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Патент USA US2383113

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Aug» 21, 1945~>
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H. J. DAILÉY
2,383,113
MEANS FOR UNITING PARTS
Filed Jan. 16. 1942
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BY
ATTORN EY
2,383,113
Patented Aug. 21, 1945
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,383,113
MEANS FOR UNITING PARTS
Hampton Jennings Dailey,-Bloomiìeld, N. J., as
signor to Westinghouse Electric Corporation,
-East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl
vania
Application January 16, 1942, Serial No. 426,965
8 Claims. (Cl. 49-2)
advantage of electrical heating in glass of the
This invention relates to means for uniting
parts and more especially to an electrical means
RI2 effect and to reduce dielectric losses adverse
for uniting bulbous glass parts.
to efficient current use.
Additional objects of the invention will appear
as the description progresses, either by direct
It is common practice in the manufacture of
electronic devices to provide a glass enclosure or
envelope, and as the present invention has par
statement thereof or by implication from the-con
text.
ticular utility in connection therewith, »the exem
In the accompanying drawing wherein like nu
pliiication illustrated and described will be di
merals of reference indicate similar parts
rected thereto, but with the understanding other
' ,
uses, embodiments, materials and configurations 10 throughout the several views;
Figure 1 is a sectional View of a portion of an
may be employed. Accordingly, it may be said
envelope sealed in accordance with my invention
that various electronic devices employ different
and shown as part of an electron discharge de
sizes and shapes of stems and enelopes, but in
most instances require sealing or uniting of the
vice;
'
envelope portion to the stem portion of the glass 15 Figure 2 is a similar partial section of the en
velope in process of being sealed and showing the
after iirst mounting the various electrodes on
sealing means associated therewith and making
the stem. This sealing has heretofore been ac
initial contact with the envelope;
complished by melting or fusing the glass of the
Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view on line III
two parts at abutting edges with heat from a gas
flame. Several disadvantages arise in use of 20 III of Fig. 2; andl
such a dame as a melting means.
One is the
detrimental effect of the prolonged high tem
perature upon the electrode or other internal
parts of the device, especially where physically
close to the joint or line of sealing.` Another dis
advantage arises irom the fact a flame-seal is
non-homogeneous; the glass melts to a softer con
sistency and fusing temperature at the outside
of its wall and is apt to leave a lessflrmly sealed
Figure 4 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 2
and showing the sealing means as having com
pleted the sealing of the joint.
'In the speciiic embodiment of the invention
illustrated in said drawing, an electron discharge
device is shown of the type having a bowl-like
base portion I0 the upper outer edge of which
is, in the finished device, sealed with respect~to
an envelope portion II and forming a bulbous en
part or even a crevice at the inner side of the 30 closure. The base portion Iii is provided with
a tubulation l2 for exhaust and other purposes,
wall. Furthermore, use of a iiame for sealing
introduces the necessity of lengthy annealing
stages which is also accompanied by oxidation
and also is provided with suitable terminal prongs
I3 and lead-in posts Iii sealed with respect to the '
base. Certain of the posts carry a transverse
occurring on metallic parts in the device. These
and other disadvantages of use of >flame-sealing 35 plate I5 which of necessity is near the region
Where the glass has to be sealed. The plate
have presented a problem which this invention
shown constitutes a mounting for a grid I6.
has successfully solved.
Other electrodes, namely a cathode I'I and anode
The objects of the invention may accordingly
I8 are shown associated with said grid as usual.
be generalized as the provision of a means for
overcoming the difficulties and disadvantages ln 40
In normal manufacture, the several prongs,
posts, plate and electrodes are assembled with
volved in connection lwith name-sealing as here
tofore employed.
More specifically, an object of the present in
respect to each other and the glass base I0.
Then the envelope portion II is applied with the
margin of its open en`d contiguous to the upper
vention is to obtain a uniform seal for the entire
thickness of the abutting portions being sealed. 45 edge of the base. The junction thus presented .
at I9 is then to be sealed by my improved means.
Another object of the invention is to avoid oxi
It is to be understood that the base and envelope
dation and other detrimental effects upon parts
are suitably carried coaxially of eaclr other as
within the envelope.
usual in the lamp machine M so as to be simul
Yet another object of the invention is to pro
mote rapidity of sealing and reduction of an 50 taneously rotated on their common axes. Next
nealing requirements.
the junction to be sealed is provided a burner 20
for applying a llame '2| to the glass of the en
A further object of the invention is to obtain
velope and base contiguous to the'junction I9.
a smooth joint and one wherein no material in
That burner, representative of as many as may
crease of thickness results.
A-still further object of the invention is to take 55 be desired around the envelope at the stage set
2
2,sss,11a
ting of the machine, is for purposes of preheating
the glass in the region of the junction.
At high temperatures, such as can be accom
plished by flame 2l, glass becomes a partial con
ductor for electrical current. I utilize this phe
nomenon for a useful purpose. The junction is
fused into a joint, numeral I9 designating the area
of junction and joint. A combined partial length
of junction and joint is involved in transition from
of the brush, the non-conducting areas avoid in
creasing the heated area and obtain a smoothing
guiding contact with a part of the glass which is
cooler and more resistant to pressure.
Accordingly the portions 0f the brush, at top
and bottom thereof, preferably are comprised of
electrically insulative and heat resistant mate
rial and each forms a continuation of the glass
engaging face or area of the metallic or conductive
status of junction to status of joint, this cl‘iange 10 part of the brush and along the edges of the
of status occurring between two brushes 22, 22
brushes paralleling the junction and joint. This
which are appropriately remote from each other
arrangement accomplishes a smoothing engage
both electrically and physically in a direction
ment without carrying the conductive and heating
lengthwise of said junction and joint. As high a
contact over as extensive an area. 4It is appro
frequency as is practical to generate is applied 15 priate to mention at this point that the parts to
across the said brushes, here depicted as accom
be sealed do not have to be at a corner, but a Joint
plished by transformer 23. The circuit includes
may be made wherever desired, the face areas of
the portion of the heated glass intervening be
the brush being shaped accordingly.
tween the brushes, and due to the RI’ effect in the
In operation, the electronic or other device is
glass, the glass at the combined partial length of 20 applied in the lamp-making machine and rotated
junction and joint between the brushes becomes
and revolved as familiar to those skilled in the
heated. In order to take advantage of the heating
art. At each stage of the revolving cycle, an ap
eifect in the glass, not only of the RP effect, I
propriate fabricating step is performed. It is
prefer to use the said highest practical frequency,
preferably to apply flame or flames 2l to the juno
as stated, so as to take advantage of the dielectric 25 tion area at one stage of revolution and there pre
losses which are proportional to frequency.
heat the glass. The electrical brushes may, if
The electric current thus flowing in the glass
heats the glass to the fusing temperature, thereby
desired, be in contact with the glass during this
preheating stage and continue the heating imme
obtaining a unified joint between the two parts.
diately the glass becomes hot enough to pass the
Since the current flows throughout the thickness 30 applied high frequency current. However, it is
of the glass, the seal effected at the inner periph
within the scope of the invention to apply the
ery is as secure and continuous as the seal at the
preheating by flame 2i at one stage of the rota
outer circumference.
Furthermore the heating
by current flow and opposing resistance in the
tive cycle of the machine, and apply the high
frequency current heating at the following stage.
glass obtains intense heat where needed, evenly 35 The important factor is that the high frequency
distributed and highly effective for sealing pur
current flows in the glass for the full thickness
poses without producing oxidation or other de
leterious effects on the electrodes or other parts of
the device. A shorter sealing time is required than
with the prior art method and apparatus and less
annealing is necessitated.
'
of the wall thereof
is obtained without
current flow within
the heating effect in
so that a homogeneous seal
any crevice occurring. The
the glass itself concentrates
the glass and with least det
rimental effect upon closely associated metallic
parts, such as plate I5, and furthermore heats
quickly and requires minimum annealing time or
port, shown as an arm 2l pivoted at 25 with the
attention.
aforementioned brush 22 carried by the end of 45 Since the various details of construction and
the arm nearest the Joint to be sealed. Suitable
steps involved in the method, as well as the precise
hlectrical insulation 26 is interposed between the
relation and functioning of parts are subject to
arm and brush. The other end of the arm 24
variation and change without departing from the
has"an adjusting bolt 21 therethrough adapted to
inventive concept or scope of the invention, it is
50
be engaged by a retractable spring actuated plung
intended that all matter contained in the specifi
er 2l. Spring 29 actuating the plunger is repre
cation or illustrated inthe drawing, shall be in
`The specific apparatus here disclosed for ac
complishing the method, comprises a movable sup
sentative of any suitable means for applying de
terpreted as exemplaryv and not in a limiting sense.
sired pressure to the brush into contact with the
It is also to be understood that the following
glass. It will be appreciated that the glass softens
. claims are intended to cover all of the generic and
when heated, and accordingly pressure of the 55 specific features of the invention herein shown
brushes is limited to avoid undesired deformation
and described and all statements of the scope of
of the envelope and base. If desired, air pressure
the invention herein set forth as a matter of
can be admitted through tubuiation I2 to suffi
language which might be said to` fall there
cient extent to counteract the mechanical pres
between.
sure of the brushes and prevent undesired inden 60
I claim:
tation of the glass wall while soft.
1. A means for sealing a junction between
The facial contour of the brush which is in con
glass parts of a bulbous enclosure to formy a
tact with the glass during forming operation is
closed joint .thereat, comprising means for mak
preferably shaped to conform to the desired shape
ing electrical contact with the glass contiguous
of envelope and base at the joint. In the present 65 to the junction and joint and at parts sepa
instance I have shown the facial contour of the
rated lengthwise of the junction and joint, said
v engaging portion to be, in section, concave, so that,
means having a surface portion for making sur
with the gloss softened and rotating, a rounded
face contact with the glass on both sides oi’ the
peripheral shoulder is produced on the envelope.
joint, and. said means having electrically non
’l'he final glass shape desired will be that of the 70 conducting areas toward the glass and forming
concave face of the brush.
part of said surface for making guiding contact
with the glass.
The brush preferably provides a current con-_
ducting area It and a.4 non-conducting area 3|.
2. A means for sealing a junction between glass
Since the heating will take place in the glass over
parts of a. bulbous enclosure to form a closed
a wider area than the conducting contact surface 75 joint thereat, comprising means for making elec
2,383,113
trical contact with the glass contiguous to the
junction and joint and at pax-ts separated length
wise of the junction and joint, said means hav
ing a surface portion for making surface con
tact with the glass on both sides of the joint,
and said means having electrically non-conduct
ing areas toward the glass at edges of said surface
3
ing the said glass contiguous to and progressively
of said junction and joint to fusing temperature,
and means for pressing _the electrical contact
means toward and progressively along the junc
tion and joint fox~ simultaneously fusing the glass
next the joint and smoothing the joint as fused.
6. A means for sealing a junction between glass
parts of a bulbous enclosure to form a closed
portion making guiding contact wi-thv the glass
joint thereat, comprising means for making elec
and at a part of said surface portion most remote
l0 trical contact with .theglass contiguous to the
from the joint-engaging part of said means.
' 3. A means for sealing a junction between glass
junction and joint and at parts separated length
wise of a combined partial length of the junction
and joint, said means having a portion making
joint thereat, comprising means for making elec
surface contact with the glass on both sides of
trical contact with ‘the glass contiguous to the
junction and joint and at parts separated length 15 the junction and joint, and said means having
electrically non-conducting areas in contact with
wise of the junction and joint, said means hav
the glass in parallelism .to and spaced from the
ing a conducting portion for making surface
joint, and means for pressing the electrical con
contact with the glass on both sides of and in
tact means .toward the joint for simultaneously
parallelism to the joint, and said means hav
ing electrically non-conducting areas at edges of 20 fusing the glass next the joint and smoothing the
joint as fused.
.
said conducting portion toward Ithe glass and
7. A means for sealing a junction between glass
paralleling said conducting portion in parallel
parts of a bulbous enclosure to form a closed '
ism to the junction, said non-conducting areas
joint thereat, comprising means for making elec
being in surface continuation with the surface
contacting area of the electrically conductive 25 trical contact with the glass contiguous to the
junction and joint and at parts separated length
portion of said means.
wise of the junction and joint, said means hav
4. A means for sealing a junction between a
ing a portion making surface contact with the
glass envelope and a glass base to -iîorm a closed
glass on both sides of the joint, and said means
joint thereat, comprising in combination with
means for rotating the junction and joint, means so having electrically non-conducting areas toward
the glass at edges of said portion making contact
for making electrical contact with the glass con
with the glass in parallelism to and spaced from
tiguous to said junction and joint, means for
the joint, and means for pressing the _electrical
' supplying high frequency current to said concontact means toward the glass for simulta
tact means and progressively along 'the junction
parts of .a bulbous enclosure to form a closed
and joint for heating Ithe said glass contiguous 35 neously fusing the glass next the joint and
smoothing the joint as fused.
to and progressively of said junction and joint
8. A means for sealing a junction between glass
to fusing temperature, and means’for pressing
parts of a bulbous enclosure to form a closed
the electrical contact means toward the juncture
joint thereat, comprising means for making elec
at the area of contact with the glass contigu
ous to and progressively of the junction and 40 trical contact with the glass contiguous to the
junction and joint and at parts separated length
toward and progressively of .the joint at the area
of contact with the glass contiguous to the joint l wise of the junction and joint, said means having
a portion making surface contact with the glass
for simultaneously fusing the glass next the
' on both sides of the junction and joint, and said
joint and smoothing the joint as fused.
5. A means for sealing a junction between a 45 m’eans having electrically non-conducting areas
at edges paralleling the junction and toward the
glass envelope and a glass base .to form a closed
glass, said non-conducting areas being in sur
joint thereat, comprising in combination with
means for rotating the junction and joint, means , face continuation with the surface contacting
area of the electrically conductive portion there
for- making electrical contact with the glass con
tiguous to and at parts separated lengthwise of
said junction and joint, means for supplying high
frequency- current to said contact means to flow
through the glass separating said contact means
lengthwise of the junction and joint for heat-.
of, and means for pressing :the electrical contact’
means toward the glass for simultaneously fus
ing the glass next the joint and smoothing the
joint as fused.
v
HAMPTON JENNINGS DAILEY.
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