naphthenate and about 50% diphenylamine
oleate.
.
amines, arylamines and soaps of organic amines.
‘WAYNE A. PROEIL.
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