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Aug. 7, 1945.` 2,381,603 E. A. LARSSON CAR COUPLING EQUIPMENT Filed July 24“, 1943 -29 Í \\ ERNST A. LARSSON Bu Aug- 7, 19145~ v E. A. LARSSON ` 2,381,603 CÀR COUPLING EQUIPMENT Filed July 24, .194s 5 sheets-sheet 2 @7 [email protected] _65; LM @L r1 C: nh, uJ_ C c: @[email protected] '‘f3 fs’ | îîLî EA sn v Snvex‘ltor ERNST ALAR SSoN 'Bu ' . _' m _ Aug» 7» 1945~ E. A. LARssoN 2,381,603 >GAR GOUPLING EQUIPMENT Filed July 24, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 , 22 22 l0 Bu ation-leg ` ‘72,381,603 Patented Aug; 7, 1945 j _ UNITED STATE s PATENT oFFl-CE > 2,381,603 _' y CÀR COÚPLING EQUIPMENT .i i" ~-Ernst Larsson, Mansfield, Ohio, assignor to The Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, a rcor poration of New Jersey " ` ‘ ' Application July 24, 1943, Serial No. 496,255 ` ‘ _ 2s claims. l My invention relates to car couplers, includ .ing attachments therefor to secure the couplers to cars. ` - y » (ci. 213121) trally held position to a lateral position and held in such position, whereby a coupling may be effected. l Many features of construction of my present ' ‘ y My invention is exemplified by the combination coupler are to be found'vin my coupler disclosed in my U. S. Letters Patent 2,235,618 issued March and arrangement of parts shown in the accom panying drawings and described in the following l18', 1941. My present invention involves features which may well beî considered asimprovements out in the appended claims. over my prior invention. ‘-‘ " » ‘ In the conventional types of I automatic cou plers, the method of `attaching the same to cars is by means of» al vertical‘pin upon` which the coupler head pivots laterally. This design and method oivattachment‘of the coupler>to cars specification and it isfmore particularly pointed l In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a side view of two couplers of the type herein referred to in position suitable to be moved into coupled relation. Fig. 2 is a top plan view taken on the line‘2-2 of Fig. 1 in partial section showing one form of permitspractically unrestricted lateral movement 15 coupler head, namely the female’head under nor mal condition. of the coupler head upon they pivot -pin under Fig. 3 is a side View in partial‘section of Fig. `pull and‘bufï conditions. . 2, the partial section being taken on the line 3--3 There isf usually considerable `clearance be of Fig..2, ‘ ` \ . tween the ‘wheelA flangeion the cars and the inside face of the rail head and this permits 'the- cars 20 Fig. ‘4 isa section corresponding to the section OtîFig.- 2 showing the relation of thev parts when in a train coupled with the» conventional type of the coupler is under buff condition. coupler to buckle `and to assume ran angular re Fig. 5 is a schematic drawing of several cars on a straight track and equipped with the afore lation to each other> and `to the track under se verebuihng conditions; - ' This tendency lfor the cars to buckleîis a se-- rious matter, alîecting the operation of the cars in long trains and frequently resulting in derail ment of the cars in pushing or buiiing., especially when short couplers are used on long cars with short wheel base as is quite common practice in mining and industrial operations. It is the purpose of my >improved coupler here in described, to completely eliminate, or substan tiallyxso, the .tendency of the‘cars to buckle un der buff and in fact my improved coupler has `: w Si the effect` of alining the cars in a straight line parallel'to .the rails when, subjectedvtovsevere bufling. .. , of the cars and couplers indicates the couplers under draft or normal conditions. » l ‘ Fig. 6 is a schematic drawing of a plurality of cars equipped as in Fig. 5 but under buff con ditions. L l i - Fig. 7 is a-schemati‘c drawing showing several cars4 equipped with my improved coupler and op» erating under buff conditions. . i f ~ Fig. 8 is a schematic drawing showing the dif ficulty of `coupling cars on a short curve when the cars are equipped with couplers provided with automatic centering devices. . . _' . Fig. 9 is a schematic drawing showing two ` Another purpose of my improved coupler is to provide one in which the tendency for the cars to be derailed on curves is less than with a cou pler of the `conventional-type ,which is provided with substantially .unrestricted »lateral move ment on its pivotal pin. said conventional coupler. The relative positions I ' . `A diiiiculty isoften `experienced inattempt ing to couple two cars ona curve when the co,u-. plers are of the` conventional typeand equipped with automatic centering means. =’_l",he.couplers cars about to be coupled on a short curve, the cars'being equipped with vmy improved coupler also' equipped with my centering device. Fig. 10 is a schematic drawing showingthe operation of a plurality of cars equipped with my improved couplers when operation on a curve under buff conditions. - , Fig. 11 shows a plan view in partial section of the Acoupler Xr of Fig. 10 showingv the relation of parts. .. . , l Fig. 12 shows a plan view in. partial section of condition of the curve projects the face ,of Ythe 50 the coupler> Z of` Fig. 10 showing the relation of in this case are held in central `position and the couplers far .enough out of alinementso thatthe heads when 'brought together. will `not .effect .a coupling. >In my improved 'c,:oup1er.-I..,provideY 11;.: .‘ -means whereby> the head; may z-be .movedïfrorn its con.; 55 parts. , » » » i p' Throughout the description to follow, like parts, as far` as possible are given like designa tion. , .. . .f ~ It is the means oi the attachment of thecou 1 2 2,381,603 pler head to the car body and the cooperation In Fig. 4 the parts are shown under approxi mately a maximum bumng action applied direct ly along the longitudinal axis with the end 5’ of the coupler engaging the plate I8 at which a tendency to align the couplers and cars begins to act, the ribs I6 being fully compressed. With less bufflng action, the ribs I6 would have been only between the head and attaching means and the eifect upon the operation of the car to which my advance in the art relates principally and not in the type of head per se. The two heads could be of the same design if so constructed as to in‘tercouple, as shown for instance in U. S. Letters Patent l2,140,705 issuedto me December 20, 1938. partly compressed and the coupler end would not .contact the bumng plate )lf My description therefore, covers principally the means of attaching the coupler head tothe car body and their corelation and operation and, for that reason I have not shown in detail the companion head as that is clearly shown and de scribed in my Patent 2,235,618. In Fig. 1, the male coupler M comprises in general a head I, a draw bar 2, anda resilient anchorage 3 and these parts are shown assembled and mounted on a car body Ar - In Fig. 1, the female coupler F comprises a 10 I When the pressure dueto the buff is released the spring action of the rubber ribs I6 tends to force the parts to their normal position as in l It will be noted that in my prior invention disclosed in theaforesaid Patent 2,235,618, that all pressure due to buff is distributed over the entire area of the rubber spring or pad while in my present invention the normal buff is taken up by ribs I6 at points laterally spaced from the head 4 which has integrally combined With itv a 20 longitudinal center of the device until the buff ~ draw bar 5, and the resilient anchorage 3 at exceeds the resistance thereto by the resiliency of ~ tached to a car body B. ` the ribs I6. . , , . I I. The female head 4 is adapted to receive the male head I and the two are locked in. coupled position by the latch 'I which engages the bearing face» 8 in the transverse- sloty a. The handle I0 secured to the latch 'i operates the same tol the Mounted within the coupler head near its piv oted. end is a, slidable centering device 2l él‘ig. having. a forked end with tines 2.5. „'lî‘hese` tines rest.. againstv the member> I! in both grooves 2,6 when the head. isin. a normal position `(Fig. 2). unlocking position. rEhe tines are pressed. against. the member I! The resilient anchorage 3 isr the same for both by means of the spring 2l, held- at one end by typesv of heads and comprises a box-like mem 30 the ñxed pins 28'. The pressureI of the spring ber II formed with a. back memberv I2V andv side 2ï is. sufficient. tov maintain the, coupler head in members I3 and held to the car body by bolts longitudinal alinernentl with the car axis when I4 which also secure in placer the parts. within .uncoupled « . „ the member H. The action of this centering device is the Mounted within the member- Il is. a pad t5 same as that. vdisclosed in the aforesaid Patent preferably of resilient or elastic rubber capable 2,235,618 namely, when the coupler head is moved of returning to its original shape after deforma laterally to one’side (Fig. i2) the spring 2:1 is tion. The padv I5 is provided, on its iront face, compressed thus increasing its normal pressure with a plurality of spaced ribs I6 at or adjacent and. increasing the tendency to» move the head to the extreme side edges'lthereof and the ribs are 40 its central position. _ . ; connected by an extended ñat portion I'I in which In further explanation of, the purpose and oper is embedded a.- metal. plate I8' as- by moulding ation of my invention, I, show schematically in and/or. vulcanizin-g at the time of. manufacture. Fig. 5.» a train of cars connected by the conven Mounted upon. the front of the pad I5 and en tional type of pivoted couplers and attachments gaging the ribs I6 isv a. metal clevis member I9. 45 in which the cars are under draft conditions‘or Mounted within` the anchorage casing is a. yoke in a couplersThe normal state are longitudinally thatis neither laligned draftì nor with the shaped member 2*»I having a vertical. portion in front of each elastic member 28 and also having longitudinal airisy of the train. _ ` „ portionsA extending rearwardly and engaging- the In 6 is shown schematically the elîcctÍ of back members I2 and held in place by bolts: I4 50 thev same equipped cars under buit conditions. in and nuts 2.2 thereon. The members 2_I are de which the cars are buckled due tothe clearance signed to meet specisñc' conditionsgand when between rail head and wheel ilanges and the mounted into place, a normal compression is couplers treely pivoted relative to the» cars. The placed upon the' resilient:y members- t6 and 20 tendency is toA push the cars. frm the rails. and this compression is maintained by the- nuts 55 My improved coupler eliminates theÄ tendency 22. of cars to buckle under buff forces; and> on the The rubber parts I-15` and 2lI are employed in contrary has the eiîectr oi alining the. cars; lon place or metal springs and have proven superior gitudinally in a straight line parallel to the rails thereto andrequire less space- for equivalent work. when subjected to severe or abnormal; bufi‘l'ng. . I. may use in place of “rubber,” the various forms 60 In Fig.` 'Z' is shown schematically a train oi’ of so called synthetic rubber and elastic plastics, cars equipped with my improved coupler and an which my term “rubber” includes and which are chorage under buil’ conditions and it will be noted non-metallic. the cars and the couplers pivoted theretov remain 'l‘he coupler head is mounted on the clevis aligned longitudinally. member I9 by means of the pin 23 which'per 65 The support member I3 rests upon the raised mits. pivoted movement of the head in a lateral ribs i6' which are under sufficient compression direction relative to the anchorage and> car. The to maintain the member I9- in its forward position support member I9 and head 5 move longitudi when uncoupled (Fig. 2) or when coupled but nally together under pull or buff action. under neither buiî nor draft forces. The adjacent In Figs. 2 and 3 the parts are shown in nor 70 ribs I6 are spaced' and' this` together with their mal relation. Under a draft or pull the coupler head and member I'9ï will move forward and therebyr compress- the rubber springs 201 and re* lieve some oi the normal pressure on the rubber ribs IW. construction' permits them to be fully compressed under sumcient or abnormal buff forces.. In operation, if a haulage train is made up=of cars of a size and constmction. commonly used in mining and industrial work and equippedwith 3 enough out of the center line of the track so .conventionalïtype‘couplers (Fig. 6)', experience that it is missed by the coupler on the companion has shown that a compression' or buff Aforce of less than 5,000’pounds'is not sufficient to cause car which is being moved forward to eiîect a a derailment of the- cars but when a buiiing force coupling. force increases. » ' ’ y ' In my improved coupler I propose to overcome of more than 5,'000 pounds is encountered the tendency for the cars to climb the rails is pres: ent and this tendency increases as the bufñng this diiliculty by providing means to hold the coupler head in a lateral position. I provide a notch 29 in the face of the plate I8 so that when the'coupler head is manually swungover to either extreme position a corner at the rear end of the ' If Ithe cars of such a train are equipped'wiïthy my improved‘couplers constructed to overcome coupler head will enter the notch and hold the ' the above detrimental conditions, that is, to oper ate with unrestricted lateral movement under normal buñing conditions and when abnormal conditions are met, the couplers will tend vto prevent derailment by operating to force'the cars 15 head in its lateral position against the pressure of the centering device until released automati cally by suiïicient external force as by the cou pling lof the cars 'or when released manually. In Fig. 1l the head is swung around almost suf intoalignment and .to maintain such alignment. ficiently for the corner ofthe head to enter the vThe coupler equipment would be. constructed, notch 29. In Fig. 9 the couplers are shown as let >us say, to vhave about 7/8 inchy longitudinal equipped with notch 29 and the coupler D is movement of the coupler body relative 4to the heldin a position to couple with the companion 20 anchorage at 5,000 pounds buñìng force,"while coupler upon bringing the cars together. a movement of % inch would just seat 'the A'further and important advantage of my irn broad end face 5’ of the body against the bufñng . proved invention is diagrammatically shown in y ‘ Fig. 10 which shows three cars U, V, and W As soon as the said end- face 5' engages the builing plate I8, at a force somewhat less than 25' equipped with my improved coupling device and plate I8. operated on a 20 foot radius curve. 5,000 `pounds (Figs. 4 and '7), the compression The cars are assumed to be pushed around the force will begin to exert an effort to bring the curve in the direction of the arrow and the push cars and couplers into alignment. yWhen a bufiing `ing force is assumed to be large enough to com force of 5,000"p‘o_unds is reached, the plate IB will be under considerable compression `and will 30 press the resilient ribs IB of the resilient pads I5 so that the ñat end faces of the coupler heads exert a'considerable momentof force to bring come in contact with the plates I8 of the pads I5. into and Amaintain alignment of the cars and The cars U and V are each on the curve and couplers, and the greater the bufñng force the greater‘the'mon‘ient of force exerted. The bui‘lìng force acting between‘the end of " car W is still on tangent track approaching the curve with the coupler pivot 22 on the point of tangency.` Thusthe position of the couplers at the body 5 `and the bufling plate IB is exerted at the‘lateral edges of the body 5 and hence >pro duces a moment at one edge or the other, de pending upon which direction tendency `for non X between the cars Vy and W shows the position assumed by the couplers when one car is on stantially the product of the bufiing or compres sion force times one-half the width of the coupler the >curve and the other car with the coupler pivot on the point of tangency. In this position the coupler X on the car V takes the maximum swing attainable by normal end face at each coupled end of the car. operation over a 20- foot radius curve with a car alignmentis exerted, and this‘moment‘ is sub ` of such proportions as shown (10' x 6’ body) and. After being subjected to a compressive or 'buf fing force of about _5,000‘p`oundsV the coupler and 45 the coupler on car W is at the starting stage of i-ts cycle of lateral swing with the center line car axes will align with practically the complete only out a few degrees from the center line of surface of bufüng plate I8 inconta'c‘t with the‘ rear end of theV coupler body and with the rear the car. face of clevis member I9 land any additional compressive force will be absorbed by the entire rubber member I 5 which may be of sufficient size Assuming that a pushing force P is exerted from car W against car V, it will be noted that the direction of this would be along the line 50, and consistency to absorb a compressive force of ` through the pivoted centers of the couplers if 50,000 pounds or more at the end‘of an addi conventional couplers with unrestricted swing are _ tional compressive movement of 1/2 inch. .used, but the force is along the line 5I connect The members 20 will yield against a pulling or draft force.y ` ì ing diagonal corners of the end faces of the cou pler heads when my improved coupler equipments ` In my previous' description it is evident the coupler headl may pivot on‘the pin 23 under normal buñing and 'pulling conditions and even when the coupler is under extreme compression are used. i Fig. 11 exemplifies my improved equip ‘ ment at X. The force P in addition to moving the cars W and V along the track also produces a twisting it may be moved laterally under influence of` a laterally applied force such as would bethe case if the cars were `pushed around ratherv sharp curves. In this case one'lateral Vedge of .the rear face of the coupler Ybody will rock- over suffi ciently `to engage the plate I8 thus bringing pres sure on one edge of the coupler body end face and of the resilient pad vI 5 and releasing pressure on the other edge thereof (Fig. l2) ., „ ' In Fig. 8 'is shown diagrammatically a form 65 moment acting> on each car tending to push the respective car off the track. In the case Vof car W this moment is equal to P><A when the con ventional coupler is used, and it is zero when my improved coupler equipment is used because the line 5I passes through the vertical center line of the car showing that the tendency to push car W off the track is infinitely reduced bythe use ‘of my improved equipment. In the case of car‘V, the moment of force is equal to P><B when conventional couplers are used, and to PXC when my improved coupler is ing coupler heads. . Thecouplersare held in a central position and thecondition of the curve ` A¿.used, and as C is considerably less than B, the proJects the face of the coupler in one car far ' “equations show that the tendency to push'the of difliculty sometimes experienced when coupling cars on short curves with automatically center 4 2,381,503 car V off the track is considerably reduced by. the use of my improved coupler. f 1. A coupler anchorage comprising in. combi nationl a body member for attachmenttoeJ car, At Z in-Fig. 10 is shown the position assumed. a support member with means thereon to secure by the couplers when two adjacent coupler cars a coupler body thereto, resilient cushioning ' U and V are both on a 20 foot radiusv curve. The lateral swing of the couplers in relation to the car means of non-metallic material interposed be tween the support member and the body mem ber to permit longitudinal movement of the cou center lines are then the same in both cars and, assuming a pushing force P’ exerted> from car V pler body under either draft or buff forces, anda to car U there is a moment of force produced builing plate associated with the cushioning tending to push both cars U and V off the track 1,0 means and so related thereto as tobe engaged byy equal to P'XE when conventional couplers are the rear portion of the coupler body to receive a used and equal to P’><Dl when my improved cou' plers are used. r portion of thebuiiing force due to the rearward. - movement of the coupler body after . :the .said As D is less than E the equations show that buiiing force has been initially appliedI to the sup-t the tendency to push the cars off the track in 15 port member. this position is also less when my improved cou-. 2. A coupler anchorage comprising in combi-. plers are used than when conventional couplers nation, a body member for attachment Ato a car, are used. > . a support member with means to attach a cou-„ In Fig. 11 is shown the approximate relation of the parts of my improved coupler at the maxi 20 mum swing, as at X inFig. 10, with particular emphasis on the compression of the rubber builing pad l5 under influence of the compressive _force P. In Fig. 12 is shown the approximate position of the coupler parts at a lesser degree of swing, 25 such as at Z, showing how the rubber block I 5> pler thereto, resilient means `interposed ,between the support member and the body member and arranged to engage with and normally hold the support member normal to the longitudinal,axis` of the anchorage, the said resilient means being constructed with channeled formations and< so arranged relative to the support member and to, the body member that the support member may is compressed at one end and released of compres be moved'relative to the body member-and asf»Y sion at the other end under the in‘iluence of the sume obliquely disposed positions relative to theA unequal distribution of the force P. y . , said axis under 4buff forces, a metal builingv plate The wider I make the rear end face of my im 30 associated with the resilient means and in axial proved coupler, the greater is the effect described alignment with the longitudinal axisl of thel above but With an end face of 4” to 6” in width anchorage, and means on the plate to be engaged I am able to secure Very marked results in im by the rear end of an associated coupler to 11e-I proved operation. ` leasably hold the coupler with its longitudinalA In order to help support the lcoupler head in axis obliquely disposed to the longitudinal axis of ' a horizontal position, I place two spaced coil the anchorage. springs to exert pressing upon the clevis mem 3. A coupler anchorage comprising in combina-'f ber I9 adjacent its lower edge, thus tending to tion, va body member for attachment to a car, al raise the coupler and assist in holding it in a hori zontal position. . . . 40 In the appended claims I have used certain ex ‘ pressions which are deñned as follows support member and the body member to control . the longitudinal movements of. the coupler rela-_ . tive to the anchorage under either draft or‘buiî , Normal bufiìng force is anysuch force less than that which will derail the car. support member with means thereon to secure al coupler thereto, resilient cushioning means of non-metallic material interposed between the In the example given above, it is any builing force less than 5,000 45 vforces, the means controlling the buflìngA forces ` extending laterally. in both directions from `the, Norma1 longitudinal moment refers to the lon~ longitudinal axis of theanchorage and compris pounds. - ' ` ` gitudinal movement in either direction and if in ` a buñing direction it is limited to normal bufllng ' force. , 50 The support member I9 is held in a normal po sition when its plane is normal to the longitudinal axis of the coupler body 5.. ‘ ing raised yieldable portions'at the lateral ends 1 and which engage with the support member and l exert constant forward pressure upon the support v‘member and a central portion between said raised end portions, the central yportion arranged to re » main out of operative relation with the supportI The longitudinal axis ofthe anchorage is its member duringnormal bufling operations. axis which aligns with the longitudinalaxis'of 55 4. A coupler anchorage comprising in combi the car to which'it is attached.` Under prac-‘ "nation, a plate-like support member provided tically all construction the longitudinal axes'of with means to attach a, coupler, thereto7 a body the couper proper, of'the anchorage and‘of the ' member for attachment to a car, resilient -means car are in alignment under draft conditions Vex ’ of non-metallic material` interposed between one cept when operating on curves. 60 face of the support member` andthe body mem The coupler proper is in its central position ber, other resilient meansof non-metallic mate when its axis is aligned with that of the car or rial interposedvbetween another face of the sup anchorage. The coupler proper is »in its central position t when it is substantially free of draft and bufñng forces as when uncoupled from a companion coupler` . The size of the various parts of my invention may be changed to meet various conditions es 65 port member and fixed means secured to the body member, the said resilient means being under con _stant compression, the ñrst said resilient means , being subject to further compression from bufling forces and the said other resilient means subject to further compression from draft forces, .the ñrst said resilient means formed with a plurality of , pecially with respect to the size and construction 70 spaced and raised portions whereby the said nor of the car and the buñing forces to which it will be subjected. ' , Having described my invention, that which I claim is set forth in the appended claims, I claim: » - . ~ imal buiiing forces upon said support members are . absorbed by the said raised portions. 5. In a car coupleranchorage provided with au body member for attachment to a car and a sup 75 port member for pivotally mounting the coupler i 5 2,381,603 on the anchorage and means `of elastic non-me tallic material positionedbetween the said sup port member and the body member, the combi nation with the body member of a resiliently comprising a support member havingmeans for attaching the coupler body thereto, an anchorage body adapted to be attached to >the car, resilient means interposed ybetween the‘support member mounted buffer member positioned rearwardly .Cil and the anchorage body whereby the support member is held in position and the coupler head and bodyipermitted to move longitudinally of the anchorage body under either .a draft force or a its central position and said buffer member con hurling-force, a resiliently held buffer plate posi structed and arrangedso as to interlock with a position of the adjacentend of the coupler to re 10. tioned rearwardly from the support member in spaced relation thereto and engageabler by the tain it in its other than central position. , rear end of the coupler body only after the buiï » 6. In a car coupler anchorage provided with a force exceeds a predetermined value. body member for attachment to a carand a sup 1l. Car coupling mechanism comprising in port member for pivotally mounting the coupler on .the anchorage and means of elastic non-me 15 combination, a coupler including a -coupler head adapted to couple with a companion coupler, an tallic material positioned between the said sup from the support member and arranged-to be en Y gaged `by the coupler when pivoted laterally from port member and the body membenthe combina anchorage to mount the coupler body on a car, the said anchorage comprising a body potion for tion with the body member of means positioned attachment to a car, a support member to which rearwardly from the support member and ar ranged to be engaged by and to yieldingly inter 20 the coupler body is pivotallysecured for lateral movement, resilient means interposed between lock with :the coupler when moved laterally from the support member andthe said body portion to itswcentral position to hold the coupler in its other cushion the normal longitudinal forces of draft than central position. . and buff and a resiliently supported buiîer mem '7. In a car coupler anchorage provided with a body member for attachment to acar and a 25 ber to be engaged by one end of the coupler body plate-like support member for` pivotally securing the coupler to the anchorage, the combination whenrthe said normal bufñng force is exceeded, with the body member of means of yieldable none 12. Car coupling mechanism adapted to be to further cushion the builìng force. . metallic material interposed between `the support mounted >on a car and to couple with a compan member land the body member and normally ion coupler comprising in combination, a coupler headprovided with a rearwardly projecting cou pler body, an 4anchorage to mount the coupler maintaining the support member at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the anchorage but per~ head and body on a car, the said anchorage com mitting the support member to take an oblique prising a body portion for attachment to a car, position relative to the said axis under buffmg forces applied by the coupler, and means spaced 35 a support member to which the coupler body is pivotally- attached _for lateral movement with a from said body `member and supported by non portion of the coupler body projecting rearwardly metallic material, said means constructed and ar from ,the pívot pin and beyond the rear face of ranged to engage and hold a portion of the adja the support member, yielding means of» elastic cent end of a, coupler member to retain‘the cou non-metallic material positioned between the sup pler member in an oblique position. ` ` . 4D. port member and the anchorage body portion to 8. A car coupler mechanism comprising in cushion the draft and buiï forces and permit lon combination, a coupler head and body, thehead gitudinal` movement of said coupler head and portion adapted to` couple with the head on a body under said forces, a resiliently Ámounted coupler body on a car, the said anchorage' com-`v 45 buffer member positioned so as to be engaged by companion coupler, an anchorage‘to mount the the said Aprojecting portion of the coupler body when the krearward longitudinal movement of the coupler `body exceeds a predetermined amount to movement, a buffer member spaced rearwardly further cushion the bufñng force and to main from the support member and‘engageable by the rear end ofthe coupler body and means to resil 50 tain the ,longitudinal axis of the coupler body and the anchorage in alignment during said excess ientlysecure the support member and the buiïer member in position wherebybothlmembers are rearward movement. v 13. Car >coupling mechanism adapted to be permitted to move longitudinally relative to the prising a movable support member to which the body portion is pivotally attached for lateral car under’a buff force. ` mounted on a car and to couple-with a compan« 9. A car coupler comprisingy in combination, a 55 ion coupler comprising in combination, a coupler head provided with a rearwardly projecting cou coupler body including a head to couple 'with a pler body having a substantially ilat end sur companion coupler, an anchorage to mount the face projecting laterally to each side of the 1on coupler body and head on a car, the said anchor gitudinal axis of the head and body and in a plane age kcomprising a body portion for attachment to normal to said axis »for the purpose described, the car, a support member to which'the coupler an anchorage to mount the coupler head and body body is'pivotally attached for lateral movement, on a car, the said anchorage` comprising a body a buffer' member spaced rearwardly-of thesup portion for attachment to the car, a `support port member and engageableby the rear end >of member to which the coupler body is pivotally at the coupler body, and means resiliently securing the support member and the buiïe'r member in 65 tached to move laterally to either side of its cen tral position with a portion of the coupler body` position relative to the ‘anchorage body, whereby and dat end surface projecting rearwardly from the coupler body and the support member are the pivotal pin and ybeyond the rear face of the yieldable longitudinally under eithera draft or a support member, resilient means ofnon-metallic birding force and the buiî'er member' is' yield material .positioned between the support member able longitudinally under only a' ,buil’lng` force. 70A ’and the anchorage body portion to cushion the ' 10. Car coupling mechanism comprising in com forces of draft and buff and‘perimt longitudinal bination‘, a coupler head .adapted to couple with a companion head, a coupler body projecting rear wardly from the head, an vanchorage to mount the head and body on a car, the said anchorage movement of the coupler head and body relative to the anchorage, a resiliently mounted buffer .member havinga substantially dat-surface posi-` 6 2,381,603 tioned so‘as to been'gaged by ‘the end >surface of the said projectingv portion'of the coupler body when> the' rearwardly longitudinal movement of the coupler` body’- exceeds a predetermined amount, the surface of said buffer member being normal to thelongitudinal axis ofthe coupler head and «body when in their central position whereby the longitudinal axìs of the coupler body and head andv ofv the anchorage will be' brought into‘longitudinal- Valignment when the -said sur facesiengage, said-buffer member having a for mation ‘therein -engageable with vthe rearwardly projecting portion of the body to> hold said body in an off-center position: ï 14. In a car couping mechainsmv~ comprising a car coupler to couple with a companion coupler and an anchorage'arranged to pivotally mount the coupler upon a car and having means of elas tic material to cushion the longitudinal move ments of the coupler relative to the anchorage due to draft and buff forces, the rear end surface of the coupler being substantiallyñat and normal to the'longitudinal axis of the coupler andex tending laterally on both sides of said axis, the combination' with the anchorage of means to'be engaged by the said end surface of the coupler after the coupler has moved rearwardly in ex cess of its normal buiT‘mov'eme'nt to maintain the longitudinal axes of the coupler and said anchor age in alignment.' 15. In a car coupling mechanism comprising a car coupler and an anchorage to pivotally mount the „coupler upon a car and having means of re silient material to cushion the rearward move ments "of the coupler relative to the anchorage due to normal bufflng forces, the combination with theanchorage' of means engageable by the rear end lof the coupler after the said rearward move ments `are exceeded Ito hold the longitudinal axis of-the coupler and anchorage yin alignmentv under said buff action; ' ' 16. ‘In a't'ransportation system comprising a train of two or more cars mounted on a track and couplers connecting adjacent cars 'and an an chorage> secured to each car and provided with means whereby each coupler is pivotallylmount ed upon its car and further each anchorage pro vided vwithineans to cushion the normal buil? and draft forces between _adjacent cars,- the combina a force moment isset up on either side ofthe longitudinal axis tending to maintain the axis of the cars and couplers in longitudinal align ment and thereby resist derailment of the cars; 18. Ina haulage system comprising a train of two or more cars operating on a track and the adjacent cars connected by car couplers pivotally ' mounted thereon by interposed anchorages and each anchorage provided with resilient means of non-metallic material to cushion the nor mal draft and buinng forces relative to this an chorage, the combination with each anchorage of `other resilient means to engage with means spaced therefrom on the associated coupler after the bulilng force exceeds said normal force tend ing to derail the cars, the' said other means when engaged by the last said means on the cou pler under said excess bufñng force providing moments of force operating to align the longitu dinal central axes of the couplers and anchorages and cars and hold them in alignment thereby re sisting the tendency for the vcars to derail due to excess bufñng forces. 19. In a'haulage system comprising two or more cars operating on a track and car couplers con necting the adjacent cars and including sup port means to receive and pivotally secure the couplers to their respective cars and each said means provided with cushioning means of yield able elastic material to absorb the normal draft and builing forces, the combinationwith the first said means of other resilient means to be en gaged by the rear end of the coupler t0 receive buning forces in excess 0f said normal bufi‘lng " forces, the rear end on each coupler co-operating with said resilient means to form moments of force spaced laterally from the longitudinal axes of the cars and the couplers whereby the cou plers and’cars are brought into alignment after excessive buning and so maintained with their longitudinal axes in alignment during the period of applicationof said excess buñing force. 20. In a transportation system comprisingwa plurality of cars and a track on which the cars operate and couplers connecting the adjacent cars with the longitudinal axes of the vcouplers and cars in alignment on the tangent portions of the track and anchor means to pivotally secure the couplers to the cars with resilient means in tion with‘each anchorage of cushioning 'means ser terposed between the couplers and the anchors to be engaged 'by the adjacent rear end face of and to absorb the normal bufling forces, the com bination with `the said anchors of auxiliary means to align the longitudinal axis of the car and the spaced from said resilient means so arrangeed coupler and to maintain said alignment on a as to cooperate with the couplers whereby a mo tangent track whereby derailment of the cars is 65‘ ment of force will be developed to align the llon resisted.v f ' _ . gitudinal axes of the couplers and cars when the.l 17. In" a transportation system comprising a cars are operating on a curve and the bufflng train of two or more cars mounted on a track force is in excess of thesaid normal buñing torceÀ and couplers connecting adjacent cars andan ` thereby tending to derail the cars. anchorage secured to each car and provided 21. In a transportation system comprising a the associated coupler under abnormal buff forces witlrmeans whereby each coupler isv pivotally mounted upon its car and further each anchor age provided with means to cushion the buff and draft-forces between adjacent cars and -the rear end of each> lcoupler projectingy within its an chorage and havingan end surface of extended. width from. the longitudinal axis of the coupler, plurality of cars and a track onwhich the cars operate and couplers connecting the` .adjacent cars with the longitudinal axes of the couplers _ and cars in alignment on' the tangent portionsl of the track and anchor means to pivotally secure> the couplers to the cars with resilient means in terposed between the couplers and the anchors to4 permit longitudinal movement of the couplers iently supported means normally spaced rear relative to the anchors and toabsorb the normal wardly from the end surface of theassociated 70» bufnng forces, the combination with the anchors the combination with> each anchorage of resil coupler and having asurface of extended widthv normal to the longitudinal axis of the car and a of auxiliary means spaced from the said resil ient means to co-operate with the couplers when engageablenbyI the end surface of the coupler» the bufling forces `exceed said normal force tend under a‘buif forcewhereby due tothe width of king to derail the c_ars, the said co-operation'be the contacting vsurfaces and the hurling force 75 ing effected at a lateral distance from the said 7 2,381,603 longitudinal axis of the coupler whereby a mo ment of force is produced equal to the product of the component of the full bufiing force times the perpendicular distance from the said longi tudinal axis of the coupler to the point of appli cation of the said component thereby tending `to car and of the coupler being capable of longi tudinal alignment, and means on the anchorage positioned rearward of the coupler end and nor mally spaced for said coupler end and arranged to cooperate with means on the coupler whereby ' the coupler and the car are maintained in lon gitudinal alignment when the said parts are sub rotate the coupler on its pivotal axis to align the axes on a curve and to maintain the align jected to a buiñng force greater than the normal ment on the tangent thereby resisting derail buiiing force and also to bring the coupler and 10 car into alignment from an unaligned condition. ment of the cars. 26.' In combination, a car, an anchorage mount 22. .A cushion for a car coupler anchorage com ed on the car, a couplermounted on the anchorage prising, a body of elastic non-metallic material to pivot laterally, the longitudinal axes of the car and of the coupler being capable of longitu dinal alignment, and means on the anchorage po and a depressed central portion of extended area, sitioned rearwardly of the coupler end and nor the end portions each provided With a plurality of mally spaced from said coupler end and arranged ’ spaced and raised means so constructed and re to cooperate with means on the coupler whereby lated to the centrall portion that the normal the coupler and the car are brought into longi bufiing forces will be absorbed by the said raised means prior to the central portion absorbing buf 20 tudinal alignment from an unaligned position when the said parts are subjected to a buii‘ing force ñng forces in excess of said normal forces and a in excess of the normal bufñng force. metallic plate of extended area positioned in the 27. In a car coupler organization, a housing se depressed portion to distribute the pressure due to curable to a car, a buiñng element fixed to the' the excess bufling forces over an extended area and to maintain the coupler in an aligned posi 25 car and disposed Within said housing, a plate secured to said bufling element, a support dis tion with the longitudinal axis of the car while posed ahead of and adjacent said buiiing element, « under excess boiling. a draft element arranged ahead of said support, 23. A cushion for a car coupler anchorage com means holding said draft element and said sup prising, a body of resilient non-metallic material adopted to form a part of a car coupler anchorage 30 port for movement relatively .of each other and said builîng element, a coupler element pivoted to and of extended area, the said body provided with said support, the end adjacent the pivot spaced raised portions so constructed and'arranged as to from said plate, said buñîng element having ribbed receive and absorb the norma1 buffing forces of a portions engaging said support adapted to absorb car coupler, and the said body also provided with a depressed iiat central portion to receive and 35 the normal builing action, and said coupler end adjacent said plate contacting said plate upon an absorb buil-lng forces in excess of said normal abnormal buiñng action and >said plate and adja buiiing forces and a metal plate positioned in said cent end of said coupler when in contact .main depressed portion and secured in place by its taining the axis of said coupler in alignment with edges embedded in the resilient material. adopted to be interposed between the coupler and anchorage, the said body having two end portions 40 the axis of the track on which said car is running. 28. In a car coupler organization, a housing securable to a car, a buñîng element fixed to one adopted to form a part of a car coupler anchorage wall of said housing, said bufñng element having and of extended area, the said body provided with ‘ a plurality of raised portions along some of its a plurality of raised rib portions at its edges so constructed and arranged as to receive and absorb 45 edges, a plate held on said buiiìng element be 24. A cushion for a car coupler anchorage com prising, a body of resilient non-metallic material the normal bufnng forces of a car coupler, and the said body also provided with a depressed por tion to receive and absorb buning forces in excess tween said raised portions, a support disposed Within said housing adjacent said buffing element only of said normal buñing forces, and metallic ient element disposed ahead of said support, means of extended area associated with the cen tra1 portion and secured thereto to be engaged by the rear end of the coupler to yieldingly retain said couplerl with its longitudinal axis obliquely raised portions, a draft element including a resil 50 means to hold said draft element and said support and said buiìing element in operative relation, and a coupler body pivoted to said support, the pivoted end of which is spaced from said plate, said spac~ ing being of an amount such that said raised por ` disposed to the face of said cushion and to dis-> tribute the pressure of the coupler over an ex 55 tions will ñrst absorb the initial builing action and tended area of said depressed portion. 25. In combination, a car, an anchorage mount ed on the car, a coupler mounted on the anchor age- to pivot laterally, the longitudinal axes of the said adjacent end of said coupler will then engage said plate to enable the entire bufûng element to absorb the buii‘ing action. - ERNST A. LARSSON.