Патент USA US2383113код для вставки
Aug» 21, 1945~> i _ H. J. DAILÉY 2,383,113 MEANS FOR UNITING PARTS Filed Jan. 16. 1942 'i ë È~ ì K BY ATTORN EY 2,383,113 Patented Aug. 21, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,383,113 MEANS FOR UNITING PARTS Hampton Jennings Dailey,-Bloomiìeld, N. J., as signor to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, -East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl vania Application January 16, 1942, Serial No. 426,965 8 Claims. (Cl. 49-2) advantage of electrical heating in glass of the This invention relates to means for uniting parts and more especially to an electrical means RI2 effect and to reduce dielectric losses adverse for uniting bulbous glass parts. to efficient current use. Additional objects of the invention will appear as the description progresses, either by direct It is common practice in the manufacture of electronic devices to provide a glass enclosure or envelope, and as the present invention has par statement thereof or by implication from the-con text. ticular utility in connection therewith, »the exem In the accompanying drawing wherein like nu pliiication illustrated and described will be di merals of reference indicate similar parts rected thereto, but with the understanding other ' , uses, embodiments, materials and configurations 10 throughout the several views; Figure 1 is a sectional View of a portion of an may be employed. Accordingly, it may be said envelope sealed in accordance with my invention that various electronic devices employ different and shown as part of an electron discharge de sizes and shapes of stems and enelopes, but in most instances require sealing or uniting of the vice; ' envelope portion to the stem portion of the glass 15 Figure 2 is a similar partial section of the en velope in process of being sealed and showing the after iirst mounting the various electrodes on sealing means associated therewith and making the stem. This sealing has heretofore been ac initial contact with the envelope; complished by melting or fusing the glass of the Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view on line III two parts at abutting edges with heat from a gas flame. Several disadvantages arise in use of 20 III of Fig. 2; andl such a dame as a melting means. One is the detrimental effect of the prolonged high tem perature upon the electrode or other internal parts of the device, especially where physically close to the joint or line of sealing.` Another dis advantage arises irom the fact a flame-seal is non-homogeneous; the glass melts to a softer con sistency and fusing temperature at the outside of its wall and is apt to leave a lessflrmly sealed Figure 4 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 2 and showing the sealing means as having com pleted the sealing of the joint. 'In the speciiic embodiment of the invention illustrated in said drawing, an electron discharge device is shown of the type having a bowl-like base portion I0 the upper outer edge of which is, in the finished device, sealed with respect~to an envelope portion II and forming a bulbous en part or even a crevice at the inner side of the 30 closure. The base portion Iii is provided with a tubulation l2 for exhaust and other purposes, wall. Furthermore, use of a iiame for sealing introduces the necessity of lengthy annealing stages which is also accompanied by oxidation and also is provided with suitable terminal prongs I3 and lead-in posts Iii sealed with respect to the ' base. Certain of the posts carry a transverse occurring on metallic parts in the device. These and other disadvantages of use of >flame-sealing 35 plate I5 which of necessity is near the region Where the glass has to be sealed. The plate have presented a problem which this invention shown constitutes a mounting for a grid I6. has successfully solved. Other electrodes, namely a cathode I'I and anode The objects of the invention may accordingly I8 are shown associated with said grid as usual. be generalized as the provision of a means for overcoming the difficulties and disadvantages ln 40 In normal manufacture, the several prongs, posts, plate and electrodes are assembled with volved in connection lwith name-sealing as here tofore employed. More specifically, an object of the present in respect to each other and the glass base I0. Then the envelope portion II is applied with the margin of its open en`d contiguous to the upper vention is to obtain a uniform seal for the entire thickness of the abutting portions being sealed. 45 edge of the base. The junction thus presented . at I9 is then to be sealed by my improved means. Another object of the invention is to avoid oxi It is to be understood that the base and envelope dation and other detrimental effects upon parts are suitably carried coaxially of eaclr other as within the envelope. usual in the lamp machine M so as to be simul Yet another object of the invention is to pro mote rapidity of sealing and reduction of an 50 taneously rotated on their common axes. Next nealing requirements. the junction to be sealed is provided a burner 20 for applying a llame '2| to the glass of the en A further object of the invention is to obtain velope and base contiguous to the'junction I9. a smooth joint and one wherein no material in That burner, representative of as many as may crease of thickness results. A-still further object of the invention is to take 55 be desired around the envelope at the stage set 2 2,sss,11a ting of the machine, is for purposes of preheating the glass in the region of the junction. At high temperatures, such as can be accom plished by flame 2l, glass becomes a partial con ductor for electrical current. I utilize this phe nomenon for a useful purpose. The junction is fused into a joint, numeral I9 designating the area of junction and joint. A combined partial length of junction and joint is involved in transition from of the brush, the non-conducting areas avoid in creasing the heated area and obtain a smoothing guiding contact with a part of the glass which is cooler and more resistant to pressure. Accordingly the portions 0f the brush, at top and bottom thereof, preferably are comprised of electrically insulative and heat resistant mate rial and each forms a continuation of the glass engaging face or area of the metallic or conductive status of junction to status of joint, this cl‘iange 10 part of the brush and along the edges of the of status occurring between two brushes 22, 22 brushes paralleling the junction and joint. This which are appropriately remote from each other arrangement accomplishes a smoothing engage both electrically and physically in a direction ment without carrying the conductive and heating lengthwise of said junction and joint. As high a contact over as extensive an area. 4It is appro frequency as is practical to generate is applied 15 priate to mention at this point that the parts to across the said brushes, here depicted as accom be sealed do not have to be at a corner, but a Joint plished by transformer 23. The circuit includes may be made wherever desired, the face areas of the portion of the heated glass intervening be the brush being shaped accordingly. tween the brushes, and due to the RI’ effect in the In operation, the electronic or other device is glass, the glass at the combined partial length of 20 applied in the lamp-making machine and rotated junction and joint between the brushes becomes and revolved as familiar to those skilled in the heated. In order to take advantage of the heating art. At each stage of the revolving cycle, an ap eifect in the glass, not only of the RP effect, I propriate fabricating step is performed. It is prefer to use the said highest practical frequency, preferably to apply flame or flames 2l to the juno as stated, so as to take advantage of the dielectric 25 tion area at one stage of revolution and there pre losses which are proportional to frequency. heat the glass. The electrical brushes may, if The electric current thus flowing in the glass heats the glass to the fusing temperature, thereby desired, be in contact with the glass during this preheating stage and continue the heating imme obtaining a unified joint between the two parts. diately the glass becomes hot enough to pass the Since the current flows throughout the thickness 30 applied high frequency current. However, it is of the glass, the seal effected at the inner periph within the scope of the invention to apply the ery is as secure and continuous as the seal at the preheating by flame 2i at one stage of the rota outer circumference. Furthermore the heating by current flow and opposing resistance in the tive cycle of the machine, and apply the high frequency current heating at the following stage. glass obtains intense heat where needed, evenly 35 The important factor is that the high frequency distributed and highly effective for sealing pur current flows in the glass for the full thickness poses without producing oxidation or other de leterious effects on the electrodes or other parts of the device. A shorter sealing time is required than with the prior art method and apparatus and less annealing is necessitated. ' of the wall thereof is obtained without current flow within the heating effect in so that a homogeneous seal any crevice occurring. The the glass itself concentrates the glass and with least det rimental effect upon closely associated metallic parts, such as plate I5, and furthermore heats quickly and requires minimum annealing time or port, shown as an arm 2l pivoted at 25 with the attention. aforementioned brush 22 carried by the end of 45 Since the various details of construction and the arm nearest the Joint to be sealed. Suitable steps involved in the method, as well as the precise hlectrical insulation 26 is interposed between the relation and functioning of parts are subject to arm and brush. The other end of the arm 24 variation and change without departing from the has"an adjusting bolt 21 therethrough adapted to inventive concept or scope of the invention, it is 50 be engaged by a retractable spring actuated plung intended that all matter contained in the specifi er 2l. Spring 29 actuating the plunger is repre cation or illustrated inthe drawing, shall be in `The specific apparatus here disclosed for ac complishing the method, comprises a movable sup sentative of any suitable means for applying de terpreted as exemplaryv and not in a limiting sense. sired pressure to the brush into contact with the It is also to be understood that the following glass. It will be appreciated that the glass softens . claims are intended to cover all of the generic and when heated, and accordingly pressure of the 55 specific features of the invention herein shown brushes is limited to avoid undesired deformation and described and all statements of the scope of of the envelope and base. If desired, air pressure the invention herein set forth as a matter of can be admitted through tubuiation I2 to suffi language which might be said to` fall there cient extent to counteract the mechanical pres between. sure of the brushes and prevent undesired inden 60 I claim: tation of the glass wall while soft. 1. A means for sealing a junction between The facial contour of the brush which is in con glass parts of a bulbous enclosure to formy a tact with the glass during forming operation is closed joint .thereat, comprising means for mak preferably shaped to conform to the desired shape ing electrical contact with the glass contiguous of envelope and base at the joint. In the present 65 to the junction and joint and at parts sepa instance I have shown the facial contour of the rated lengthwise of the junction and joint, said v engaging portion to be, in section, concave, so that, means having a surface portion for making sur with the gloss softened and rotating, a rounded face contact with the glass on both sides oi’ the peripheral shoulder is produced on the envelope. joint, and. said means having electrically non ’l'he final glass shape desired will be that of the 70 conducting areas toward the glass and forming concave face of the brush. part of said surface for making guiding contact with the glass. The brush preferably provides a current con-_ ducting area It and a.4 non-conducting area 3|. 2. A means for sealing a junction between glass Since the heating will take place in the glass over parts of a. bulbous enclosure to form a closed a wider area than the conducting contact surface 75 joint thereat, comprising means for making elec 2,383,113 trical contact with the glass contiguous to the junction and joint and at pax-ts separated length wise of the junction and joint, said means hav ing a surface portion for making surface con tact with the glass on both sides of the joint, and said means having electrically non-conduct ing areas toward the glass at edges of said surface 3 ing the said glass contiguous to and progressively of said junction and joint to fusing temperature, and means for pressing _the electrical contact means toward and progressively along the junc tion and joint fox~ simultaneously fusing the glass next the joint and smoothing the joint as fused. 6. A means for sealing a junction between glass parts of a bulbous enclosure to form a closed portion making guiding contact wi-thv the glass joint thereat, comprising means for making elec and at a part of said surface portion most remote l0 trical contact with .theglass contiguous to the from the joint-engaging part of said means. ' 3. A means for sealing a junction between glass junction and joint and at parts separated length wise of a combined partial length of the junction and joint, said means having a portion making joint thereat, comprising means for making elec surface contact with the glass on both sides of trical contact with ‘the glass contiguous to the junction and joint and at parts separated length 15 the junction and joint, and said means having electrically non-conducting areas in contact with wise of the junction and joint, said means hav the glass in parallelism .to and spaced from the ing a conducting portion for making surface joint, and means for pressing the electrical con contact with the glass on both sides of and in tact means .toward the joint for simultaneously parallelism to the joint, and said means hav ing electrically non-conducting areas at edges of 20 fusing the glass next the joint and smoothing the joint as fused. . said conducting portion toward Ithe glass and 7. A means for sealing a junction between glass paralleling said conducting portion in parallel parts of a bulbous enclosure to form a closed ' ism to the junction, said non-conducting areas joint thereat, comprising means for making elec being in surface continuation with the surface contacting area of the electrically conductive 25 trical contact with the glass contiguous to the junction and joint and at parts separated length portion of said means. wise of the junction and joint, said means hav 4. A means for sealing a junction between a ing a portion making surface contact with the glass envelope and a glass base to -iîorm a closed glass on both sides of the joint, and said means joint thereat, comprising in combination with means for rotating the junction and joint, means so having electrically non-conducting areas toward the glass at edges of said portion making contact for making electrical contact with the glass con with the glass in parallelism to and spaced from tiguous to said junction and joint, means for the joint, and means for pressing the _electrical ' supplying high frequency current to said concontact means toward the glass for simulta tact means and progressively along 'the junction parts of .a bulbous enclosure to form a closed and joint for heating Ithe said glass contiguous 35 neously fusing the glass next the joint and smoothing the joint as fused. to and progressively of said junction and joint 8. A means for sealing a junction between glass to fusing temperature, and means’for pressing parts of a bulbous enclosure to form a closed the electrical contact means toward the juncture joint thereat, comprising means for making elec at the area of contact with the glass contigu ous to and progressively of the junction and 40 trical contact with the glass contiguous to the junction and joint and at parts separated length toward and progressively of .the joint at the area of contact with the glass contiguous to the joint l wise of the junction and joint, said means having a portion making surface contact with the glass for simultaneously fusing the glass next the ' on both sides of the junction and joint, and said joint and smoothing the joint as fused. 5. A means for sealing a junction between a 45 m’eans having electrically non-conducting areas at edges paralleling the junction and toward the glass envelope and a glass base .to form a closed glass, said non-conducting areas being in sur joint thereat, comprising in combination with means for rotating the junction and joint, means , face continuation with the surface contacting area of the electrically conductive portion there for- making electrical contact with the glass con tiguous to and at parts separated lengthwise of said junction and joint, means for supplying high frequency- current to said contact means to flow through the glass separating said contact means lengthwise of the junction and joint for heat-. of, and means for pressing :the electrical contact’ means toward the glass for simultaneously fus ing the glass next the joint and smoothing the joint as fused. v HAMPTON JENNINGS DAILEY.