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Патент USA US2382564

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Aug M, w45-
.1. s. HAvERsTlcK
TURBINE
SYSTEMS
v
2,382,564
l
Filed Sept. 16, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Patented Aug. 14, 1945
2,382,564
' UNITED STATEs
`rirrau'r OFI-‘ics
2,382,564
'TURBINE SYSTEM/f'
John S. Haverstlck, Trenton, N. J.,À assignor to
De Laval Steam Turbine Company, Trenton,
N. .I ., 'a corporation of New Jersey
Application September 16, 1943, Serial No. 502,600
4 Claims. (Cl. 60--41)
Thisinvention relates to a combustion turbine
system and has particular reference to the ap- l
plication of heat .between successive stages of
system provided in accordance with the inven
tion; and
Figure 2 shows a similar diagram of a modi
iled arrangement.
A turbine rotor of the type described in said
Birmann patent is illustrated at 2, being pro
vided with buckets 4. formed in its' metal rotor
disc, into which driving gases are directed
through nozzles 6 from a gas chest 8 receiving
such a system. I
For maximum emciency, combustion turbines
must be operated with the driving gases at as
high temperatures as possible consistent with
'the mechanical strength of the turbine rotors
at their high speeds of operation. It has been
proposed, Ítherefore, as set fortli in the patent 10 combustion gases from an internal combustion
'to Birmann No. 2,283,176, dated ,May 19, 1942,
engine, burner, or the like, there being conven
to introduce into passages in turbine rotors- cool
tionally illustrated a combustion chamber at I0 ~
ing air for the purpose of maintaining the blades
in which fuel from a nozzle l2 is burned. The
at safe operating temperatures. 'As disclosed
auxiliary parts of the system have no bearing
in said Birmann patent, it is possible to eil’ect
on the present invention, consequently there are
this cooling in ei’iicient fashion by providing air
not illustrated the compressor and associated
passages which at their inlet portions act as
parts which would normally be involved in sup
impellers to compress the air and at their out
plying air toa burner of the type illustrated.
let portions as turbine passages in which the
The turbine 2, which constitutes the ñrst stage,
heated air is expanded to high discharge veloc
discharges its gases into a tail passage I6 through
ity, so serving to impart rotational impulse to
guide vanes'or struts, indicated at I2, which sup
the wheels.
port an annular guard I4 providing a temporary
For single stage turbines, such- an arrange
inner boundary to vthe stream of discharged
ment is-very satisfactory. In the case of mul
gases.
tistage turbines, however, since the coolin'g air
For the purpose of cooling the turbine, pas
must, in practical installations, become admixed
` sages are provided having the compressor por
with the .driving gases exhausted from the ñrst
tions I8 and discharge portions 20 operating in
stage, the average temperature of the gases
accordance with the principle set forth in said
reaching the second stage is quite substantially
Birmann patent. These passages may be local
reduced. It has been proposed to apply heat 30 ized adjacent the roots of the turbine vanes as
to the mixed air and gases passing from the first
indicated, .being conventionally formed as inter
turbine, but since the volume of total gas is
secting drilled or bored openings,`though they
large and since the oxygen content is substan
may take various forms depending upon the
tially less than that of atmospheric air, diill
particular turbine design. The passage I8 re
culties are involved in securing proper combus
ceives air from the regionv22 vsurrounding the
tion in reasonable space.
turbine shaft, and the air, after compression and
absorption of heat from the rotor, is discharged
In accordance with the present invention, an
arrangement is provided in which the combus
at high velocity rearwardly from the portion 20
of each cooling passage into the region inside
tion of auxiliary fuel takes place in cooling air
prior to its substantial admixture with the com 40 the guard I4, so that temporarily, as it leaves
the turbine, it is separated from the combustion
bustion gases, so that the temperature of the
gases discharging from the turbine buckets.
cooling air may be raised to or higher than the
A nozzle 34 introduces auxiliaryfuel into this
temperature of the gases exhausted from the first
air and, as will be evident from the drawings, the
stage turbine. This arrangement may, of course,
be repeated in successive stages in a turbine sys 45 >spray or jet of fuel is intimately mixed with
the air, so that complete combustion may be
tem having more than two stages.
_
effected substantially before any appreciable ad
Combustion of auxiliary fuel may take place
mixture of the air with the combustion gases
not only in air but in relatively cool combustion
takes place. In this Way the region of combus
gases, which may contain an excess of air, such
as ilow through radially inner passagesl in a
multiñow turbine of the type disclosed in my
application Serial No. 501,102,v filed September
3,
1943.
`
.
'
The above general object of -the invention,
as well as further objects relating particularly
to details, will become apparent from the follow
ing description, read ‘in conjunction with the
accompanying drawings, in which:
`
50
tion is very substantiallyl reduced, since in the
less oxygenated gases from the turbine discharge v
the combustion region- would be very consider
ably extended before combustion was completed.
A baffle 35 serves to protect the rotor from the
heat of combustion of the fuel introduced at 34.
` The mixture of gases discharged from the first
stage turbine and the products of combustion,
and excess air resulting from the cooling and the
burning of auxiliary fuel, flow by way of the
Figure 1 shows diagrammatically a turbine 60 passage 24 to the` gas chest 26 of the second stage
2,382,564
2
turbine 32, being introduced into the buckets I0
oi’ the latter through the nozzles 2B. While not
so illustrated, this turbine may, of course, also
be provided with cooling air and, if desired, ad»
ditional fuel may be introduced as inthe-case of
the first turbine for supplying supplemental en
ergy to still another stage.
‘
case, the hotter combustion gases flow at an
outer radius while the cooler combustion gases,
which in the present instance, may contain an
-excess of air, have a path of flow inwardly of the
hot gases and may be directed to a burner of the
type described in which fuel may be burned there»
in prior to their admixture with the hotter gases.
The combined gases may then pass to a later
While the particular relationship of the two~
stage turbine. Where, therefore,¿in the follow
stage turbines is not important s0 fares the
present invention is concerned, it may be pointed 10 ing claims reference is made to acooler gas, it
will be understood that that gas may be air or
out that in installations of this type the two tur
may be a mixture of combustion gases with air
bines 'may operate mechanically independently
of each other.
Thelhigh pressure stage, for ex
ample, may drive compressors or other auxiliary
capalble of supporting further combustion of fuel.
It will be evident that the invention is ap
equipment, while the mechanical power take 15 plicable in general to axial flow turbines in which
ofi’ may be from the second stage. This ar
rangement may be reversed, however, with the
the air or cooler gas passages may not have in
creasing, and then decreasing,'radii.
.
What is claimed is:
power take-off from the first stage. In any
1. In combination, a turbine having a rotor
event, it will be evident that control of the fuel
introduced as indicated gives rise to auxiliary 20 provided with buckets, means for directing hot
gases to the turbine buckets for driving the rotor,
control for the second stage, the power devel
passages in the rotor for gas having a tempera
oped thereby‘being controlled either by this
ture lower than said hot gases and capable of
alone or by auxiliary control of the low pressure
supporting combustion, said cooler gas becoming
turbine ñow.
I
The cooling air is held to the pressurecf they 25 eventually mixed with said hot driving gases as
the latter flow from the buckets, and means for
hot gases discharged from the turbine buckets
burning auxiliary fuel in the cooler gas discharged
and expansion losses which would occur if the
from said passages prior to substantial admixture
air expanded to atmospheric pressure are avoid
- thereof With. Said driving EBSES.
ed. An increase of mass flow of gas to the sec
2. In combination, a turbine having a rotor
ond stage occurs by reason of the present ar V30
rangement.
,
Figure 2 shows an arrangement very similar to
provided with buckets. means for directing hot
gases to the turbine buckets for driving the rotor,
passages in the rotor for gas having a tempera
that of Figure 1 but providing for the better
ture lower than said hot gases and capable of
control of the auxiliary combustion and of the
supporting combustion, said cooler gas becoming
ultimate admixture of the combustion gases
eventually mixed with said hot driving gases as
fed to the turbine with the products resulting
the latter iiow from the buckets, means for burn
from the auxiliary combustion. As in the pre
' ing auxiliary fuel in the cooler gas discharged
vious modification, the turbine wheel 40 is pro
from said passages prior to, substantial admixture
vided wlth combustion gases from a chest 42,
the buckets of the turbine discharging this gas 40 ' thereof with said driving gases, a second turbine,
and means for leading the mixed gases to the sec
into the annular passage M outside the annular
ond turbine.
guard 50. rI’he cooling air flowing through pas
3. In combination, a turbine having a rotor
sages 46 passes, upon expansion, into the region
provided with buckets, means for directing hot
48 inside the guard 50.
'
. combustion gases to the turbine buckets for
The auxiliary fuel is injected at 52, but com
driving the rotor, paœages in the rotor for gas
bustion thereof is controlled by reason of the
having a temperature lower than said combus
provision of an inner guide member 5B which
A admits at first only some of the air to the fuel,
additional air being progressively added in the
form of annular flow sheets'through the pas
sages deiined inwardly and outwardly of an
annular guide vane 56. The combustion gases
from the passage M are also guided to control
their admixture with the products from the in
terior of the guard 50 by means of annular guide
tion gases and capable of supporting combustion,
said passages having impeller portions for effect
ing compression of the cooler gas and discharge
portions for effecting expansion thereof after
heating, said cooler gas becoming eventually
mixed with said hot driving gases as the latter
flow from the Íbuckets, and means for burning
auxiliary fuel in said cooler gas discharged from
said passages prior to substantial admixture
vanas 58 and 60. In this fashion the combus
thereof with said driving gases.
tion is properly controlled to effect addition of
4. In combination, a turbine having a rotor
heat at the correct rate to secure its most effl
provided with buckets, means for directing hot
cient addition. The mixed gases, as in the case
of the previous modification, pass to a second 60 combustion gases to the turbine buckets for driv
ing the rotor, passages in the rotor for gas hav
stage turbine.
~
ing a temperature lower than said combustion
Reference has been made in connection with
gases and capable of supporting combustion, said
the modifications heretofore described to the use -
passages having impeller portions for effecting
of air as a cooling medium and the combustion
of the fuel in the air. The combustion, how 65 compression of the cooler gas and discharge por
tions for. effecting expansion thereof after heat
ever, need not take place in pure air Ibut may well
ing, said cooler gas becoming eventually mixed
take place in combustion gases containing a suiii
with said hot driving gases as the latter flow from
cient excess of air' to support further combus
the buckets, means for burning auxiliary fuel in
tion. For example, the high pressure turbine may
be of the form illustrated in my application Serial 70 said cooler gas discharged from said passages
prior to substantial admixture thereof with said
No. 501,102, ñled September 3, 1943, in which sep
driving gases, a second turbine, 4and means for
arate passages at different radii are provided for
leading the mixed gases to the second turbine.
relatively hot and relatively cool driving gases,
JOHN S. HAVERSTICK.
the turbine ibeing of a multiñow type. In such
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