Патент USA US2377336код для вставки
June 5, 1945.v 2,377,336 C. E. FRANK ENGINE Filed Nov. 23; 1942 s Sheets-Sheet _1 BY -‘ _ , 4 a ATTORNEY6. June‘ 5,-1945- c. |-:. FRANK " 2,377,336 ENGINE Filed Nov. 23; 1942 S-Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR 'C'Zareyce E - Hazy/f. ’ BY I .- ATTORNEY-5; states is s. is ‘I Nrrso STATES PATENT 'oFFlcs ' 2,377,336’ assume:~ . _ _ i _ _ ?iarence E. Frank, Fraser, Mich, assignor to‘ Briggs Manufacturing Company, Mich, a corporation of Michigan Detroit, Y . Application November 23, 1942, Serial No.‘ 466,552 20 Claims. (in. lea-so) Another object of the invention is to provide This invention relates to internal combustion, engines and more particularly_to ‘engines ofthe - a two stroke cycle . two stroke cycle type. ' of the rotatable valve " ' ty’pe,’particularly a valve having tapering sides, . In accordancev with one object of the present suchas a frustoi-conical valve, in which two ports invention there is provided ‘an improved, two -. 8 are provided in the tapered ‘sides of the valve stroke cycle engine having a rotatable valve in ‘leading to the combustion space and each port ._ the cylinder head formed with a" combustion alternately communicating with an intake con’ chamber and ported so that firing of a com _ duitand an exhaust‘ conduit during each two . prmsed charge in the combustion chamber will . stroke cycle of the engine. Y . ' V occur during each cycle when the piston is in‘ 30 . Still another object is'to' provide an engine of its msitlon of maximum compression, or sub; the above description in which each side port in, the valve communicates jor igniting a” fuel ' A further object of the invention is to pro- \ ‘charge with each of -two\oppositely positioned vide a two stroke cycleengine having its com; spark-plugs or ignition devices at each two stroke stantially so. ' Y r ‘ bastion space formed largelywithin a rotatable ll munieating chambers and the mixture being tiredv ultaneously in both chambers by two spark miss. > > another object of the invention is to provide a two» stroke cycle engine having a- rotatable ".alve'provided with two communicating com'-' cycleof-the engine.-__ ' " \' _ ~ '_ . Other objects o'ithis invention ‘will appear in valve, this space being divided intotwo'com- - the followingv description and appended claims, ' at refe'rence being had to the accompanying draw‘ ings forming apart of this speci?cation wherein like reference characters designate correspond-l ing parts in the several views. _ ' . Fig. 1 is a fragmentary sectional‘ elevation i1? bastionv chambers adapted alternatively to com. lustrating a portion of a multi-cylinder-engine' of the two stroke cycle time embodying the pres ssunicate onewith an intake conduit. and the other with an. exhaust conduit and wherein the 25 ent invention. mixture or charge is ?red simultaneoushr; when the piston ‘reaches its position of the engine. . sression, or- substantially‘ so. Another object of the invention _~ A. , . , ‘ ‘ . Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional elevation 11 lustrating the drive for the’ rotatable valves of '_ ' toi'prdvide Fig. 3 is a section taken substantially through an engine of the foregoing type provided with 30 lines 3-3 of Fig. 1 looking in’ the direction of a two‘ chamber rotatable valve within which the ' fuel charge is fired twice during each revolution of the valve or after each two-stroke cycle of l the arrows. . , Fig. 4 is a top plan view oi the rotatable valve. Fig. 5 is.a- side elevation of the cylinder head. Beforev explaining in detail the present inven A further. object of the inventionis to provide 35, tion it is tobe understood that the invention is an engine of the’icregoing type having a. rotat not limited in itsapplication to the details of able valve, preferably 01' the type which rotates. construction and- arrangement of parts illustrat~ continuously in one direction although not neces ed in the accompanying drawings, since the in sarilv. so, the combustion chamber in the valve vention is capable of other embodiments most having two side ports so arranged thate'ach port 40 beingpractisedor carried out in various ways. alternately communicates with exhaust. and in- , Also it is to be understood that the phraseology the engine. - - " ' r take eonduitsduring each revolution of the valve. ?till another object of the inventionv is to‘ pro or terminology'employed herein is for the pure pose of description and not of limitation. > In the drawings there is illustrated, by way of which'the iuel charge‘is iired twicedu-ring each 45 example,,one embodiment of the invention as revolution and preferably 'by‘ a pair of sparkp . applied tov an internal combustion engine 01 the , vide an engine as stated immediately above in plugs or ignition devices. , i1 two stroke cycle spark ignition type desisned'par-v ' _ Another object of the invention is to provide I ticularly forthe power plant of an aircraft. 1 The- invention may obviously be embodied in engines , a two stroke cycle engine of the rotatable valve type in which the combustion chamber in the 50 ‘for other purposes. such as automotive, marine f ‘ valve communicates twice during each‘ revolution and industrial engines. For most uses'the en- \ with approximately- diametrically opposed in take and exhaust conduits and also twice. dur glue‘ is of the multi-cylinder type; although any» ' number. of cylinder units may be employed in any ing each revolution with diametrically opposed sparkplugs or ignition devices._ - ' - ‘ given engine. In the present embodiment, Ior . 55 the purpose of simplicity, a single cylinder unit _ 2,377,886 2 of the engine is illustrated, it being understood that the remaining cylinders of the engine are identical to the structure herein shown and de scribed. . Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, the present engine comprises a suitable crankcase, not shown, to ' which is rigidly secured a cylinder 25. A recip rocable piston 2| is mounted within the cylin The cooling cavity 45 extends well into the recess 25 in the mask plate, thus providing effective cooling for the lower portion of the valve and particularly the lower or inner tapered portion thereof which receives considerable of the bear ing load. Somewhat greater clearance is pro vided between the adjacent surfaces of the valve extension 25a and the recess 28, thus eliminating excessive friction in these regions. der and is adapted to be connected in the usual manner by a connecting rod 22 to the crank 10 ' ‘In thepresent preferred embodiment of the invention the fuel mixture or charge within the shaft 23. , . ' chambers 3| and 32 is ?red simultaneously by The present engine is provided with a suitable cylinder head 24 and interposed between this ' means of two diametrically opposed spark plugs 42. Each spark plug is suitably mounted in the cylinder head and the upper or outer end of the cylinder 25 is a mask or ?ame ‘plate 25 which 15 cylinder head 24 at a point intermediate the in take and exhaust conduits 31 and 38. terminates centrally in a flange portion 25a form The cooling cavity 45 is accessible through an ing the throat opening leading from the cylinder axial passage 45a in the stem 21 of the valve. into the combustion chamber or space of a rotat This passage is counterbored and tapped to re able valve 25. The valve 'or rotor 25 comprises in, the present instance a generally frusto-con 20 ceive a plug 4| having a- hex head 4 la. The stem 21 is provided with external longitudinal splines ical body arranged immediately above the pis- _ 43 which cooperate with splines on a coupling ton- 2| when at the top of its stroke, the valve member 44. 'The coupling member in turn is at its‘ upper or outer end in a cylin keyed by means of longitudinal splines or teeth drical stem=2‘|. The bottom of the valve has an annular extension 25a con?ned for rotation with 25 45 to a helical gear 45. Interposed'between the bottom of a recess in the gear and hex head 4|a in a correspondingly shaped recess 28 in the up is a spring washer .41, this washer providing re per face of the mask or ?ame plate 25. The cyl inder head 24 is secured by means of threads 29 . silient means for rotating slight axial movement In the present engine the combustion chamber in the cylinder head. Albevel gear 5| is se of the valve during operation. The. 7 gear 45 to the mask or ?ame plate 25 and the latter in turn is secured‘by means of threads 35 to the 30 meshes with a helical gear 49 ‘secured to a top horizontal shaft 55 mounted in suitable bearings ' upper end of the cylinder 25. cured to this shaft and meshes with a bevel gear 52 secured to the upper end of a tower shaft combustion chambers 3| and 32 having adjacent . - 54.» The shaft 50 together with gearing 5| and 52 and the helical gears 49 are, sealed within a curved walls 3|a and 32a'which curve smoothly housing member 53 secured to the cylinder head. into the throat opening formed by the,annular The tower shaft 54 extends through a casing 55 throat 25a of the mask or ?ame plate 25. The and carries at its lowerend a bevel gear 55 which combustion chambers 3| and 32 communicate at meshes with a bevel gear 51 secured to the crank their inner ends with the cylinder by means of is formed principally within the rotor or rotat- . able valve 25. The valve is formed with two annular ports 33 and 3,4. These chambers also terminate at ‘opposite sides of the valve in dia metrically opposed ports 35 and 35, respectively. It will be seen that the valve 25 is adapted to rotate within a cavity in the cylinder head 24 shaped substantially in accordance with the frus to-conical shape of the valve. The cylinder head is- provided with an intake passage .31 and an exhaust passage 35 whichamrdiametrically op posed. The innerends of these pmsagesrare ' ‘ similar in con?guration and correspond to‘ the con?guration of the side ports 35 and 35 of the valve so that each of these portstlmay register with either of the intake and exhaust passages ‘ 31 and 33 during operation of the engine. It will be seen that the curved inner side walls 3hr and 32a, respectively, of‘ the combustion chambers 3| and 32 form a partition wall‘ 35, thellower edge .of which forms a‘ part of the ‘terminal edge; of each of the‘ ports,” and 34 of thevalve. The valve is provided with a cool-f _ ' ing chamber _45 which extends entirely around . the combustion‘ chambers 3| and 32., Any suit able cooling or heat conducting medium may be placed within the chamber 45 such, for exam Die, as metallic sodium.~ It will be noted from 1_that the'tapering side of the valve 25 has _ a bearing‘on the tapering wall of the bearing cavity within ‘the cylinder head 24. Alsoitwill. _ be seen that the annular extensionv 25a of the valve extendshn'wardly or below the tapered bee-r-v shaft 23. - v . _ , The foregoing described mechanism provides the meansfor driving the valves of the engine at one half engine speed. To get the proper timing, ‘ the combustion chambers in the valve will be dia metrically opposed and the ports in the head will - \be placed to permit the exhaust valve to open approximately ten degrees ahead'of the intake. In the operation of the engine each rotor side port 35 and 35 alternately registers with the in take and exhaust conduits, 31 and 35 during each complete revolution of the valve. Also each port ‘ 35 and 35 alternately registers with each of the spark plugs 42 during each complete revolution of the valve. The construction and operation are, therefore, such that the engines ?res twice during ' each revolution of the valve. The chambers 3| and 32 simultaneously communicate with both spark plugs at the time of ?ring, so that the fuel charge within the chambers Hand 32 is fired at the same time’. During the descent of the piston‘ at the power stroke the ports 35 and 35 will move (simultaneously into registration with conduits n and 35. The fuel ,mixture will be forced by a suitable supercharger through intake conduit‘3l . v and port 35 into the chamber 3| thereby scaveng ini; this chamber, and this-incoming mixture will now down through the port 33 'as the piston be gins to ascend and will force the products of com bustion out through, the port 34:, chamber 32 and port 35 into the exhaust conduit 35. During fur ther rotationrof the valve the ports 35 and 35 , ing surfaces of the'valve and cylinder head. Thus, the extension 25a is con?ned at three‘ an-_ ‘ will be closed and the piston 2| will complete its gularly related‘ sides within the correspondingly . compression stroke. _When the piston reaches shaped recess 25 .in the mask or flame plate 25. 75 substantially the upper limit of its compression 8,877,836 . <> ‘ports; diametrically opposed intake and exhaust conduits, diametrically opposed isnidon stroke the ‘was as and as wm rca'istcr was the spark plugs and the compressed mixture within the chambers 3i and 32 will be ?red. The !ore-' devices, and means rm- rotating said valve to reg going operation occurs during one half a revolu ' inter each port with e conduit and ignition de vice during a three'hundrcd and sixty degree can tion of the valve 28 and atwo stroke cycle of ‘the piston 2i. In the next cycle the port 85, which , gular movement or the valve. "7. In an internal combustion engine having- a is shown as registering with the intake conduit 31 in Fig. 1, will move into registration with the ' exhaust conduit 88 and the port I! will move into cylinder, at reciprocable piston therein and a . cylinder head, a rotatable valve in said head haw ' in: two similar combustion spaces separated axially of the valve by a wall, said spaces opening registration with the intake conduit 31 whereupon the same cycle of operations will be repeated. Thus. it will be seen that the valve ll intakes into he cylinder and having-diametrically op ports, diametrically opposed intake and ex through the port 38 and exhausts through the port 36 during one hall.’ of a complete revolution haust conduits,- diametrically opposed ignition‘ of the valve and then intakes through port a and exhausts through port 35 during the other half devices, ' and means for rotating said valve to register each port with each conduit and ignition device during a single revolution of the valve. of a complete revolution of the valve. Very elli cient scavenging occurs by virtue of the present construction and very eiilcient ?ame propagation , 8.. In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, 'a reciprocable- piston therein and a is achieved. As a. consequence, it will be seen that 20 cylinder head, a rotatable generally trusts-coni the present invention provides an engine oi’ the two stroke cycle type in which improved combus bustion spaces separated axially voi! the valve by a tion is produced together-with excellent power . wall, said spaces opening into the cylinder and; having diametrically opposed ports in the taper characteristics. .' ‘ cal valve in said head having two similar com- I > I claim: - 25 a ing sides thereof, diametrically opposed intake and exhaust conduits, diametrically opposed 1. In an internal combustion engine having'a cylinder and a cylinder head provided with an exhaust port and an intake port, a rotatable valve ignition devices, and. means ‘for, rotating said 'valve to register each port with each conduit, _ and ignition device during a three hundred and within said head having - similar combustion chambers; and means iorfrotating said valve to 30 sixty ‘degree angular movement oi the'valve. register said combustion chambers with the intake port and exhaust port simultaneously during a _ 9. In’an internal combustion engine having a.~ ‘ cylinder and a'reciprocable piston therein, a cyl inder head, a rotatable valve having a combus ~ ' ‘ ‘ tion‘space provided with two ports and having 2. In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder and a cylinder head, a rotatable valve 35 communication with‘the cylinder, a pair of .op-\ half revolution of the valve. posed intake and exhaust conduits, and means within said head having two similar combustion chambers each provided with sport, anexhaust for rotating the valve to register each port in . conduit, an intake conduit, two opposed ignition l succession with said conduits during a single revolution of the valve. 1 , devices, and means for rotating said; valve to res ister each valve port with each of said ‘conduits 407 10. In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder andsareciprocable piston therein, asyl and ignition‘devices during‘ a single revolution inder head, a rotatable ‘valve having a combus _ I tion space-provided with two ports and having ,_ 3. in an internal cbmbustion engine having a communication with the cylinder, a pair of op= cylinder and a cylinder head, a rotatable valve within said head having two similar combustion 4s posed intake and exhaust conduits, and means . for rotating the valve to register eachéport ln\ ‘ chambers each provided with a port, an exhaust ' \succession'with said conduits during a three conduit, an intake conduit, and means for rotat of .the valve. lnmdred' and sixty degree angular movement of‘ ing said valve at one half engine crankshaft speed the valve'ln one direction. to register each valve port witltveach of said con 50 11. In anlnternal combustion engine having a ‘ duits during a single revolution of the valve. cylinder and a reciprocable‘ piston therein, a‘cyl 4. In an internal’ combustion engine having a _ inder head, a rotatable generally frusto-conical , valve‘having a combustion space provided with cylinder and a cylinder head, a rotatable gen erally irus'to-conical valve within said headhavé two’diametrlcally opposed ports and having com ing two similar combustion chambers each pro vided with a port, an exhaust conduit, an intake munication with the cylinder, a pale of opposed ‘conduit. and means Iorrotating said valve to regs ister each valve port‘with each oi’ said conduits intake‘ and exhaust conduits," and during a single revolution of ‘the valve. _ ‘ means for ' rotating the valve to register each port in success ‘ sion with said conduits during a single revolu-_ ' tion of the valve. 5.v In an internal combustion engine having a 12. In an internal combustion engine lhavinga , cylinder and a reclprocable piston therein, a' cyl cylinder, a reciprocable piston therein and a cyl» c0 . ‘- inder head, a rotatable valve in said head having two similar combustion spaces separated axially inder head, a rotatable valve having a combustion‘ .. of the valve by'a wall, said spaces opening into the cylinder and having dlametrically'opposed » space provided with two ports and-having cont munlcation with the cylinder, a pair of opposed ports, diametrically; oppowdnintake and exhaust intake and exhaust- conduits, two opposed ignition conduits,- and means for rotating said valve to *' devices, and means for rotating the valve to register each port with each conduit during a -, register each port in succession with said con three hund‘red-anii-sixty degree angular movement of the valve.‘ I ' - - 6, In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, a reciprocable piston therein and a cyl in'der head, a rotatable valve in said head hav duits and ignition devices during ii single‘ revolu? tion of the valves-X ' 70. 13. In an internalcombustion engine having a cylinder and a reciprocable piston therein, a cyl ing two similar combustion spaces separated lnder head, a rotatable valve having a combustion space provided with two ports and having com axially of the valve by a wall, said spacesopen munication with the cylinder, a pair of opposed ing into the cylinder'andhaving diametrically 7| intakeand exhaust, conduits, two vopposed igni 2,877,836 4 ton therein. a rotatable valve having tapering tion devices, and means for rotating the valve sides converging in one direction, said valve oom municating with the cylinder and having a com bustion space therein and two opposed ports in to register each port in succession with said con duits'and ignition devices during a three hundred and sixty degree angular movement of the valve in one direction. U! ' 1;. In a two stroke cycle internal combustion engine having a'cylinder and a reciprocable pis ton therein, a rotatable valve having tapering sides converging in one direction, said valve com . municating with the cylinder and having a com bustion space therein and two opposed ports in said tapering sides, opposed intake and exhaust said tapering sides, opposed intake and exhaust conduits, opposed ignition devices, and means for rotating said valve at one half engine speed to register each port alternately with said con duits and ignition devices during a three himdred 10 and sixty degree angular movement of the valve _ in one direction. 18. In an internal combustion engine, a frusto-conical ,valve having two similar com bustion chambers separated axially of the valve register each port alternately with said conduits during a three hundred and sixty degree angular 15 by a wall, the bottom of the valve having two circular ports in part formed by the edge of said movement of the valve. wall, the tapering sides of the valve having di 15. In a two stroke cycle internal combustion ametrically opposed ports, and, means for rotat engine having a cylinder and a reciprocable pis ing said valve at one half the engine crankshaft ton therein, a rotatable valve having tapering sides converging in one direction, said valve com 20 speed. 19. In an internal combustion engine having municating with the cylinder and having a com a cylinder with a reciprocable piston therein, a bustion space therein and two opposed ports in cylinder head, and a generally irusto-conical said tapering sides, opposed intake and exhaust valve in the head having two similar combustion conduits, and means for rotating said valve at one half engine speed to register each port alter 25 chambers separated by a central wall and termi nating in two ports located at opposite sides of ' nately with said conduits during a three hun the terminal edge of the wall and opening into ‘ dred and sixty degree angular movement of the , conduits, and means for rotating said valve to valve in one direction. the cylinder. - 16. In a two stroke cycle internal combustion engine having a cylinder and a'reciprocable pis ton therein, a rotatable valve having tapering sides converging in one direction, said valve com municating with the cylinder and having a com bustion space therein and two opposed ports in ‘ 20. In an internal'combustion engine having 30 a cylinder with a reciprocable piston therein, a cylinder head, a generally frusto-conical rotat ' able valve in the head having a central wall sep arating the valve into two similar combustion chambers, said valve having opposed side ports said tapering sides, opposed, intake and exhaust 35 communicating with said chambers, and means between the outer end of the cylinder and the conduits, opposed ignition devices, and means cylinder head forming an opening of less diam for rotating said valve to register each port alter nately with said conduits and ignition devices ‘ eter than the diameter of the piston and pro (viding constant communication between the during a three hundred and sixty degree angular movement of the valve.‘ ' - ~17. _In a two stroke cycle internal combustion engine having a cylinder and a reciprocable pis ‘cylinder and said combustion chambers, said , opening being divided . intotwopartsbysaidnll. ’ CLARENCE E. FRANK.