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Патент USA US2378060

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June 12, 1945.
c, A, BRAUCHLER
'
2,378,060
FORGING APPARATUS
Filed Aprilv 28, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet l
36' 37" 36’ 50
45
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?/zarlas‘ ?. Braac/zler
‘June 12,1945.
2,378,060
c_. A. BRAUCHLER
FéRGING APPARATUS
Filed April 28, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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June 12, 1945.
c. A. EQRAUCHLER
2,378,060
FORGING' APPARATUS
Filed April 28, .1943 I
_
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
14
Charles ??mac/zkr >
Junev 12, 1945.
c. A. BRAUCHLER
2,378,060
FORGING APPARATUS
Filed April 28, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented June 12, 194-5
‘ ‘2,378,060..
UNITED STATES PATENT #OFFI‘C'EB
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rename
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.zsrspso
APPARATUS...’
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Charles A. Brauchler, canton, Ohio
Application April 28, 1943,. Serial N0.‘4s4',s23
‘ 10 Claims.
'
(c1. 7s-~9) ‘I
ratus comprising ’ cylinder. operated. dies _ conform
The invention relates to forging apparatus and
more particularly to .an apparatus for press forg
ing a cylinder head, or the like, toform a recess
or cavity therein. ,
,
I
.
_-
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ing to the outside contour of the forged head,
, and ,a cylinder operated plunger cooperating
therewith for. forming the combustion chamber
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The invention is especially concerned with the‘ '
recess in the head. ,
and the improved.forg-ing‘apparatusis illustrated
and described as designed for producing such
cylinder
heads.v
.
..
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vision" of. such an, apparatus .inwhich the head
is- press forged to ‘finished shape in saidcylinder
operateddiesland-held. therein while the plunger
,7
, It has been ,generalpractice to castthesecyl
in
inder heads from aluminum alloys, ;.such_. as
duralumin,_but owing‘to the rapid strides made
‘than now generated in the cylinders‘. ‘
‘
A
I.
y
.
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The object of the invention is to provide an ap
paratus comprising .a ?xed dieqand. a cooperat
ing', movable die, shaped .to conformlto the outer
contour of thecylinder head. forging, a- hydraulic
cylinderfor moving the‘, movable die, and a plung
er operated by a hydraulic cylinder located‘ at
a right ‘angle. to the die operating cylinder, for
.
Reluctant to increasethe weight of the engines
by making a more massive, cast cylinder head,‘
aircraft engineers experimented with forged cyl
20 forming. the combustion chamber recess in the
cylinder head forging while the forging. is held
‘clamped under extreme pressure between‘ said,
inder heads to replace the conventional cast head
and it was found that a forged-head would have
many vadvantages over the cast cylinder head‘.
These objects, together with others which will
be apparent from the drawings and following
The increased tensile strength of the forged
material, over that: of cast materiaLresu'lted in
a cylinder head of twice the strength with no increase in weight or size,: an'd'permitted increased
power output,‘, decreased fuel consumption and
.
is operated. to form. the-combustion chamber . re
cess and extrude a skirt’ upon- the‘cylinderhead
forging.
.in aircraft during the present war, the power
output of aircraft- engines is increasing tor-such
extent that cast, heads‘ will not have su?icient
strength to withstand much greater. pressures
increased cooling effect.
'
The, invention further contemplates the‘ pro- _
production of cylinder headsfor aircraft engines
descriptiommay be attained by constructing‘the
improved apparatus‘ in the. manner" illustrated
in the accompanying‘ drawings, in which- ,
Figure 11s a vertical,~long-itudina1 sectional
‘
Owing to‘the great number of hammer forg 30 view through the improved press forging: appa=
ratus, showing the'parts in‘ the operated position .
ing. operations required to- produce a cylinder
with the, dies inclose'd position. and the plunger
head forging, the limited number ‘of dropha-m
mers in this country of su?icient size and weight
extendedinto the dies;
1
. .
.
.
Fig. 2, a fragmentary sectional view of a por-'
for the purpose,» the heavy demand. upon drop‘ ' »
hammers for producing many other forged, ar—. 35 ,tion, of the die operating cylinder‘ and-piston,
ticles for war use, and the fact that su?icient,
showing the oil connection for rais'ing‘the pis
hammers to produce-these forged cylinder heads »
ton;
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1
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in any considerable numbers could not be. ob
Fig. 3, .a'» front elevation of the apparatus; 7
tained for about two years, it wasimpossible to
‘Fig. 4,. a top-plan view‘ or the apparatus with
produced forged cylinder heads in this manner. 40 parts broken in section- to show the oil connec;
Applicant overcame thisobstacle by develop-V
ing a method of press forging the forged cylinder
heads in two or three operations, as compared
with the minimum of nine hammer operations,
obtaining the‘ advantages of ‘the forged‘fhead
without the use‘ of drop hammers and with only
a fraction of the time and labor required for
drop forging.
'
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j
tion ‘for withdrawing the plunger operating pis
ton;
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"
Fig.3 5; a section“ takenon the line -5'—5,
46
1;
Fig.6, an‘ enlarged vertical, longitudinal sec-'
iio‘nal View through the dies, showing v‘a cylinder
head, forging‘ held therein‘ and‘ the plunger in
operated position to‘ formfthe‘ combustion cham
ber recess in the‘ head and to extrude the‘ skirt
Said method of press forging -_ the cylinder
‘
heads forms the. subjectmatter of a copending 50 therefrom‘;
application for patent ?led by- applicant, and the
Fig. '7, av perspective view vofthe partly com
present invention is concerned with the app‘ara- I
pleted forging; and‘ i
tus by means of which the final press forging
operation of» said method is » accomplished.v
the combustion chamber recess is formed therein
Fig.‘ 8-, a similar view of the‘ forging’ before
The present invention contemplatessan appa 65 and the skirt extruded therefrom. '
2.
Similar
2,378,060
numerals
refer
to
similar
parts
within the inner wall 48 of the cylinder and over
hanging the ring 30 as best shown in Figure 1.
In order to have a clear understanding of the
The cylinder I4 is mounted upon the base plate
purpose of the apparatus forming the subject
4| and is provided with the outturned ?ange 42
matter of the present invention, the press forg 5 engaging the shoulder 43 at the rear end of
ing method in which said apparatus is used will
the base plate M. A block 44 is mounted upon
be brie?y described.
the forward end portion of the base plate M and
A blank, in the form of a block or ingot of
the lower or ?xed die 45 is mounted upon said
duralumin, or the like, of suitable size is ?rst
block.
heated to forging temperature and vthen press
The upright front plate 46 is provided with the
forged in dies shaped to produce the partly com
dovetailed lower end 41 mounted in the dove
pleted forging indicated generally at I0 in Fig. '7
tailed groove 48 formed in the base plate Ill and
having the rocker boxes II formed thereon.
a wedge 49 may be provided for tightly holding
throughout the drawings.
This partly completed product, at forging tem
‘the two plates together.
perature, may then be placed in a second set of 15 vAn upper plate 50, similar to the base plate M
dies and press forged to the desired ?nished outer
is provided at its rear end with a shoulder 5I
contour as indicated generally at I2 in Fig. 8,
and this forging, at forging temperature, may
engaging the annular ?ange 42 upon the cylinder
I4 and is provided at its forward end with a
dovetailed groove 52 which receives the dovetailed
upper end: portion 53 of the front plate 43, a
be placed in an apparatus forming the subject .
matter of the present application and held in
the dies thereof while the plunger of the appa
ratus is operated to form the combustion cham
wedge 54 being provided for holding said plates
tightly together.
ber recess and extrude a skirt upon the forged
The upper cylinder I3 is connected to the ap
paratus by means of the upright side plates 55
having the angular shoulders 56 at their lower
ends engaging beneath the corresponding shoul
ders 57 at the sides of the base plate 4| and pro
head.
Or, if desired, the partly completed product ,
Ill, shown in Fig. '7, heated to forging tempera
ture, may be placed directly in the dies of the
apparatus and press forged to finished shape
vided with the dovetailed grooves 53 near their
therein and held by the dies while the plunger
upper ends receiving the dovetailed flanges 59
is operated to form the combustion chamber re 30 upon the cylinder I3, wedges 50 being provided
cess and extrude the skirt.
for tightly securing these parts together.
Blocks 6| may be provided between the ring
I5 and the top plate 50 to properly space the
cylinder I3 relative to the other parts of the
,
The improved apparatus includes a pair of
hydraulic cylinders comprising the upright cylin
der indicated generally at I3 and the horizontal
cylinder indicated generally at I4, for operating
the dies and plunger respectively, and will be
-
With this construction all of the
parts are rigidly and securely ‘locked together so
apparatus.
later described. A ring I5, shouldered as at I6
is ?tted within the open lower end of thecylinder
as to resist the pressures developed in the cylin
ders which may vary from 1400 to 1700 tons in
I3, the shouldered portion of the ring being pro
each cylinder.
The movable die 62, complementary to the ?xed
die 45, is carried by the piston 23, being con
vided with an annular rib I‘! received within the
correspondingly shaped groove I8 ‘in the lower
end of the cylinder.
Screws I9 detachably connect the ring I5 to
the cylinder I3.
The piston or ram 20 is slid
nected to the lower end thereof as by the dove
tailed rib 63‘ upon the die and the corresponding
ably mounted with the cylinder I3 and provided
groove I54 in the piston, a Wedge 65 being pref
erably provided for tightly securing the die upon
at its upper end‘ with the annular shoulder or
the piston.
?ange 2I, slidably contacting the inner wall 22
of the cylinder, the remaining portion of the
The plunger 66 is mounted upon the end of
the piston. 34 and cooperates with the dies 45
piston being reduced in diameter as at 23 and
slidably engaging the inner surface of the ring I5.
For the purpose of preventing leakage of oil
and 62 as will be later described. The front
plate 46 is provided in its upper portion with an
around the piston a stuffing box recess 24 is
formed in the inner surface of the ring I5 to
passed toplace it in or remove it from the lower
receive the packing 25 which is held in place
as by the gland 26 attached to the ring I5 by
the screws 21.
Fluid under pressure may be admitted to the
upper end of the cylinder, as by the pipe 28, for
driving the piston or ram downward and one or
more ?uid pipes 29 may extend. through the ring
I5 to admit ?uid pressure against the underside
of the shoulder 2I to drive the piston upward.
The horizontal cylinder I4 has a ring 30‘
mounted in its open end said ring being shoul
dered as at 3I and connected to the end of the
65
cylinder as by screws 32. The ring 30 has an
elongated, cylindric portion 30a surrounding the
opening 61 through which the forging may be
?xed die 45.
'
.
Oil under pressure may be admitted to the
outer end of the cylinder I4, as by the pipe 68,
and one or more oil pipes 69 may be located
through the ring 30 for admitting oil under
pressure to the opposite end of the cylinder for
withdrawing the piston 34.
The ?xed die 45 and movable die 62 have
cavities ‘I0 and ‘II respectively formed therein
conforming to the ?nished outer contour of the
forging I2 as shown, in Fig. 8 and also shaped
to form the extruded neck ‘I2 at the lower end
of the forging as shown in Fig. 6. The plunger
66 has a rounded nose ‘I3 shaped to form the
combustion chamber recess ‘I4 in the heated forg
ing as shown in Fig. 6.
reduced portion 33 0f the piston 34 and recessed
as at 35 to provide a stu?ing box within which
is located packing material 36 held in place by 70 In operating the apparatus the forging I2, as
shown in Fig. 8, may be heated to forging tem
the gland 31 which is connected to the end of
perature and passed through the opening 61 and
the cylindric portion 32 of the ring as by screws
placed in the cavity ‘Ill of the ?xed lower die
38.
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45, the piston 23' then being moved downward
The piston 34 is provided with the enlarged
annular shoulder or ?ange 39 slidably fitting, 75 so as to clamp the heated forging tightly be
aerated
end-piston cooperating‘withithe dies, 2;. basepl'ate
1 4 therein, ' the! metal extrudediby ithis :operation
and a top plate l‘connectéd-at ,theirrean ends
to‘ the; second cylinder; alfrontzplate. connected.
to the forward endszof the plateavand 'sideplates»
connected at opposite ends‘ to-thek?rstrcylinder.
and to the base -plate,_ther_e;=being an:.opening!
formingltheskirtns' -
in ‘the ' top plate. , throughcwhich; the; .?rst :piston
confornito the‘icontour-ofl-theiforgingd2:“
,.
~- ‘ The ipistonl 33 I is ‘their operated" vforcing .the'
roundedfnose'131of1the'plunge1i 6B’ into-the heated
forging’, forming Lthe. combustion-"f chamber : recess
i In this =operationlthe onlyufunctiorr ‘of the dies
45 and: 62 is=to?hold‘,thewheatedeforging‘irigidly '
is located blocks clamped. between ithel ?rstcylin~
der Randi the top, plate, .andltherebeing; an. open_-,.
in ‘place ‘while the, plunger is :operatedv to- produce 10 ing, 'in ~. the front. plate through which‘ work. may
bepassed tothe dies...
the combustion chamber- recessand'the skirt, a
However, the manufactureof :these press‘ forged
‘
;
15; Apparatusinclu'ding a‘ ?xed, die; anmovable
cylinder heads may be expedited by eliminating
die;;r said, dies I having complementary cavities,“ a
cylinder, a?uid operated piston said- cylinder,
one step inv-the. method,x';the1 ‘ partlyilcompleted
forging‘ ' l0, .5 ‘shown: in; 1Fig.g;v'l, vbe'ingbheated to 15 means 1 connecting themovable die :to . said‘ ‘ piston,
forging. temperature and'plaoeds in the-lower ?xed
a secondl?uid operated-.cylinder located at an
die" 45,-, the ,upper - movable -. die_?...,62 .being ,then
lowered,v pressi'forging ‘the heated-metahto, ‘the -
angleto the’ ?rst mentioned cylinder, a piston in
the‘ second cylinder, a plunger on the second 1315-: 1'
ton‘ oooperatingzwith. the dies,.;a7base vplate-on ‘
?nal forged vcontou-rrliandi while; the, die stillre;
mains‘closed. :under: the extreme pressureof the. 20 which the ?xed die is mounted; interlockingzfore
cylinder: l3,‘ the‘ plunger. ;&5.;3is;, operated, to; form
the'- combustion chamber recess and-*extrnde the
mations on i the rear ‘portion of the base plate and
on the second Ecylinder, a front plate, interlocking
,
formations? upon-the: lowerv portion .of ' the front
> 1.‘ Apparatus including-:a-?xed die, a movable
plate-and the forward portion-0f the‘base'plate,
a topv plate,‘ interlocking formations, onqtlie‘rear
portion of'the‘topplate andion the second'~cylin-.
skirt asabove described.‘
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,
.
die,‘ said dies havingv complementary ‘cavities, a
cylinder,. a ?uidw'op'erated piston in, said-cylinder,
. means connecting the \,movable die to said piston,
a' ‘second ?uidoperated cylinder locatedat ,‘an
deri, interlocking. formations » on the: .upperilpor-r
tion..ofithefront plate andon the forwardipor
tion of the ‘top plate, ‘sidev plates; mterlocking
angle torthe?rst mentioned -cylinder>,__ a piston 30' formations on the .lowerlp'orti'ons:ofwthe side ,
inwthe second _= cylinder ,and a. plunger onqthe
plates and on the‘, base; plate and ‘interlocking
second piston- cooperating with ;the dies,>_a_, base,
formations on the vupper portionsof the side
'platesand on the ?rst cylinder;
plate and a-qtop plate- .connected._.at~.theirrear
ends to: the second a‘cylinder,-;a',-front, plate con:
6.:Apparatus including a ‘?xed die; a: movable
nected:to:the::forward .ends off-the plates,anld 35 die, vsaid dieschaving complementary-1'c'avitieaxa '
side plates connected at opposite-endsto the: ?rst
cylinder‘, al?uid operated‘ piston in said cylinder',;
means connecting the- movable die to‘ said piston,
ausecond ?uid operated cylind'er‘l'ocatedat an
die, said dies having complementary cavities‘ya , angle‘v toathe' ?rst ‘mentioned cylinderpia piston
cylinder, a ?uid operatedpiston in said. cylinder, 40 inlthe- second cylinder, a plungeron the second
means connecting the movable die to said piston,
piston cooperating with :the ‘dies,.-a baseiplate I
a ‘second ?uid io'peratedycylinder located at an‘
‘on- whichll'the ?xed-‘die ‘is imountedi‘interlocking
angle to the ?rst mentioned cylinder, a piston
formations on the rear ‘portion of‘, the base plate
cylinder .andto the base plate.“
, I
'
' 2. Apparatusincluding ag?xed ?ea-movable;
in the second cylinder and a plunger on the sec
ond piston cooperating with the dies, 2. base plate
and a top plate connected at their rear ends to
the second cylinder, a front plate connected to
the forward ends of the plates, and side plates
connected at opposite-ends to the ?rst cylinder,
and to the base plate, there being an opening r
in the top plate through which the ?rst piston
is located and blocks clamped between the ?rst
and on the second cylinder, a front plate having
an opening through which work may be passed
to the dies, interlocking formations upon the
lower portion of the front plate and the forward ' ‘
portion of the base plate, a top plate, interlockingv
formations on the rear portionpof the top plate,
and 1011 the second cylinder, interlocking forma
tions on the upper portion of the front plate and
on the forward portion of the top plate, side
cylinder and the top plate.
,
3. Apparatus including a ?xed die, a movable
plates, interlocking formations on the lower por- i '
die, said dies having complementary cavities, a L
cylinder, a ?uid operated piston in said cylinder,
means connecting the movable die to said piston,
a second ?uid operated cylinder located at an
angle to the ?rst mentioned cylinder, a piston
interlocking formations on the upper portions‘of
tions of the sideplates and on the base plate and
the side plates and on the ?rst cylinder.
7. Apparatus including a ?xed die, a movable
die, said dies having complementary cavities, a
cylinder, a ?uid operated piston in said cylinder,
. in the second cylinder and a plunger on the 60 means connecting the movable die to said piston,
second piston cooperating with the dies,v a base ‘ > a second ?uid operated cylinder locatedat an
plate and a top plate connected at their rear
ends to the second cylinder, a front plate con
nected to the forward ends of the plates, and side
angle to the ?rst mentioned'cylinder, a piston in
the second cylinder, a plunger on the second pis
ton cooperating with the dies, a base plate on
plates connected at opposite ends to the ?rst 65 which the ?xed die is mounted, interlocking for
cylinder and to the base plate, there being an
, mations on the rear portion of the base plate and
opening in the front plate through which work
‘on the second cylinder, a front plate, interlock.
may be passed to the dies.
ing formations upon the lower portion of the front ,
4. Apparatus including a ?xed die, a movable‘ '
die, said dies having complementary cavities, a
cylinder, a ?uid operated piston in said cylinder,
means connecting the movable die to said piston,
a second ?uid operated cylinder located at an
angle to the first mentioned cylinder, a piston
in the second cylinder and a plunger on the sec 76
plate and the forward portion of the base plate,
a top plate, interlocking formations on the‘ rear
portion of the top plate and on the second cylin
der, interlocking formations on the upper‘por
tion of the front plate and on the forward por-'
tion of the top plate, side plates, interlocking for
mations on the lower portions of the side plates‘
4
2,378,060
and on the base plate and interlocking forma
through which work may be passed to the dies
and having dovetailed upper and lower ends, there
on the ?rst cylinder, there being an opening in
being a dovetailed grodve in the front portion
the top plate through which the ?rst piston is
ofv the base plate receiving the dovetailed lower
located. and blocks clamped between the first
end of the front plate, a top plate having a
cylinder and the top plate.
‘
.
,
shoulder interlocking with the ?ange upon the
8. Apparatusincluding a ?xed die, a movable
second cylinder and a dovetailed groove receiving
die, said dies havingcomplementary cavities, a
the dovetailed upper end of the front plate, side
cylinder, dovetailed ?anges on said cylinder, a
platesihaving dovetailedgrooves in their upper
?uid operated pistonin said cylinder, means con 10 ends receiving the dovetailed ?anges on the front
necting the movable die to said piston, a. second
cylinder and interlocking shoulders on the lower
?uid operated cylinder located atan angle to
ends of the side plates and on the sides of the
the ?rst mentionedcylinder, an outturned ?ange
base plate.
‘
t
on the second cylinder, a piston in the second
10. Apparatus including a ?xed die, a movable
cylinder, a plunger on the second piston cooperat 15 die, said dies having complementary cavities, a
ing with the dies, a base plate on which the
cylinder, dovetailed ?anges on said cylinder, a
?xed die is mounted, a shoulder on the rear por
?uid operated piston in said cylinder, means con
tion of the base plate interlocking with the ?ange
necting the movable die to said piston, a second
on the second cylinder, a front plate having dove
fluid operated cylinder located at an angle to the
tailed upper and lower ends, there being a dove
?rst mentioned cylinder, an outturned ?ange on
tailed groove in the front portion of the base plate
the second cylinder, a piston in the second. cylin
receiving the dovetailed lower end of the front
der, a plunger on the second pistonrcooperating
plate, a top plate having a shoulder interlocking
with the dies, a base plate’ on which the ?xed
with the ?ange upon the second cylinder and a
die is mounted, a shoulder on the rear portion of
dovetailed groove receiving ‘the dovetailed upper 25 the base plate interlocking with the ?ange on
end of the front plate, side plates having dove
the second cylinder, a front plate having dove
tailed grooves in their upper ends receiving the
tailed upper and lower ends, there being a dove
dovetailed flanges onthe front cylinderand in
tailed groove in the front portion of the base _
terlocking shoulders on the lower ends of the side
plate receiving the dovetailed lower end of the
plates and on the sides of the base plate.
30 front plate, a top plate having a shoulder inter
9. Apparatus including a ?xed die, a movable
locking with the ?ange upon the second cylinder
die, said dies having complementary cavities, a
and a dovetailed groove receiving the dovetailed
cylinder, dovetailed ?anges on said cylinder, a
upper end of the front plate, side plates having
?uid operated piston in said cylinder, means con
dovetailed grooves in their upper ends receiving
necting the movable die to said piston, a second 35 the dovetailed ?anges on the front cylinder and
?uid operated cylinder located at an angle to the
interlocking vshoulders on, the lower ends of the
tions on the upper portionsof the side plates and
?rst mentioned cylinder, an outturned ?ange on
side plates and on the sides of the base plate,
the second cylinder, a piston in the second cylin
there being an opening in the top plate through
der, a plunger on the second piston cooperating
which the ?rst piston is located and blocks
with the dies, a base plate on which the ?xed die 40 clamped between the ?rst cylinder and the top
is mounted, a shoulder on the rear portion of
plate.
the base plate interlocking with the ?ange on the
CHARLES A. BRAUCHLER.
second cylinder, a front plate having an opening
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