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Патент USA US2377336

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June 5, 1945.v
2,377,336
C. E. FRANK
ENGINE
Filed Nov. 23; 1942
s Sheets-Sheet _1
BY
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4
a
ATTORNEY6.
June‘ 5,-1945-
c. |-:. FRANK
"
2,377,336
ENGINE
Filed Nov. 23; 1942
S-Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR
'C'Zareyce E - Hazy/f. ’
BY
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ATTORNEY-5;
states is s. is ‘I
Nrrso STATES PATENT 'oFFlcs '
2,377,336’
assume:~
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?iarence E. Frank, Fraser, Mich, assignor to‘
Briggs Manufacturing Company,
Mich, a corporation of Michigan
Detroit, Y
.
Application November 23, 1942, Serial No.‘ 466,552
20 Claims. (in. lea-so)
Another object of the invention is to provide
This invention relates to internal combustion,
engines and more particularly_to ‘engines ofthe -
a two stroke cycle
. two stroke cycle type. '
of the rotatable valve "
' ty’pe,’particularly a valve having tapering sides, .
In accordancev with one object of the present
suchas a frustoi-conical valve, in which two ports
invention there is provided ‘an improved, two -. 8 are provided in the tapered ‘sides of the valve
stroke cycle engine having a rotatable valve in
‘leading to the combustion space and each port ._
the cylinder head formed with a" combustion
alternately communicating with an intake con’
chamber and ported so that firing of a com
_ duitand an exhaust‘ conduit during each two
. prmsed charge in the combustion chamber will .
stroke cycle of the engine.
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occur during each cycle when the piston is in‘ 30 . Still another object is'to' provide an engine of
its msitlon of maximum compression, or sub;
the above description in which each side port in,
the valve communicates jor igniting a” fuel '
A further object of the invention is to pro- \ ‘charge with each of -two\oppositely positioned
vide a two stroke cycleengine having its com;
spark-plugs or ignition devices at each two stroke
stantially so.
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bastion space formed largelywithin a rotatable ll
munieating chambers and the mixture being tiredv
ultaneously in both chambers by two spark
miss.
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another object of the invention is to provide
a two» stroke cycle engine having a- rotatable
".alve'provided with two communicating com'-'
cycleof-the engine.-__
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Other objects o'ithis invention ‘will appear in
valve, this space being divided intotwo'com- -
the followingv description and appended claims, '
at
refe'rence being had to the accompanying draw‘
ings forming apart of this speci?cation wherein
like reference characters designate correspond-l
ing parts in the several views.
_
' . Fig. 1 is a fragmentary sectional‘ elevation i1?
bastionv chambers adapted alternatively to com.
lustrating a portion of a multi-cylinder-engine'
of the two stroke cycle time embodying the pres
ssunicate onewith an intake conduit. and the
other with an. exhaust conduit and wherein the 25
ent invention.
mixture or charge is ?red simultaneoushr; when
the piston ‘reaches its position of
the engine.
. sression, or- substantially‘ so.
Another object of the invention
_~
A.
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Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional elevation 11
lustrating the drive for the’ rotatable valves of
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toi'prdvide
Fig. 3 is a section taken substantially through
an engine of the foregoing type provided with 30 lines 3-3 of Fig. 1 looking in’ the direction of
a two‘ chamber rotatable valve within which the
' fuel charge is fired twice during each revolution
of the valve or after each two-stroke cycle of l
the arrows.
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,
Fig. 4 is a top plan view oi the rotatable valve.
Fig. 5 is.a- side elevation of the cylinder head.
Beforev explaining in detail the present inven
A further. object of the inventionis to provide 35, tion it is tobe understood that the invention is
an engine of the’icregoing type having a. rotat
not limited in itsapplication to the details of
able valve, preferably 01' the type which rotates.
construction and- arrangement of parts illustrat~
continuously in one direction although not neces
ed in the accompanying drawings, since the in
sarilv. so, the combustion chamber in the valve
vention is capable of other embodiments most
having two side ports so arranged thate'ach port 40 beingpractisedor carried out in various ways.
alternately communicates with exhaust. and in- , Also it is to be understood that the phraseology
the
engine.
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take eonduitsduring each revolution of the valve.
?till another object of the inventionv is to‘ pro
or terminology'employed herein is for the pure
pose of description and not of limitation.
>
In the drawings there is illustrated, by way of
which'the iuel charge‘is iired twicedu-ring each 45 example,,one embodiment of the invention as
revolution and preferably 'by‘ a pair of sparkp . applied tov an internal combustion engine 01 the ,
vide an engine as stated immediately above in
plugs or ignition devices.
,
i1
two stroke cycle spark ignition type desisned'par-v
'
_ Another object of the invention is to provide I ticularly forthe power plant of an aircraft. 1 The- invention may obviously be embodied in engines ,
a two stroke cycle engine of the rotatable valve
type in which the combustion chamber in the 50 ‘for other purposes. such as automotive, marine f
‘ valve communicates twice during each‘ revolution
and industrial engines. For most uses'the en- \
with approximately- diametrically opposed in
take and exhaust conduits and also twice. dur
glue‘ is of the multi-cylinder type; although any»
' number. of cylinder units may be employed in any
ing each revolution with diametrically opposed
sparkplugs or ignition devices._
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given engine. In the present embodiment, Ior
. 55 the purpose of simplicity, a single cylinder unit _
2,377,886
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of the engine is illustrated, it being understood
that the remaining cylinders of the engine are
identical to the structure herein shown and de
scribed.
.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, the present engine
comprises a suitable crankcase, not shown, to
' which is rigidly secured a cylinder 25. A recip
rocable piston 2| is mounted within the cylin
The cooling cavity 45 extends well into the recess
25 in the mask plate, thus providing effective
cooling for the lower portion of the valve and
particularly the lower or inner tapered portion
thereof which receives considerable of the bear
ing load.
Somewhat greater clearance is pro
vided between the adjacent surfaces of the valve
extension 25a and the recess 28, thus eliminating
excessive friction in these regions.
der and is adapted to be connected in the usual
manner by a connecting rod 22 to the crank 10 ' ‘In thepresent preferred embodiment of the
invention the fuel mixture or charge within the
shaft 23.
,
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chambers 3| and 32 is ?red simultaneously by
The present engine is provided with a suitable
cylinder head 24 and interposed between this ' means of two diametrically opposed spark plugs
42. Each spark plug is suitably mounted in the
cylinder head and the upper or outer end of the
cylinder 25 is a mask or ?ame ‘plate 25 which 15 cylinder head 24 at a point intermediate the in
take and exhaust conduits 31 and 38.
terminates centrally in a flange portion 25a form
The cooling cavity 45 is accessible through an
ing the throat opening leading from the cylinder
axial passage 45a in the stem 21 of the valve.
into the combustion chamber or space of a rotat
This passage is counterbored and tapped to re
able valve 25. The valve 'or rotor 25 comprises
in, the present instance a generally frusto-con 20 ceive a plug 4| having a- hex head 4 la. The stem
21 is provided with external longitudinal splines
ical body arranged immediately above the pis- _
43 which cooperate with splines on a coupling
ton- 2| when at the top of its stroke, the valve
member 44. 'The coupling member in turn is at its‘ upper or outer end in a cylin
keyed by means of longitudinal splines or teeth
drical stem=2‘|. The bottom of the valve has an
annular extension 25a con?ned for rotation with 25 45 to a helical gear 45. Interposed'between the
bottom of a recess in the gear and hex head 4|a
in a correspondingly shaped recess 28 in the up
is a spring washer .41, this washer providing re
per face of the mask or ?ame plate 25. The cyl
inder head 24 is secured by means of threads 29 .
silient means for rotating slight axial movement
In the present engine the combustion chamber
in the cylinder head. Albevel gear 5| is se
of the valve during operation. The. 7 gear 45
to the mask or ?ame plate 25 and the latter in
turn is secured‘by means of threads 35 to the 30 meshes with a helical gear 49 ‘secured to a top
horizontal shaft 55 mounted in suitable bearings '
upper end of the cylinder 25.
cured to this shaft and meshes with a bevel gear
52 secured to the upper end of a tower shaft
combustion chambers 3| and 32 having adjacent . - 54.» The shaft 50 together with gearing 5| and
52 and the helical gears 49 are, sealed within a
curved walls 3|a and 32a'which curve smoothly
housing member 53 secured to the cylinder head.
into the throat opening formed by the,annular
The tower shaft 54 extends through a casing 55
throat 25a of the mask or ?ame plate 25. The
and carries at its lowerend a bevel gear 55 which
combustion chambers 3| and 32 communicate at
meshes with a bevel gear 51 secured to the crank
their inner ends with the cylinder by means of
is formed principally within the rotor or rotat- .
able valve 25. The valve is formed with two
annular ports 33 and 3,4. These chambers also
terminate at ‘opposite sides of the valve in dia
metrically opposed ports 35 and 35, respectively.
It will be seen that the valve 25 is adapted to
rotate within a cavity in the cylinder head 24
shaped substantially in accordance with the frus
to-conical shape of the valve. The cylinder head
is- provided with an intake passage .31 and an
exhaust passage 35 whichamrdiametrically op
posed. The innerends of these pmsagesrare '
‘ similar in con?guration and correspond to‘ the
con?guration of the side ports 35 and 35 of the
valve so that each of these portstlmay register
with either of the intake and exhaust passages
‘ 31 and 33 during operation of the engine.
It will be seen that the curved inner side walls
3hr and 32a, respectively, of‘ the combustion
chambers 3| and 32 form a partition wall‘ 35,
thellower edge .of which forms a‘ part of the
‘terminal edge; of each of the‘ ports,” and 34
of thevalve. The valve is provided with a cool-f _
' ing chamber _45 which extends entirely around .
the combustion‘ chambers 3| and 32., Any suit
able cooling or heat conducting medium may be
placed within the chamber 45 such, for exam
Die, as metallic sodium.~ It will be noted from
1_that the'tapering side of the valve 25 has _
a bearing‘on the tapering wall of the bearing
cavity within ‘the cylinder head 24.
Alsoitwill.
_
be seen that the annular extensionv 25a of the
valve extendshn'wardly or below the tapered bee-r-v
shaft 23.
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The foregoing described mechanism provides
the meansfor driving the valves of the engine at
one half engine speed. To get the proper timing, ‘
the combustion chambers in the valve will be dia
metrically opposed and the ports in the head will
- \be placed to permit the exhaust valve to open
approximately ten degrees ahead'of the intake.
In the operation of the engine each rotor side
port 35 and 35 alternately registers with the in
take and exhaust conduits, 31 and 35 during each
complete revolution of the valve. Also each port
‘ 35 and 35 alternately registers with each of the
spark plugs 42 during each complete revolution
of the valve. The construction and operation are,
therefore, such that the engines ?res twice during '
each revolution of the valve. The chambers 3|
and 32 simultaneously communicate with both
spark plugs at the time of ?ring, so that the fuel
charge within the chambers Hand 32 is fired at
the same time’. During the descent of the piston‘
at the power stroke the ports 35 and 35 will move
(simultaneously into registration with conduits n
and 35. The fuel ,mixture will be forced by a
suitable supercharger through intake conduit‘3l .
v and port 35 into the chamber 3| thereby scaveng
ini; this chamber, and this-incoming mixture will
now down through the port 33 'as the piston be
gins to ascend and will force the products of com
bustion out through, the port 34:, chamber 32 and
port 35 into the exhaust conduit 35. During fur
ther rotationrof the valve the ports 35 and 35 ,
ing surfaces of the'valve and cylinder head.
Thus, the extension 25a is con?ned at three‘ an-_ ‘ will be closed and the piston 2| will complete its
gularly related‘ sides within the correspondingly . compression stroke. _When the piston reaches
shaped recess 25 .in the mask or flame plate 25. 75 substantially the upper limit of its compression
8,877,836
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‘ports; diametrically opposed intake and
exhaust conduits, diametrically opposed isnidon
stroke the ‘was as and as wm rca'istcr was the
spark plugs and the compressed mixture within
the chambers 3i and 32 will be ?red. The !ore-'
devices, and means rm- rotating said valve to reg
going operation occurs during one half a revolu
' inter each port with e
conduit and ignition de
vice during a three'hundrcd and sixty degree can
tion of the valve 28 and atwo stroke cycle of ‘the
piston 2i. In the next cycle the port 85, which
, gular movement or the valve.
"7. In an internal combustion engine having- a
is shown as registering with the intake conduit
31 in Fig. 1, will move into registration with the
' exhaust conduit 88 and the port I! will move into
cylinder, at reciprocable piston therein and a .
cylinder head, a rotatable valve in said head haw '
in: two similar combustion spaces separated
axially of the valve by a wall, said spaces opening
registration with the intake conduit 31 whereupon
the same cycle of operations will be repeated.
Thus. it will be seen that the valve ll intakes
into he cylinder and having-diametrically op
ports, diametrically opposed intake and ex
through the port 38 and exhausts through the
port 36 during one hall.’ of a complete revolution
haust conduits,- diametrically opposed ignition‘
of the valve and then intakes through port a and
exhausts through port 35 during the other half
devices, ' and means for rotating said valve to
register each port with each conduit and ignition
device during a single revolution of the valve.
of a complete revolution of the valve. Very elli
cient scavenging occurs by virtue of the present
construction and very eiilcient ?ame propagation
,
8.. In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder, 'a reciprocable- piston therein and a
is achieved. As a. consequence, it will be seen that 20 cylinder head, a rotatable generally trusts-coni
the present invention provides an engine oi’ the
two stroke cycle type in which improved combus
bustion spaces separated axially voi! the valve by a
tion is produced together-with excellent power .
wall, said spaces opening into the cylinder and;
having diametrically opposed ports in the taper
characteristics.
.' ‘
cal valve in said head having two similar com- I
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I claim:
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25
a
ing sides thereof, diametrically opposed intake
and exhaust conduits, diametrically opposed
1. In an internal combustion engine having'a
cylinder and a cylinder head provided with an
exhaust port and an intake port, a rotatable valve
ignition devices, and. means ‘for, rotating said
'valve to register each port with each conduit, _
and ignition device during a three hundred and
within said head having - similar combustion
chambers; and means iorfrotating said valve to 30 sixty ‘degree angular movement oi the'valve.
register said combustion chambers with the intake port and exhaust port simultaneously during a
_
9. In’an internal combustion engine having a.~ ‘
cylinder and a'reciprocable piston therein, a cyl
inder head, a rotatable valve having a combus
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tion‘space provided with two ports and having
2. In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder and a cylinder head, a rotatable valve 35 communication with‘the cylinder, a pair of .op-\
half revolution of the valve.
posed intake and exhaust conduits, and means
within said head having two similar combustion
chambers each provided with sport, anexhaust
for rotating the valve to register each port in .
conduit, an intake conduit, two opposed ignition l succession with said conduits during a single
revolution of the valve.
1
,
devices, and means for rotating said; valve to res
ister each valve port with each of said ‘conduits 407 10. In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder andsareciprocable piston therein, asyl
and ignition‘devices during‘ a single revolution
inder head, a rotatable ‘valve having a combus
_
I
tion space-provided with two ports and having ,_
3. in an internal cbmbustion engine having a
communication with the cylinder, a pair of op=
cylinder and a cylinder head, a rotatable valve
within said head having two similar combustion 4s posed intake and exhaust conduits, and means .
for rotating the valve to register eachéport ln\ ‘
chambers each provided with a port, an exhaust
' \succession'with said conduits during a three
conduit, an intake conduit, and means for rotat
of .the valve.
lnmdred' and sixty degree angular movement of‘
ing said valve at one half engine crankshaft speed
the valve'ln one direction.
to register each valve port witltveach of said con
50
11. In anlnternal combustion engine having a ‘
duits during a single revolution of the valve.
cylinder and a reciprocable‘ piston therein, a‘cyl
4. In an internal’ combustion engine having a
_ inder head, a rotatable generally frusto-conical
, valve‘having a combustion space provided with
cylinder and a cylinder head, a rotatable gen
erally irus'to-conical valve within said headhavé
two’diametrlcally opposed ports and having com
ing two similar combustion chambers each pro
vided with a port, an exhaust conduit, an intake
munication with the cylinder, a pale of opposed
‘conduit. and means Iorrotating said valve to regs
ister each valve port‘with each oi’ said conduits
intake‘ and exhaust conduits," and
during a single revolution of ‘the valve.
_
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means
for
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rotating the valve to register each port in success ‘
sion with said conduits during a single revolu-_
'
tion of the valve.
5.v In an internal combustion engine having a
12. In an internal combustion engine lhavinga ,
cylinder and a reclprocable piston therein, a' cyl
cylinder, a reciprocable piston therein and a cyl» c0 .
‘- inder head, a rotatable valve in said head having
two similar combustion spaces separated axially
inder head, a rotatable valve having a combustion‘ ..
of the valve by'a wall, said spaces opening into
the cylinder and having dlametrically'opposed »
space provided with two ports and-having cont
munlcation with the cylinder, a pair of opposed
ports, diametrically; oppowdnintake and exhaust
intake and exhaust- conduits, two opposed ignition conduits,- and means for rotating said valve to *' devices, and means for rotating the valve to
register each port with each conduit during a -, register each port in succession with said con
three hund‘red-anii-sixty degree angular movement
of the valve.‘
I
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6, In an internal combustion engine having a
cylinder, a reciprocable piston therein and a cyl
in'der head, a rotatable valve in said head hav
duits and ignition devices during ii single‘ revolu?
tion of the valves-X
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70. 13. In an internalcombustion engine having a
cylinder and a reciprocable piston therein, a cyl
ing two similar combustion spaces separated
lnder head, a rotatable valve having a combustion
space provided with two ports and having com
axially of the valve by a wall, said spacesopen
munication with the cylinder, a pair of opposed
ing into the cylinder'andhaving diametrically 7| intakeand exhaust, conduits, two vopposed igni
2,877,836
4
ton therein. a rotatable valve having tapering
tion devices, and means for rotating the valve
sides converging in one direction, said valve oom
municating with the cylinder and having a com
bustion space therein and two opposed ports in
to register each port in succession with said con
duits'and ignition devices during a three hundred
and sixty degree angular movement of the valve
in one direction.
U!
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1;. In a two stroke cycle internal combustion
engine having a'cylinder and a reciprocable pis
ton therein, a rotatable valve having tapering
sides converging in one direction, said valve com
. municating with the cylinder and having a com
bustion space therein and two opposed ports in
said tapering sides, opposed intake and exhaust
said tapering sides, opposed intake and exhaust
conduits, opposed ignition devices, and means
for rotating said valve at one half engine speed
to register each port alternately with said con
duits and ignition devices during a three himdred
10 and sixty degree angular movement of the valve
_ in one direction.
18. In an internal combustion engine, a
frusto-conical ,valve having two similar com
bustion chambers separated axially of the valve
register each port alternately with said conduits
during a three hundred and sixty degree angular 15 by a wall, the bottom of the valve having two
circular ports in part formed by the edge of said
movement of the valve.
wall, the tapering sides of the valve having di
15. In a two stroke cycle internal combustion
ametrically opposed ports, and, means for rotat
engine having a cylinder and a reciprocable pis
ing
said valve at one half the engine crankshaft
ton therein, a rotatable valve having tapering
sides converging in one direction, said valve com 20 speed.
19. In an internal combustion engine having
municating with the cylinder and having a com
a cylinder with a reciprocable piston therein, a
bustion space therein and two opposed ports in
cylinder head, and a generally irusto-conical
said tapering sides, opposed intake and exhaust
valve in the head having two similar combustion
conduits, and means for rotating said valve at
one half engine speed to register each port alter 25 chambers separated by a central wall and termi
nating in two ports located at opposite sides of
' nately with said conduits during a three hun
the terminal edge of the wall and opening into
‘ dred and sixty degree angular movement of the
, conduits, and means for rotating said valve to
valve in one direction.
the cylinder.
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16. In a two stroke cycle internal combustion
engine having a cylinder and a'reciprocable pis
ton therein, a rotatable valve having tapering
sides converging in one direction, said valve com
municating with the cylinder and having a com
bustion space therein and two opposed ports in
‘
20. In an internal'combustion engine having
30 a cylinder with a reciprocable piston therein, a
cylinder head, a generally frusto-conical rotat
' able valve in the head having a central wall sep
arating the valve into two similar combustion
chambers, said valve having opposed side ports
said tapering sides, opposed, intake and exhaust 35 communicating with said chambers, and means
between the outer end of the cylinder and the
conduits, opposed ignition devices, and means
cylinder head forming an opening of less diam
for rotating said valve to register each port alter
nately with said conduits and ignition devices ‘ eter than the diameter of the piston and pro
(viding constant communication between the
during a three hundred and sixty degree angular
movement of the valve.‘
'
- ~17. _In a two stroke cycle internal combustion
engine having a cylinder and a reciprocable pis
‘cylinder and said combustion chambers, said ,
opening being divided
.
intotwopartsbysaidnll.
’
CLARENCE E. FRANK.
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