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April 24, 1945. K. AI WRlGHT 2,374,317 WELL PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT Filed Dec. l0, 1940 _ 2 Sheets-Sheet l lkîlî È ìGS' \ ~ A ä :Q ì Tè Á Àpriì 24, 1945. K. A_ WRlGHT 2,374,317 WELL PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT Filed Deo. 10, 1940 . 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 f2 - 24 22 l f4 /5 . @ai 4 ,f 25 - W31 2'? ‘ v > mi (ä Él. Arrows/¿fn 2,374,317 Patented Apr. 24, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,374,317 WELL PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT Kenneth A. Wright, Los Angeles, Calif. Application December 10, 1940, Serial No. 369,389 15 Claims. This invention relates to well production equip ment, and particularly pertains to inventions of the general type shown in my (zo-pending appli cation entitled “Method and means of condition ing the walls of well bores,” Serial No. 291,027, filed in the United States Patent Office by me on August 19, 1939, and is a continuation _in part. In preparing oil wells for production it is often (ci. 16e-1s) the cement to the wall of the well bore is ob tained. ' When it is desired to produce a Well through a perforated casing which is placed in the Well, the mud cake left on the wall of the Well bore may retard or prevent the oil and/or gas or fluids in the strata from entering the perforated cas ing. It is desirable to remove this mud cake from the wall of the well «bore prior to putting the well necessary to set a perforated or flank casing in the well, and it is also common practice to cement 10 on production. To do this the mud rcake must be abraded and loosened from the wall of the well casing in position within the well bore. In order bore and then fluid must be circulated to carry to do this the casing is lowered into the well the loosened material from the hole. To accom and is cemented in place 1by circulating the ce plish this it is desirable to attach an a-brading ment slurry downwardly through the casing and member permanently to the perforated casing, then upwardly within the well bore and around which casing and abrading member remains with the casing. The cement is intended to ñll the in the well after the removal of the mud cake has space Ibetween the casing and the walls of the well been completed. Movement of the casing and bore and to form a suitable 'bond with the side abrading member may take place either up or walls of the Well. It has ‘been found in actual practice that mud 20 down within the bore or 'by rotation of the casing. Attention is called to the fact that under normal remaining on the walls of the well bore after well conditions when a well is being drilled 0r a drilling operations is often responsible for ce casing set, the well is filled with drilling fluid. mcnting failures due to the fact that the ñuid This drilling ñuid carries an appreciable propor which is circulated ahead of the cement, or the tion of suspended solids which tend to settle out cement itself, will not eiîectually remove the mud of the suspending liquid and to deposit on the Wall cake. The presence of mud cake on the walls of of the well bore in a sheath. When various de the well bore causes “channeling” and also pre~ vices have been used heretofore'to ream the wall vents the cement from completely filling the an of a well it has been necessary to remove those nular space between the wall of the well bore and the casing to form a bond between the actual wall 30 devices by withdrawing the complete assembly from the well before a well casing could be set. of the bore and the casing. The mud cake left In such instances it will be appreciated that not on the wall of the hole during cementing of a cas only will the loosened material tend to accumu ing. or the like. is often the cause of weakness late in the bottom of the well Ibut that also the which may result in failure of the cementingr operation. This failure to obtain a Fbond as de 35 drilling ñuid standing in the well will cause an additional sheath or layer to form on the wall scribed, and also the channeling, may be respon of the well during the time the reaming assem bly is being removed and the time while the per manent casing structure is being lowered into the mingling of fluids or gas contained in such strata. In order to obtain an effective cementing of 40 well. It is therefore desirable to provide a de vice which will permit the wall of the well to be the casing it is necessary that the bond of the conditioned rapidly just as the casing is being set cement with the well bore shall be continuous without the necessity of an elapsed period of time from the bottom of the casing to the top of the occurring within which a new sheath of material cemented area. It is also necessary to form a may accumulate on the Wall of the well to defeat continuous cementing bond behind the casing in the very purpose sought to fbe obtained when the any given strata and a failure of the cement may wall was scraped. result in undesirable leakage and in allowing It is the principal object of the present inven water to invade the producing zones. This failure tion, therefore, to provide a means of condition may also create high gas oil ratios or the flood ing of producing zones by water. In order to 50 ing the wall of the `well bore rapidly so that ce menting operations can `be aided and so that by obtain the most effective cemcnting of well cas removing the mud cake the exposed strata be ing within a Well bore it is desirable to insure hind the perforated casing in the well may pro that uniform distribution of cement is made duce its contained fluid and gas freely and per around therasing and between it and the wall of the well bore, and that uniform lbonding of 55 mit a casing to be promptly set before a new sible for failure to effectively separate or isolate one stratum from another and thus result in com- t 2 2,374,317 vïsheath of mud accumulates on the wall of the well bore. It is also an object of the invention to provide means i or centering the casing in the well 'bore so that uniform spacing will occur around the casing, the said method being simple in its performance and embodying the use of an inexpensive and easily operable means for ac comfplishing the same. Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view as seen on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3 showing the cross sectional formation of the ribs. Fig. 6 is a view in perspective showing one of the spring guide and cleaning elements of the unit provided by the invention. Referring more particularly to the drawings. I0 indicates a well bore. Positioned within the well bore is a string of casing II. This casing a unit or device for abrading the wall of a well 10 may be perforate (as shown in Fig. 1‘ where it is bore and for centering a casing in the bore, which designated as IIß), or imperforate (as shown in is characterized by novel spring elements an Fig. l), as required, and may be fitted with a chored to the body of the device in such a man lplurality of cleaning and guide units as generally ner that they may flex and work during opera indicated at I2. It will be seen that' these units tion with little or no danger of failure or detach 15 I2 may be spaced from each other throughout ment. 'I‘he spring elements are of novel shape a selected length of the casing, and-'that they act to be effective in the ab'rading of the well wall to position the casing centrally ofthe well bore and in centering the casing in the well bore I0. l without gouging into the earth formation and 'I'he lower end of the casing II is provided with without becoming caught. 'I'he securing or an 20 a suitable guide shoe I3. choring means for these spring elements is such Where the casing II‘i is perforated or in the that extensive integral shanks of the elements nature of a screen as shown in Fig. ll, a remov are subjected to a mild torque action when the »able wash pipe 30 is lprovided to conduct fluid elements are in operation, the torque being dis therethrough. The wash pipe 3U extends longi tributed along the Shanks for a substantial dis 25 tudinally through the casing to the shoe I3 so tance so that there is no danger of permanent that the fluid is conducted downwardly to the distortion or fracture. shoe for discharge into the well. A cleaning and A further object of this invention is to provide centering guide is shown in detail in Figs. 2 to abradingv and casing centering devices of the 4 of the drawings. Here it will be seen that each character referred to that are sturdy and depend 30 unit comprises an inner sleeve I4 secured on the alble and yet are simple and inexpensive to man casing II and around the circumference of ufacture. 'I'he low cost of the albrading units which are mounted ribs I5. The ribs I5 extend allows the employment of an adequate number ' longitudinally of the sleeve and are secured at of the units on the casingwhich is to be per their opposite ends to the outer circumferential manently set or cemented in the well. 35 face of the sleeve. By reference to Fig. 3 it will The present invention contemplates the .pro be seen that the opposite ends of the ribs, as in vision of a well casing section, adapted to be per dicated at I6, lie iiat against the circumferential manently set within a well bore. and which cas face of the sleeve and may be spot welded in ing carries a plurality of yieldable wall guides or place. The major portion of each rib, as indi abrading units adapted to be manipulated or 40 cated at I1, is of angle section, having an outer moved longitudinally or around in the bore, to portion I8 parallel to the outer circumference of clean the wall of the well b'ore and to space the the sleeve and an inturned portion I9 stand Another object of the invention is to provide casing concentrically with relation thereto for well cementing operations, the abrading op- ., eration to be. accompanied by the circulation of a desired fluid to remove or flush out of the well bore the abraded and loosened mud cake. This fluid may be any suitable fluid, such as ingV substantially radially with respect to the sleeve. The intumed portions I8 are formed with a plurality of recesses 20 which are spaced apart lengthwise of each rib and form guide seats for the shanks 2l of the cleaning and spacing iin gers 22. water, oil, acid or alkaline solutions, or water treated with desirable reagents, such as chemicals for reducing surface tension. which chemicals are known as wetting reagents. The invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which: The spring finger structure is shown particu larly in Fig. 6 of the drawings. Here it will be seen that the shank portion 2l is arcuate and as'indicated in Fig. 4 conforms to the outer cir tion of Fig. 1 showing a slightly modified form of the invention. well bore I0. An upturned end part 24 is provided cumference of the sleeve I4. At one end of the spring element 2I the finger 22 occurs. 'I’his Figure 1 is a vertical section of a well showing 65 'finger is arranged or shaped to assume a radial a casing and device of the present invention in position with relation to the circumference of the elevation therein with la portion near the lower sleeve. 'I'he length of the finger 22 is greater than end broken away to show in section. the width of the annulus or space 23 which oc Fig. l* is a sectional view similar to a por curs between the casing II and the wall of the Fig. 2 is an enlarged view in transverse sec tion as seen on the line 2--2 of Fig.' 1, and dis closes the manner in which the casing is cen on the outer end of each finger 22 to act on the wall *of the well. 'I'he shank 2| and the finger 22 are‘ formed integral from a continuous piece of round stock spring material. The end of the tered in the well bore by the device of the present 05 spring shank portion 2I opposite from that invention. on‘which the finger 22 occurs is bent outwardly, Fig. 3 is an enlarged view in side elevation as indicated at 25, and extends through a per showing one of the spacing and abrading units foration 26 in the portion I1 of a rib beneath provided by the invention in |place on a casing which it terminates. The extending portion at and with a portion broken away to show in sec 70 25 'is "riveted over" so that this end of the spring tion. Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section and elevation as seen on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3, showing the construction of the guide unit. shank 2| is held in position. By reference to Fig. 4 it will be seen that each spring shank 2I is of substantial length. By ref erence to Fig. 3 it will be seen that the spring and finger elements 'are arranged in spiralled or hel 2,374,317 ical sets, the fingers 22 being disposed radially of the sleeve and spaced consecutively around the 3 the width thereof. In the present instance ñve Where the casing || is imperforate, as shown in Fig. 1, the fluid is pumped down through the casing and discharges from the shoe I3 to flow upwardly through the annulus 23 to the ground surface. When the casing employed is perfo rated, as shown in Fig. 1a, the ñuld passes down through the wash pipe 30 to discharge into the well at the shoe I3 and returns upwardly through the space between the casing Il and the well 10 wall. The ñuid thus circulated through the well sets of springs are shown as thus arranged. The serves vto carry away the solid matter or mud cake sleeve in equal spaced relation to each other. The consecutive ñngers 22 with their spring shanks 2| are disposed in separate horizontal planes as ' determined by the spacing and number of per forations 20. Each set of springs and fingers lies along a helix line extending substantially from one edge to the other of the sleeve I4 and across formation, proportions and mountings of the spring insure that the spring ñngers 22 will uni versally adapt themselves to the surface of the well bore, whether in a cleaning or spacing oper ation. ` It is to be understood that since the spring fingers 22 are all of the same radial length their outer ends when unflexed terminate an equal distance from the sleeve. Attention is also di rected to the fact that since the arcuate spring that is being removed from the well wall by the abradingunits |2, serves to wash or clean the well wall and operates to prevent'the mud from 15 re-depositing or re-forming on the abraded well.4 wall. The character of the fluid employed at this stage of the operation may vary with the oper ating conditions. In most instances the fluid employed may be clean water or oil but, in other cases, it may be desirable or necessary to employ an acidizing solution or a solution containing a shanks 2| extend for a considerable distance wetting agent. The fluid may be circulated dur around the circumference of the sleeve they ex ing the entire abrading operation to carry away tend beneath a plurality of ribs |5 and seat within the major portion of the mud or material removed a plurality of the recesses 20 in these ribs. Thus 25 from the well wall by the units I2. The wash pipe the springs are each held at a plurality of points 30 is withdrawn following the abrading .and cir to properly support the spring shank 2| and their cullating operations and prior to producing the ñngers 22 during a time when the spring iingers we l. are being flexed, It will he further seen that When imperforate casing is being set, landed since the ends of each of the spring portions 2| 30 or cemented, the abrading and the circulating are anchored by their extensions 25 the spring operations are celrrìed out simultaneously as may be subjected to fa suitable torque action while above described. As the abrading operation con allowing swinging of the spring lingers longitudi tinues cement slurry is usually substituted for nally of the sleeve. the circulating or mud iiJuid, that is, cement In operation of the apparatus here disclosed and 35 slurry is passed down through the casing || and a typical method to be practised the cleaning and discharges from the shoe |.3 to occupy the an centering guide units l2 are iixed on the casing nulus 23 throughout a selected portion of the in spaced relation to each other along a desired well. The abrading action may be continued dur length of the casing. This length of casing ing the delivery of the cement slurry to assure the should normally represent the thickness of strata 40 direct intimate contact of the cement slurry with including the producing formation and the area the virgin earth formation. in which cementing operations are to be carried It is to be observed that the guide members onv The units l2 are proportioned so that a |2 sustain the casing || in a position concentric circumferential line including the ends of the with the well bore so that a uniform thickness spring iingers 22 has a diameter somewhat greater of cement is provided around the casing and the than the inside diameter of the well bore so that cement fills the annulus of the well bore to a as the casing is lowered into the hole the spring selected level and bonds directly with the ñngers frictionally and yieldingly engage the clean native formation penetrated by the well walls of the well bore, and ilex upwardlv as the bore. . When the cement is set it will be evident casing moves downwardly. The strength of the 50 that the well casing, together with the guide units spring fingers is such that the collective action of |2, will be held in the well permanently by the cement, and that the presence of the guide units the guide units tends to center the casing in the well bore. It is desirable to mount the guide including the plurality of fingers 22 imbedded units l2 permanently on the casing || or well within the cement will insure a thorough bond screen as the case may be. The casing is lowered 55 and union between the cement and the well cas ing. into position in the well and then reciprocated From the foregoing it will be evident that the and/or rotated within the well bore for any de following advantages are obtained by the prac sired distance, such for example as a distance tice of the present invention: lgreater than that occurring between adjacent (a) The advantage of cleaning the walls of a guide units. As previously explained. when the 60 well bore just before and during the placing of casing is moving downwardly, the fingers 22 flex upwardly and the curved ends 24 ride along the the cement slurry, removing the mud cake from wall of the well bore while centering the casing. the wall of the well bore, thus permitting actual When a lifting. lowering or rotating ‘action is contact between the cement and the walls of the _ produced the ends of the fingers 22 frictionally 65 fonmation. (b) The advantage of agitating the cement engage the well bore, and these fingers tend to iiex so that the end points of the portions 24 while it is being lplaced in its ultimate position -and location in the well bore and thus «preventing scratch the walls of the well bore. This is ef the channeling of the cement slurry. fective in removing the mud cake. and since the 70 various ñngers 22 of each guide unit are _arranged (c) The advantage of abrading the walls of in staggered relation to each other the wall is the well bore at the point where the cement is to be placed. simultaneously engaged in different planes so that a thorough abrading action is effected. Dur (d) The advantage of continuous centering of ing this operation circulation is maintained to flush the loosened material from the Well. the casing throughout the productive section or sections and removal of the mud cake from these 4 2,374,317 the circumference of the cylindrical member, a sections while placing the cement, thus insuring improved cement distribution and preventing fluid migration behind the casing. (e) 'I‘he advantage of obtaining a perfect seal plurality of longitudinally extending and circum ferentially spaced ribs upon the outside of said cylindrical member having a, plurality of re cessed seats spaced longitudinally of the ribs, the seats of the ribs lying in parallel transverse with cement in the annular space between the casing and the walls of the formation. where prevention of iiuid migration is necessary, planes. the seats of a plurality of ribs in oneÍ plane receiving the semi-resilient arcuate portion, and means anchoring the free end of the semi-resil which further prevents the cement slurry from ient arcuate portion to one of said ribs, whereby (j) The advantage of.' removing the mud sheath from the wall of the well bore in those sections channeling and provides a cleaned formation sur face into which the excess mixing water from the cement slurry may fllter. It will thus be seen that the invention here dis closed provides a simple and effective means for cleaning a well bore preparatory to setting a cas- _ ing, and inexpensive means whereby the casing may be centered in a well bor'e preparatory vto a torque may be set up in the arcuate portion as the finger swings longitudinally. 4. A device of the character described, com prising a tubular cylindrical member adapted to is be lowered into a well bore, semi-resilient ele ments carried thereby and spaced around the cylindrical member, said elements each compris ing a semi-resilient radially disposed finger ter minating in a free upwardly curved outer end While I have shown only a typical preferred 20 and being formed integral at its opposite end with an arcuate semi-resilient element adapted to con form of the means I have provided for clean form to .the circumference of the cylindrical ing a well wall of mud and for centering and ce member, a plurality of longitudinally extending menting a casing in a well'bore, it will be under and circumferentially spaced. ribs upon the out stood that various changes may be -made in the invention by those skilled in the art without de 25 side of said cylindrical member having a, plu rality of recessed seats spaced longitudinally of parting from the spirit of the invention as the ribs, the seats of the ribs lying in parallel claimed, and it is to be further understood that transverse planes, the seats of a plurality of ribs this is a continuation in part of my co-pending in one plane receiving the semi-resilient arcuate application entitled “Method and means of con ditioning the walls of a well bore,” Serial No. 30 portion, and means anchoring the free end of the semi-resilient arcuate portion to one of said ribs, 291,027, filed in the United States Patent Oflice whereby torque -may be set up in the arcuate by me on August 19, 1939. I wish it understood portion as the finger swings longitudinally, said that I do not limit myself to the particular de radial fingers in successive planes being circum . tails or application of the invention herein set ferentially spaced with relation to each other forth, but wish to reserve to myself any variations whereby the fingers will be arranged in groups or modifications that may appear to those skilled lying along a line of helix extending across the in the art and fall within the scope of the follow face of the cylindrical member and circumferen ing claims. tially thereof. _ Having thus described my invention, what I 5. In well production equipment, a casing to 40 claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: be permanently set in the well, a sleeve on the 1. In combination, a tubular casing to be per casing, and a plurality of spring fingers spaced manently installed in a well, a sleeve adapted to around the circumference of the sleeve and pro be secured on the casing to be lowered into a well jecting outwardly from the sleeve to en'gage the thereon, a plurality of abrading fingers project ing from the sleeve in spaced relation to one an 45 wail of the well. other, the outer free ends of said fingers being 6. In combination, a well casing to be perma well cementing operation. adapted to engage the wall of a well bore into which the device is lowered, and means for yield nently set in a well, a sleeve secured on the casing. 2. In combination, a tubularA casing to be per manently installed in a well, a sleeve adapted to 7. In combination, a well casing to be perma nently set in a well, a'sleeve secured on the cas and a plurality of spring fingers secured to the ably supporting said fingers on the sleeve whereby 50 sleeve and projecting substantially horizontally the fingers may swing longitudinally of the sleeve. therefrom to engage the wall of the well. be secured on the casing to be lowered into a ing, and a plurality of spring fingers secured to well thereon, a plurality of radially projecting the sleeve and projecting substantially radially abrading fingers arranged in spaced relation 55 therefrom, the outer portions of the fingers being around the sleeve, the outer free ends of said fin gers being adapted to engage the wall of a well bore into which the device is lowered, and means upturned and adapted to act on the wall of the well. 8. In combination, a well casing to be perma yieldably anchoring said fingers on the sleeve nently set in a well, a sleeve secured on the cas whereby the fingers may swing longitudinally of 60 ing, a plurality of spring members each including the sleeve, said fingers being disposed in sets of an elongate shank and a finger projecting from fingers lying in spaced transverse planes and with an end of the shank, and means confining the the fingers in each plane being uniformly spaced Shanks of said members against the periphery of circumferentially and the iingers‘in the several the sleeve to extend circumferentially thereof so planes being disposed out of axial alignment with each other. ~ that the ñngers project substantially radially from the sleeve to engage the wall of the well. 3. A device of the character described, compris 9. In combination, a well casing to be perma ing a tubular cylindrical member adapted to be nently set in a Well, a sleeve secured on the cas lowered into a well bore, semi-resilient elements carried thereby and spaced around the cylindri 70 ing, a plurality of spring members each includ ing an elongate shank and a finger projecting cal member, said elements each comprising a semi-resilient radially disposed finger terminat from an end of the shank, and means for hold ing in a free upwardly curved outer end and being ing said shanks against the exterior of the sleeve formed integral at its opposite end with an arcu to extend circumferentially thereof so that said ate semi-resilient element adapted to conform to 75 ñngers project outwardly from the sleeve to con 2,374,317 tact the well wall, the contact of the fingers with the wall subjecting said Shanks to torque. 10. A device for use on a well casing compris ing a sleeve to be secured on the casing, a plu rality of flexible resilient members each com prising an arcuate shank adapted to conform to the sleeve when extending circumferentially thereof, and a finger adapted to project outward ly from the sleeve to engage the wall of the well, and means for holding said Shanks where they conform to the sleeve and allowing the applica tion of torsion to the Shanks when said ñngers engage the well wall. 11. A device for use on a well casing comprising a sleeve to be secured on the casing, a plurality 5 13. A device for use on a well casing compris ing a sleeve to be coniined on the casing, a plu rality of 'flexible resilient members each compris ing an arcuate shank adapted to conform to the sleeve when extending circumferentially there of. and a finger on one end of the shank adapted to project outwardly from the sleeve, and means for holding said Shanks in general conformance to the sleeve so that the Shanks form torsion 10 spring anchors for the fingers, said means in cluding longitudinally extending ribs on the Sleeve engaging over the Shanks, and end parts on the other ends of the Shanks cooperating with said ribs to anchor Said other ends of the Shanks. 14. A device for use on a well casing compris ing a sleeve to be Secured on the casing, a plu- . of flexible resilient members each comprising an rality of flexible resilient members each com arcuate Shank adapted to conform to the sleeve prising an arcuate Shank adapted to conform when extending circumferentially thereof, and a to the sleeve when extending circumferentially finger on one end of the shank adapted to pro ject outwardly from the sleeve, and means for 20 thereof, and a n_nger on .pne end of the shank adapted to project outw’agiiüly from the sleeve, holding said Shanks in general conformance to and means for holdinglsai'd Shanks in general the sleeve so that the Shanks form torsion spring conformance to the Sleeve so that the Shanks anchors for the fingers, said means including form torsion Spring anchors for the fingers, Said parts on the sleeve engaging each shank at cir cumferentially spaced points. 12. A device for use on a well casing compris ing a sleeve to be secured on the casing, a plu rality of flexible resilient members each com 25 means including circumferentially spaced longi tudinally extending ribs on the sleeve extending over the Shanks and having recesses on their inner Sides receiving the Shanks, and 4bent over parts on the other ends of the Shanks engaging prising an arcuate shank adapted to conform to the sleeve when extending circumferentially 30 the ribs to prevent bodily turning of the Shanks and circumferential movement of the Shanks. thereof, and a finger on one end of the shank 15. In combination, a perforate well casing in adapted to project outwardly from the sleeve, tended to be permanently installed in the well, and means for holding Said Shanks in general a sleeve secured on the casing, and a plurality of conformance to the sleeve so that the Shanks form torsion spring anchors for the fingers, said 35 Spring members projecting substantially radially from the Sleeve for acting on the wall of the well. means including longitudinally extending ribs KENNETH A. WRIGHT. on the sleeve engaging over the Shanks.