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Патент USA US2374190

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April 24, 1945-
Filed March 4, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
| F
é’ G'ervyavzdé.
April 24, ‘1945. v
Filed March 4, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
atented pr. 2%, i945
Waldo G. Gernandt, Detroit, Mich, assignor to
Briggs Manufacturing Company, Detroit, Mich,
a corporation of Michigan
Application March 4, 1942, Serial No. 433,316
13 Claims. (Cl. 123-80)
a severe wedging action or thrust of the valve
- against, its seat and tending to seriously impair
This invention relates to internal combustion
, engines. The invention is particularly applicable
the oil ?lm between the surfaces of the valve and
‘its bearing seat in the cylinder head, resulting
in seizing and scoring of the valve member. Un
to engines of the type having a rotatable valve
driven in properly timed relation to the engine
drive shaft and preferably, although not neces
sarily, of the kind which rotates continuously in
one direction. Also the invention is especially
applicable to an internal combustion engine of
the foregoing kind in which the rotatable valve
- successful attempts have been made to avoid these
disadvantages or dif?culties, in order to attain
efficient and sustained high speed performance,
such as is required for aircraft engines, by resort
ing to elaborate bearing arrangements and by
or rotor mounted in the cylinder head is formed
experimentation with various materials and com
with substantially all or at least the major por
binations of materials for the bearing surfaces
tion of the combustion space and'is generally
of the valve within the cylinder head. I have
conical or frusto-conical in shape.
found that the power output of the engine is
ferred embodiment of the invention the combus
materially affected by the effectiveness of the
tion chamber in the valve has an opening or port
seal of the intake and exhaust ports in the cylin
in the side of the valve adapted to communicate
der ‘head during the compression and power
with an intake or exhaust passage, or both as the
strokes of the piston, particularly the latter and
case may be, and also an opening at the inner
end or bottom of the valve leading to the cylin
der, the combustion chamber otherwise being en~
tirely enclosed or housed within the valve mem
her. The combustible charge within the com—
especially at the time of explosion.
Leakage of _
20 gases between the surfaces of the valve and head
and around these ports will markedly reduce the
Heretofore, where
it was attempted to avoid this by fitting the valve
bustion chamber is fired preferably by spark
quite snugly within its bearing cavity in the head,
25 other di?iculties of a serious nature were imme
Considerable attempts have been made in the
diately encountered, such as the impairment of
past to produce a satisfactory engine of the above
the oil film and consequent seizure of the valve
type with the view to increasing the power and
or scoring thereof.
emciency of an internal combustion engine of any
The foregoing disadvantages and di?culties
given. size or piston displacement. In the con
have been largely overcome by virtue of the pres
struction of an engine of this type it is considered
ent invention, an important object whereof being
desirable that the valve member or rotor be con
to provide an engine of the foregoing type in
structed substantially frusto-conical in shape
which the bearing surface in the cylinder head
with the combustion chamber closed off from the
for the rotor is relieved in such manner as not
outer end of the valve, which end is preferably
only to compensate for uneven thermal expan
in his form of a stem to which the valve driving
sion of the cylinder head but also to permit the
and supporting mechanism is operatively con
rotor to substantially ?oat within its bearing
nected. Serious dlmculties and problems have
cavity or recess-in the cylinder head; As a con
been encountered in obtaining sustained efficient
sequence, it has been possible to obtain sustained
operation of‘ an engine of commercial size con 40 performance at high speed for long periods of
structed in this manner. The principal problems ' time without stoppage and without materially
have had to do with lubrication of the rotary
impairing the oil ?lm between the juxtaposed
valve, providing adequate and su?icient bearings
surface of the rotorand' cylinder head.
for the valve in order to prevent seizing, scoring
A further object of theinvention is to provide
and undue friction during operation, ‘and the
sealing of the combustion chamber against leak- ‘
‘ power output of the engine.
animproved internal combustion engine of the
foregoing type in vwhich considerable of the bear
age of gases and consequent power loss during
ing- load is taken-at the outer end of the frusto
the power and compression strokes of the piston.
conical portion of the valve member or rotor and
The "foregoing problems have been rendered
in the area. in which this hearing load is taken
dimcult of solution because of variations in pres-v 50 there is provided a bearing ring interposed be
sures or forces acting upon the valve during the
engine cycle.~ One major difficulty has arisen by
reason of the effect of theexplosion force or pres
sure in driving the cone-type valve member not
only outwardly but also laterally, thereby causing
‘tween the rotor and the cylinder head.
A further object of the invention is to control
more- effectively the position of the rotor within
55 the cylinder head and thereby avoid scoring and
seizing of the valve, to increase the power output
by reducing leakage of gases around the intake
and exhaust ports, and to improve the lubrica
tion of the valve while reducing oil consumption.
of the cylinder is formed principally within a
rotor or rotary member 25, this member compris
ing a frusto-conical body arranged immediately
above the piston when at the top of its stroke
Still another object of the invention is to sim
and also having a cylindrical stem 26 projecting
plify the bearing for the valve or rotor within
from the outer end of the rotor body. The rotor
the cylinder head, eliminating complicated
. 25 ?ts within a correspondingly shaped substan
thrust bearing arrangements, complicated ad
tially frusto-conical cavity 21 in an upper cylin
justment devices therefor, reducing weight, sav
der head member 28. The cylinder head of the
ing space, increasing the performance life of the 10 engine may be said to comprise two portions or
engine, and permitting the use of less expensive
metals in the fabrication of the rotor valve and
the cylinder head.
Other objects of this invention will appear in
members secured together. and to the upper end
of the cylinder 22. In addition to the outer
member 28 the cylinder head comprises an inter
mediate member 29 which may herein be termed
the rotor mask or shield and forming the pres
sure control member for the rotor and head and
the following description and appended claims,
‘ reference being had to the accompanying" draw
ings forming a part of this speci?cation wherein
also the throat opening from the cylinder into
like reference characters designate correspond
the combustion chamber.
ing parts in the several views.
The upper or outer end of the cylinder is
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary sectional elevation 20 formed with externalthreads which are engaged
illustrating a portion of a, multi-cylinder engine
by internal threads on the cylindrical skirt‘por
embodying the present invention.
tion of the head member 29 as indicated at 31.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional
The member 29 in turn is provided with external
‘elevation illustrating particularly the associated
threads which are engaged by internal threads
on the cylindrical skirt portion of the outer cyl
cylinder head and rotary valve or combustion
' chamber structure shown in Fig. 1.
_inder head member 28, as indicated at 30. From
Fig. 3 is a section taken substantially through
this construction it will be seen that the cylinder
lines 3—3 of Fig. 1 looking in the direction of
head or mask member 29 may be screwed down
the arrows.
tightly over the outer end of the cylinder 22 until
Fig. 4 is a bottom plan view of a portion of 30 the annular shoulder 29a of the member 29 sub
the cylinder head illustrating particularly ‘the
stantially abuts against or engages the upper or
bearing cavity for the rotor or rotary valve.
Fig. 5 is a section taken substantially through
lines 5—5 of Fig‘. 4 looking in the direction of‘
outer edge of the cylinder, as shown in Figs. 1
and 2. Also it will be seen that the outer cylin
der head member 28 is screwed down tightly over
the member 29 until the bottom shoulder 28a of
the arrows.
' Fig. 6 is a section taken substantially through
the head , 28 substantially engages or abuts
lines 6-46 of Fig. 5 looking in the direction 10f
against the upper ?at ledge or face 291) of the
the arrows.
mask member or ?re plate 29.
Fig. 7 is a view partly in section of the drive
The rotor mask or shield 29 terminates cen
40 trally in a projecting annular ?ange 32 which
Before explaining in detail the present inven
forms the throat opening 33 into the combustion
chamber 34 of the rotor member or rotary valve
tion it is to be understood that the invention is
not limited in its application to the "details of
25. . This rotor is formed at its .bottom with an‘
construction and arrangement of parts illus
annular recessed portion 25a, the-upper surface _
trated in the accompanying drawings, since the 45 of which ?ts smoothly upon the upper ?at face
invention is capable of other embodiments and
of the throat flange 32 and the side wall of which
of being practiced or carried out in various ways.
smoothly ?ts against the outer annular surface
Also it is to be understood that the phraseology
of the throat ?ange 32, there being an operating
or terminology employed herein is for the pur-'
clearance between the juxtaposed surfaces of the
pose of description and not of limitation.
50, rotor 25 and the plate 29. The lower or inner
end 25b of the rotor, which is annular in shape
In the drawings there is illustrated, by way of
gear for the rotor.
and which terminates in a smooth flat surface,
. ?ts snugly into and is con?ned Within the an
nular recess formed‘ between the outer face of
‘ example, one embodiment of the invention as
applied to an internal combustion engine of the
, spark ignition type designed particularly for the
the throat ?ange 32 and the inner tapered wall
power plant of an aircraft. The invention may
obviously be embodied in engines for other. pur
poses, such as automotive, marine and industrial
engines. For most uses the engine is of the
_ multi-cylinder type. although any number of cyl- _
inder units may be employed in any given engine.
In the present embodiment, for the purposes ‘of
simplicity, a single cylinder unit of the'engine
_is illustrated, it being understood that'the re;
of the rotor cavity or chamber .21. '
The piston 23 is preferably formed at its outer
end with a tapered portion 23a, as illustrated in
Fig. 1, which projects into the throat opening 33,
thereby reducing the size of the combustion space
and preferably con?ning the combustion chamber
substantially to the space within the rotor 25.
The piston at the top of" its stroke, as shown in
Fig. 1, preferably has only a minimum operating
maining cylinders of the engine are identical to
the structure herein shown and described.
65 clearance with the bottom correspondingly ta
Referring to Fig. l, the present engine com
_ pered wall of the mask or ?re plate 29. The up
wardly inclined wall 29c of the mask or ?re plate
29 merges into the annular inner wall or surface
320. of the ?ange 32 forming the throat opening,
according to conventional practice. A cylinder
22 is secured rigidly to the crankcase and has its 70 the surfaces 290 and 32a being joined by a smooth
lower or inner end projecting thereinto. Mount
curved surface as shownjn the drawings. It will
ed to reciprocate within the cylinder is a piston
thus be seen that the throat ?ange 32 provides a
23 adapted to be connected in the usual manner
restricted passage between the cylinder and th
by a connecting rod 24 to the crankshaft 2|.
combustion space 34.
In' the present engine the combustion chamber. 76
The present engine is illustrated as being air
prises a suitable crankcase 20 within which is
mounted a crankshaft 2| supported in bearings
cooled and, accordingly, the cylinder .22 is pro
vided with projecting ?ns 35. ‘ Cooling ?ns 86
and i‘! are also provided on the cylinder head
members 28 and 29, respectively. It will be un
derstood that the present invention is not limited
to an air cooled enmne as it will be apparent that
any e?ectlve cooling system may be utilized.
The rotor 25 is driven-through the medium oi
the stem 26 which is positively connected to a
driving gear in such manner as to permit slight
tapped hole for the. reception of a spark plug of
any suitableltypc. The intake and exhaust ports '
or passages 80‘ and 82, formed in the cylinder
head 28,~open into the frusto-conicalv cavity ll
of the cylinder head and at these points the pas
sages 88 and 62 are shaped i'n'the manner illus
trated in Fig. 4. The inlet. passage to communi
cates with an intake conduit 88 and the outlet
passage‘ 62 communicates with an exhaust con~
1° (hill; is. these conduits being coupled to the cylin
der head body 28 in any suitable manner such as
relative axial and radial movement between the
through the medium of clamping rings and bolts
driving gear and the rotor. The stem 28 of the
65 and 80, respectively. ‘
rotor is provided with external longitudinal
The present engine preferably utillm's a fuel
splines 33 and is also provided with internal 15 lniectlon system instead or a carburetor, although
threads within the cylindrical bore thereof. The
it will be understood that the invention is not so
rotor is driven by a gear 39 having suitable gear
a limited. Fuel is preferably supplied to the air
teeth it, this gear being formed with 9. depending
stream directed through the inlet passages 83. so
cylindrical hub or sleeve 4| having a slidinst?t
‘into the combustion chamber when the port 59 in
over the stem 25. The gear ‘I also has internal 20 the rotor 25 registers with the port or passage to. 1
tooth-like splines 42. A coupling member 43 ?ts
Fuel may be injected through the medium of any
within the annular space formed between the
suitable .fuel. injector (not shown) so that the
teeth 42 or the driving gear 39, this coupling _. rotor will be supplied with the proper combustible >
member having exterior teeth or splines Ill ?t- mixture at the time oi ignition, namely when the
ting into the spaces between the splines 42 of the 25 port it registers with the spark plug at location
driving gear and also having internal splines 45
6_ I. It will be- understood that suitable lubricat
?tting within the spaces formed by the splines
lng means is provided for the rotor 25 and also
38 of the stem 28.
for the operating parts of the engine so as to
an annular tapered
engageable with a
maintain an oil ?lm between all surfaces requir
correspondingly shaped tapered surface 39s of
inc lubrication. Such lubricating means in part
the gear 39. t8 isa clamping nut having exter
may be similar to that shown and described in
nal threads engageable with the threads or the
the patent to Isley, 2,305,874, December 22, 1942.
valve stem 28 and having ‘an outwardly project
‘The frustoeconical cavity. 21. in the cylinder
ing hex formed ?ange I1. Inter-posed between
> head 28 terminates at its upper end in a cylin
this ?ange and the endofthe stemliisaspring 35 drical counterbore within which is press ?tted
washer 48 ,'
a central aperture through
a sleeve or bushing 61. The sleeve or hub por-'
which the clamping nut projects, the washer be
tion "of gear 39 rotates within the bushing W.
ing of a suillcient diameter to engage the upper
The bushing 61 at one side thereoi is provided
face of the gear 39, as shownoin Fig. 2.
with verticallyv spaced radially extending holes
The rotor
25. is cored entirely around the 44) or ports 68 and 69. The upper/hole or port Bl
combustion. or ‘34 to provide a cavity 48
registers with and is constantly in communica-,
which is closed at the upper end of the valve by
tion with a transverse ‘drilled hole ‘It in the upper
means of a screw plug 5,! screwed tightly into '
end of the cylinder head. Lubricating oil is sup
plied under constant pressure to the passage.
the clampingnut it, Any suitable heat transfer 45 or conduit 10 through the medium otany suit
or conducting mediumsuch as metallic sodium.
‘ableoilpump ‘system. The lower hole or port .
is introduced into the cavity 4! thrwsh the hill
llreglsterswith andisccnstantlyincommuni
the threaded portion of the valve stem 26 below
low stem 26, andgsealcd therein by the‘ screw.
plus 5!"
o! the cavity'l‘l and henceto the spaoelbetween
the. adjacent walls or the rotor lf'and the cav
. ductsorpassases?. Thesleevelloithegeari!
is provided with-an annular groove or channel
"5;. nmcemanwmcnregistersandismeomtant
communication with the port” and hence with
the oil inlet conduit 10. At one point in the an
vnular groove or channel 1:.there is provided a
gear 53 which isdrlven bye gear" eecuredto
the upper end of a tower shaft". 'lhis shaftis
suitably housed and hss'secured to the lower end
. communicatlns groove or notch ‘ll which extends
thereof a gear 55 which is driven through the ‘so downwardly from the channel ‘I3. This groove
medium of suitable 'gearina 5111mm a gear 58 ‘ ,or notch 74 is adapted to reaisternat each revo- '
t It.’
, luticn oi‘thc gear “and, hence at each revolu
Itwillbeseen thatinthepartlcularembodi
tion or the rotor 25 with the port 69 leading-into
the communicating oil passage ‘IL- Thus, it will
()nent herein illustratedkge rotor or valve 25 has >
a single port 59 in its
e‘. communicating with 65 be seen that at each revolution of the driving gear
the combustion chamber 88 adapted to register
in succession with an intake port 68, a spark plug
at location ti, and an exhaust port 62. In this
emhodimeht,~ therefore; the valve or rotor 25 is
driven at one-
engine or c =' a; aft speed.
The driving mechanism, above described and
shown in the drawings, is illustrative oi’. a suit
38 and of therotor 2B the oil inlctpassage ‘It
i will be placed in direct'communicaticn with the
oil distributing-passage ‘H throush-the medium‘
orthe ‘oil ports.“ and-691ml oil passage ‘l6
7a which bridges thespace between these ports.
able mechanism by which one or a plurality of '
rotary valves for a corresponding plurality of
cylinders may be driven from the‘ ~ : =1‘: _ - art.
The spark lug location ti is in the form of a‘ 75
In thisv manner the ,oil delivered to the valve for
lubricating it is-metered and as a consequence
more e?lcient control of the oil consumption is
It willv be noted that the distributing passage
‘II and ducts 12 are located in the cylinder head
‘opposite the sparlr plug locatiom At the time
of thing the charge’ in the combustion chamber]
34 the explosion pressure tends to ‘shift the valve
laterally toward the opposite wall of the cavity
adjacent the inlet port ll. At points II and
ll; spaced from the exhaust and inlet ports
02 and I0. respectively. the relief 11 is substan
tially zero and from these points- increases in
depth to point 22 opposite the center of the spark
21 and also outw
Due to this shifting,“
the valve under the force of the explosion vit is
plug opening ll . From this construction it will be
» desirable that an adequate oil film be provided '
"at the locality‘ of greatest pressure of the valve
' againstthe wall of ‘the cylinder head. ,In the
seenthat this relieved area 11 tapers in depth
in two directions, namely in the direction of the‘
height’ of the valve and also in a. circumferen
tial direction. The relief has its maximum
depth at the bottom of the cavity 21 at point
present engine it is preferred‘ that the passage
‘ll connect the ports "and "at or Just prior‘.
82 in line with the center of the spark plug hole
to ignition‘ solthat the shift of the valve under . ‘I.
.this point the relief diminishes in
theexplosion pressure will be against a bodyof ‘ depthFrom
upwardly until it becomes zero at curved
oil already forced and being ji'orced between the 15
line 18‘. Also the-relieved area diminishes in
juxtaposed surfaces of the valve and head, which
' depth circumferentially in both directions from
oil‘ will be squeezed vout between the surfaces to
point 82 until it reaches zero at lines Ill and 8|.
produce and maintain‘ an ‘unbroken oil film
In the drawings-the amount oi! the relief 11 is
which not only prevent scoring but also assists
shown somewhat exaggerated for the purposes
in sealing the ‘ports 6.. and 62 against gas leak
ageand consequent loss of power.
of cleamess. In preferred practice this relief at
-the point of greatest depth will range from ap
- ‘Interposed‘between the upper end of the tap
' ered wall~of the valve'or rotor 25 and the cor
proximately four-to eight thousandths of an inch
in depth over and above normal operating'clear
ances. Normally an operating clearance‘ of ap
‘ 'I - cavity 21' is‘ a-rotatable \thrustPbearin'g ring 15
25 proximately one to two thousandths of an inch
‘ formed of'a- suitablev material such as bronze or
> . leadbronze alloy.\-'I'he.rotor is formed with an an
‘is provided
between‘the rotor
of an and
» 're‘spo'ndingly tapered 'wallof the cylinder head
» ‘ 1 nularly' extending recess ‘lito receive the frustoe ‘
bottom of_.the rotor-and the plate‘ 29. The
amount of the relief will, of course, depend to
30 some extent upon the relative expansion rates
I "
Zconical ‘ring-‘I5 which is dzfree ?oating bearing
between‘ the. rotor-and cylinder head. . v-In_the
~- ‘ present embodiment vof-"the invention the upper
of the-cone 2i-and ‘the cylinder head.
edge'of'the bearin'gring terminates substantially
‘ . atithe‘ lower edgeieoi'
' » By providing the ‘relief 11 it will be seen‘ that
~ the cone or rotor 25 last all times maintained
out'er ‘cylindrical sur-_
f'aceof the rotor stem 26 and the recess ‘is formed
-, .‘so' that the outer-surface. of the bearing ring is 35 free within the bearing cavity 21 regardless of
thermal expansion ‘of the;metal of the parts.
I?ush withthe outersurface of the rotor 25. The
:width of the _;bearing'ring 15 is such that its . Thus, at the time of theexplosion when a force
exists tending'to ‘thrust the rotor 25 outwardly,
.lower edge is.v located a'suitable distance above
Q the upperedges'of thevlports 60 and 62 and simi
'-.~ larly: above ‘the port 69. Since the ring" is
' this thrust will largely be taken at the bearing
15‘. _ Since the bearing pressure of the cone below
.. free from positivéronnection: with therotor and 40 the ring,“ is slightly relieved by reason of the
thev cylinder head, and therefore substantially varea l1, itwill be apparent that during the power
stroke and also the‘compression~ ‘stroke the unit
:l?oats'therebetweeni- it will be seen that thering
pressure. at the unrelieved areasaround the ports ,
~. _;W1l1_:haVe>f'l‘0t_atiOIl81' movement imparted .to. it ‘
during rotation-of the rotor. Np'rmallythe ring ' 60 and 62 in the cavity l‘l-will be increased there
‘15, will'tum at half= the speed-of the rotor. A, , .by?improvlng the seal around these ports against
; leakage of gases and consequent loss in power. ’
vvveryqef?cientyandslongglived I bearing 7 is thus
~-.-;.Provided-i $.12:
~ .Hence, 'onesof the advantages of the provision of
cavity 121': the cylinder
.the ~rellevédI-1‘area 11 is to improve .the‘sealing
and '62 during‘. power. and com
‘mentary‘to‘ the;- shape ,oi-the ~rotor~_25; isfin ;the so pression strokes while at the same time freeing
- ‘ >Thc< frustosconlcal
‘ head, ;‘ which ._.normally.- has. a
. 2.01‘, thetport'sitil
the valve-'sumciently to prevent sticking; or-scor
~-Dresentxinstanpesrelievedg atlone side in, order
* ing.
.. . ;.to~-,a?’ord. a» certain freedom Jof- movement of‘ the
The relief is greatest=at thezbottom- of the '
v'alveowing tothe fact that therelative expan- v‘
s :-.rotary valvewithintheibearing cavity, resulting
slon,_ofwthe head and‘ cone is greatest-atv this
'51 iii-important advantages :in operation
r. marten pointed qqutiajzln accordance ,with - the 55 polnt',‘=and the amount of the relief is calculated
.presentembedimenty?f the‘. invention metal 151 1 ' ~' so thatthevalve at all times will have, av running
-} removed :tronr the wallmofi the .bearingfcavity 21
-at. thetsidethereolI ‘opposite theports Bland i2
~. ntoiprovide a-relieved area indicated‘at'l'l,‘ Re
lit and will be permitted-a slight degree of lateral
and-outward- displacement in order to e?ectively
.~seal.the ports-60 and 62 and also to concentrate
r‘ ferring particularly ‘to Flgs.»2, 4 and 5, itwill be . on
seen that this relief’ varies. in: depth from its
most of the outward thrust against the hearing
The use, of the ?oating bearing ring 15 has
the further advantage of permitting substantial
savings in ‘the cost of metals used for manufac
line 19 just‘ below the bearing ring- 15 at or near
the upper edge of the port 59 and extends to the 65 ‘turing the head and the valv'e 25. By virtue of
this construction it is possible» to use cast iron
mask plate 29 as indicated by line 18. The re
in the head'instead of aluminum as heretofore
lieved ' area thus extends between . the ‘curved
and also to use inexpensive steel in the manu
lines 19 and 18, at line 19 the relief being sub
facture of the cone 25.
. stantially zero in depth and at ‘I8 the relief
being maximum in depth. As shown in Fig. 4 70
1. An internal combustion engine comprising
the' relieved area ‘ll extends substantially half
-a ‘cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein,
way around the bearing cavity 21 in the cylinder
a rotatable frusto-conical valve associated with
head._t,erminating at one end at. 80 adjacent the
exhaust port 621 and at its opposite‘ end at 8| 76. the cylinder, and including therein a substantial
portion of the combustion space, and a ?xed body
upper end, toward the bottom of the valve. -As .
1 illustrated, theYrelieved area 11 commences at a
2,374,190 '
cylinder and including therein asubst'antial por
having a irusto-conical bearing cavity for said
tion‘ot the combustion space, a ?xed body having '
valve, a portion of the wall or said cavity having . fa irusto-conical bearing cavity for said-valve, a
portion or the wall of_ said cavity having a re-.
a relieved area of varying depth.
2. An internal combustion engine comprising
lieved area, and a
ring interposed be
a cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein,
tween said valve and the'wall of the cavity and
a rotatable frusto-conical valve associated with
spaced from said relieved area.
the cylinder and including therein a substantial
9. An internal combustion engine comprising a
portion of the combustion space, and a ?xed body
cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein, a
having a frusto-conical bearing'cavity- for said
rotatable irusto-conical valve associated with the
valve, a portion of the wall of said cavity having
cylinder and including therein a substantial por
a relieved area of varying depth from one end
tionv of the combustion space, a ?xed body hav'-‘
ing a irusto-conical bearing cavity for said valve,
a portion of the wall of said cavity having a
a cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein, a
relieved area, and a bearing ring ‘interposed be
rotatable frusto-conical valve associated ‘with the
tween said valve and the wall 01' the cavity ad
cylinder and including therein a substantial por
jacent the narrower end of the valve and spaced
tion of the combustion space, and a ?xed body
from said relieved area.
having _a frusto-conical bearing cavity for said ‘i
10. An internal combustion engine comprising
valve, a portion of the wall of said cavity having
a cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein,
a relieved area of varyingdepth circumi’erentially
a rotatablev 'irusto-conical valve associated with
toward the other end of the valve.
3; An internal combustion engine comprising
of the valve.
the cylinder and including therein “a substantial
portion of the combustion space, a ?xed body
4. An internal ‘combustion engine comprising a
cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein, a - having a frusto-conical bearing ‘cavity for said .
rotatable frusto-conical valve ‘associated with . - valve, a portion of the wall of said cavity having
the cylinder and including therein a substantial
a relieved area, and a bearing ring interposed
' portion or‘ the combustion space, a ?xed body,
between said valve and the wall of the cavity ad
jacent the narrower end of the valve andv spaced
having a, frusto-conical bearing cavity for said
valve, adjacently located intake and exhaust
ports in said cavity, the wall of said ‘cavity op
posite said ports having a relieved area.
5. An internal combustion engine comprising a
cylinder having a‘ reciprocable’piston therein, a
rotatable frusto-conical valve associated with
the cylinder and including therein a substantial
portion or the combustion space, a ?xed body
having a frusto-conical bearing“ cavity for said
from said relieved area, said relieved area in
creasing in depth from the said narrower end 0!
the valve toward the wider end. '
11. An internal combustion engine ‘comprising
'a cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein, a
rotatable generally: frusto-conical valve asso
" ciated with the cylinder‘ and including therein
asubstantial portion of the combustionspace,
said valve having a side port communicating
valve, adjaéently located intakeand exhaust ports
with said space, and a ?xed body having‘ a gen
in said cavity, the wall ‘of saidcavity opposite
said ports having a relieved area terminating
erally frusto-conical bearing cavity for said valve,
short of said ports.
the wall of said cavity andthe valve terminating
6. An internal combustion engine comprising a
there being a relieved area between a ‘portion of .
proximate to the upper edge of said port.
12.‘ An internal combustion enginecomprising
‘cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein, a I
a cylinder__'having a reciprocable piston therein,
cylinder and- including therein a substantial por-, 15.g a rotatable frusto-conical valve associated ‘with
tion of the combustion space, a ?xed body having
' the cylinder and including therein a substantial
a irusto-conical bearing cavity for said valve, ad
portionof the combustion space, and
iaoentlyjlocated intake and exhaust ports in said
having a frusto-conical bearing cavity for said
‘cavity, the wall of said cavity opposite said ports
valve, there being a relieved area of varying depth
having-agrelievedarea terminatingshort of said 50 between a portion oi thewall of 'said cavity and
rotatable rrusto-conical .valve associated with the
ports and oLvarying ‘depth from ‘one end oi‘the
area to the others
said ‘valve.
T _
13. An internal combustion engine comprising
7; An internal‘ combustion engine comprising a
cylinder having a reciprocable ‘piston therein, a
a cylinder having a reciprocable piston therein,
a rotatable frusto-coni‘cal valve associated with.
vrotatable frusto-conical valve associated with the
the cylinder and including therein asubstantial
time! the combustion space, a fixed body having ‘
portion of‘ the 'combustion spacer'and a ?xed body
having a frusto-conical bearing cavity for said
»‘\a frusto-conical .
ring cavity for said-valve, '
valve, said valve
a side portcommunicat
, above said port,
there being a ‘relieved area be
ing with said space and a bearing in ‘said cavity
addacently located intake andexhaust ‘ports in
said cavity, the wall or said cavity opposite saidL
ports having a relieved area,oi increasing depth
- from. the narrower end or ,ithe Jvalve' toward the ‘
wider end.
.8. An internal combustion engine comprising a I ,
, I
having a reci rocable piston therein,‘thea:
’ rotatable frusto-coni
valve associated with
tween vsaid valve and the wall of the
cavity imq
:‘mediately below said bearing in the height of said
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