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Патент USA US2384322

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Sept 4, 1945-
s. N. MccAsLiN ET AL
2,384,322
NOSE BOARD FOR AXMINSTER LOOMS
Filed May 20. 1944
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Sept“ 49 1945
s. N. MCCASLIN ETAL
2,384,322
‘NOSE BOARD FOR AXMINSTER LOOHS
Filed May 20, 1944
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‘2,384,322
Patented Sept. 4, 1945
UNITED STATES
PATENT
OFFICE ‘
2,384,322
NOSE BOARD ‘FOR AXMINSTER LOOMS
Stanley N. McCaslin and Arthur Lamb, Worcester,
Mass., assignors to Crompton & Knowles Loom
Works, Worcester, Mass., a. corporation of
Massachusetts
Application May 20, 1944, Serial No. 536,534
19 Claims. (Cl. 139-7)
It is also desirable to adapt the loom for the
This invention relates to improvements in Ax
weaving of either high or low tuft piles without
minster looms and it is the general object of the
laborious changes in the loom. To permit con
version from one height to another height of pile
the pile tuft forming or engaging hooks of which
are resiliently mounted for movement out of the 5 we alter the shape of the tuft forming hooks and
construct them so that they can be used to weave
path of one of the tuft cutting knives.
low piles despite the fact that they are designed
In looms of the type set forth in Dacey and
primarily for high pile weaving. The top sur
Robertson No. 1,958,129 it is customary to pro
faces of the hooks are inclined downwardly and
vide the nose board of an Axminster loom with a
series of upwardly projecting hooks over which 10 forwardly so that when the hooks are engaged by
the front knife during weaving of low pile tufts
the tuft forming yarns extending from the tube
invention to provide such looms with a nose board
frame are moved as the lay beats up on tuft form
ing picks of the loom.
These hooks are sepa
they will be pushed downwardly.
As set forth hereinafter the back knife is held
stationary during cuttingland is the upper knife
have their rear surfaces so formed as to assist in 15 of the pair, whereas the front knife is caused to
rated by slots which receive the reed dents and
the upward and forward curving of the free ends
of the tuft yarns during the tuft forming opera
have the aforesaid irregular motion and move un
der the back knife. This, however, is not the only
relation of knives which can exist in Axminster
looms and we do not wish necessarily to be lim
Axminster looms are ordinarily provided with
front and back tuft cutting knives which act at 20 ited to the speci?c knife arrangement set forth
hereinafter.
the end of the tuft forming operation to cut the
With these and other objects in view which will
tufts from the yarn carried by the tube frames.
appear as the description proceeds, our invention
rlp‘hese knives extend across the loom without in
resides in the combination and arrangement of
termediate supports and one of them, the back
knife in the present instance, is moved forwardly 25 parts hereinafter described and set forth.
In the accompanying drawings, wherein a con
to a position just behind the tufts, and then the
venient embodiment of our invention is set forth,
other one is moved backwardly with an irregu
Fig. 1 is an end elevation of the nose board and
lar motion, the effect of which is to start the
tuft cutting knives as viewed from the right end
cutting operation at one end of the loom, the left
end as set forth hereinafter, and carry the 30 of an rAxminster loom with a pile tuft ready to be
cut from the tube frame, the knives and their
cutting operation progressively across the loom
carrier bars being shown in section and in the
to the other side. At the end of the cutting. op
positions they occupy just before the knives en
eration the left end of the lower knife is an ap
gage each other,
‘
preciable distance below the adjacent end of the
Fig. 2 is similar to Fig. 1 but shows the knives
upper knife due to the angle of clearance between 35
at the end of a cutting. operation,
the cutting edges necessary for proper shearing
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view similar to a portion
action. This angle is produced by inclining the
of Fig. 1, but showing the breast beam and cloth
front lower knife upwardly and to the right rela
board in cross section and indicating one of the
tively to the top knife, and because of it there is
danger that the pile tuft hooks at the left of the 40 hook units in elevation,
Fig. 4 is a vertical section on line_4—4 of Fig. 3,
loom will be struck by the front knife as the lat
showing a. portion of the-breast beam and asso
ter moves rearwardly.
ciated parts,
Because of the length of the knives and the
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of one of the hook
fact that they are not supported intermediate
their ends they have a tendency to sag slightly 45 units.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of the unit shown in Fig. 5,
near the center of the loom and as the knives
Fig. 7 is a rear elevation of the gang spring
move in the cutting operation there is likelihood
looking in the direction of arrow 1, Fig. 3,
that the intermediate part of the forward knife
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but showing one ‘
will engage those tuft forming hooks which are
50 of the teeth of the breast beam in elevation with
near the center of the loom.
a hook unit behind it,
It is an important object of our present inven-.
Fig. 9 is a plan view of a portion of the breast
tion to mount the hooks so that they are held
beam to show the Spaced teeth on the breast
normally in‘ raised tuft forming position ‘but can
beam and indicating their relation with the hook
move downwardly if. engaged by the front knife
55 units which are shown in dot and dash lines,
due either to the'aforesaid angle or sagging.
tion.
2,384,322
Fig. 10 is a plan view of the structure shown
in Fig. 3 with part of the cloth board removed
to show the hook units thereunder,
Figs. 11 and 12 are diagrammatic plan and
front elevations respectively of the tuft cutting
knives at the beginning of a cutting operation,
Figs. 13; and 14 are similar to Figs. 11 and 12,
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j. 1.
incident to pile tuft cutting is shown in Figs. 11
to 16 which indicate diagrammatically the rela
tionship between the front and back cutter
knives during a cutting operation. As shown
in Fig. 12 the cutting edge 36 which extends
along the upper rear part of the front knife 32
is slightly oblique with respect to, the’ cutting
respectively‘except that the cutting operation
Figs. 15 and 16 are views similar to Figs. 11v
edge 3'! of the back knifefand is inclined up
wardly and to the right as viewed from the front
of the loom. The reason for this obliquity is to
and 12, but indicating the relation of the knives
when the cutting operation is complete,
provide proper shearing relationship between the
two knives during ‘the tuft cutting operation.
Fig. 17 is a diagrammatic jfrontelevation of
the front knife showing the central hooks en
‘ starts the left end of the front knife is pushed
is indicated as approximately half completed.
As shown in Fig. 11, when a cutting operation
gaged by the middle part of the sagging knife, 15 rearwardly in, advance of the right end and
and
Figs. 18 and 19 are diagrammatic views show
passes under the back knife as at a to cut the
left-most pile tufts in the loom.
The right end
of the front knife is then moved rearwardly to
ing hooks during the weaving of high and low
cause the point of contact between the cutting
tuft piles, respectively.
20 edges 36 and 31 to travel across the loom from left
to right. When theaknives assume the {position
Referring particularly to Fig. 1, we have shown
shown in Fig. 13 the cutting operation'is ap
only those parts of an'Axminster loom which are
proximately half ?nished withrthe knives con
directly associated with‘ our invention, other
tacting at b, but it will be seen from Fig. 14 which
parts “being omitted and constructed if desired
corresponds to Fig. 13 that the left end ofthe
according to the disclosure of the Dacey and
lower front knife has moved downwardly a short
Robertson patent. The ?xed breast beam 20 of
ing the relation of the knives and‘ the tuft form
the loom extends across the-loom and is pro
vided along its’ rear upper~ edge with a cloth
distance below the left end of - the upper rear
knife due to the obliquity of the cutter knives.
When the cutting operation isicompleted the
point of contact between the knives has moved
board 2| which supports the fabric F. Spacer
plates 22 align with reed dents 23 as set forth
more particularly in the aforesaid patent and
across the loom to c, and the knives are in a
position indicated diagrammatically in Figs.‘ 15
and 16, the whole of ‘the cutting edge 36 having
are located below and behind the breast beam
and are operated in well-known manner to
straighten the'tuft yarns during the tuft form
ing-operation. Front and back knife bars 25
and 26 are mounted in guide supports 21 and 28,
passed behind the cutting edge 31 and the left
' end of the front knife being a considerable dis
tance below the left end of the back knife. 1 The
respectively, and slide along the latter in planes
vertical position .of the left end of the front‘
knife at the end of a cutting operation has'an
inclined toward each other as will be apparent
from Fig. l. The front‘bar 25 ‘has a front pile
important bearing on our invention.
the under side thereof as at 3|, while the rear
_ bar 26 is vprovided with a. similar back‘knife 32
secured thereto as at 3'3. 'I'he'bars and their‘
knives extend across the loom and are supported
at their'ends as indicated in Fig. 1 but have no
intermediate supports. During a pile tuft cut
ting operation the knives move backwardly and
forwardly with respect to the frontv of the loom,
each knife reciprocating in the general direc
tion of the length of the fabric being woven.
A tube frame 35 having pile tuft forming yarns
Y is given ‘its usual movements to project the
yarns Y between the binder warps B, a pick P
of ?lling is then inserted in the shed behind the
yarnsY, after which the reed R moves the pick ’
and tuft yarns forwardly over a nose board which
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.eAnother condition encountered‘ in wide Ax
-minster looms is the sagging of the front knife
and its-bar suggested in Fig. 17. In this ?gure
tuft cutting knife or cutter blade 30 secured to
‘ the front knife 30 is shown diagrammatically in
front elevation with the’ central ‘part d thereof
v indicated as being slightly lower than the ends.
Although special attempts are made inthe man
ufacture of wide knife and knife bars to offset’
the sagging, there is likely, nevertheless, to be a
_) certain amount of downward de?ection of the
50/
central part of the knife due to the weight‘of'
the knife bar. During backward movement ‘of
the knife 30 the center thereof ma'yfengage the‘
nose board and damage its tuft forming hooks
unless provision is made to permit the hooks, to
' move out of the path of the knife. " "
' '
All of the mechanism thus far described oper
ates in the usual manner and of itself forms no
is designated generally at N to cause upward
and ‘forward curving of the free ends of the
part of our present inventionyexcept as‘ noted
yarns during the tuft forming operation. After
hereinafter.
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the tube frame has performed its usual function
In carrying our present invention into effect we
of pulling off enough yarn Y for the next row of
mount the pile tuft engaging hooks for movement
tufts, it is held temporarily in the position shown
away from the path of the front knife 3012s the
in Fig. 1 with the lower ends of the tuft yarns
latter moves during the cutting operation. As
curved upwardly to form pile tufts to be out free k shown in Figs. 9 and 10 We cut a series of vertical‘
from the tube frame. The back knife is then
teeth 40 on the rear of the breast beam 20 and
moved forwardly approximately to the position 65 provide an upwardly opening slot ‘4|. in each
shown in Fig. 1 preparatory to the tuft cutting
tooth. These slots are valigned longitudinally
operation, after which the front knife is moved
with each other across the loom to receive one or.
rearwardly for the purpose of cutting the pile
more pivot rods 42 on which’ are ‘mounted the
tufts T from the'yarns Y, as indicated in Fig. 2. 70 forward ends of the pile .tuft engaging vunits 43.
The knives then move out ofoperating position,
Each unit has provision for pivotal support af
the rear knife moving backwardly and the front
forded by a downwardlyopening ‘slot 44 the upper.
knife moving forwardly to make room for the
end of which ?ts over the rod,42 and serves ‘as
next tube frame to come into action.
I
a transverse horizontal bearing. Eachfunitf'also
A condition’ existing in wide Axminster looms 75 has
a downwardly extending arm 45 formed as
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2,384,322
part of the front. body 46 of-the unit in which.
the slot 44 is located. .Integral with andextend
pivotal movement of the hook units around rod
42, but we do not wish thus to be limited in the
ing rearwardly from the body 46 are three ?at
vertically disposed parallel teeth or members 41
practice of our invention.
'
Another feature of our invention relates to
- provision for weaving high and low tuft piles in
the same loom without altering the nose board.
It is to be understood that when high piles are
separated by reed dent receiving slots 48. The
tooth or member 41 is formed more particularly
as shown in Fig. 5 with a curved rear face 48'
being cut the blades 30 and 32 will be in high
convex rearwardly and leading up to a concave
position, as shown in Fig. 18, but when low piles
area 49 which leads to the rear of an upstanding
pile tuft engaging hook 50 located at the rear 10 are being cut the knives are lowered to some such
position as that indicated in Fig. 19. When the
end of the member 41. The body 46 and members,
knives are set for cutting high pile the front knife
41 of each unit lie below the cloth board, but the
30 will pass over surfaces 5| without touching
hooks lie behind the board. The top surface 5|
them while moving from the full line to the
of the hook is inclined downwardly and forwardly
dotted line position of Fig. 18 except for those
for a purpose to be described.
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hooks which are in the path of knife 30 due to
The hook units and their bodies 46 ?t into hor
the two conditions described involving obliquity
izontally spaced vertical slots 55 cut into the
of the knives and their sagging. When the
breast beam to form the teeth 40 and in, order
knives are set in low position as shown in Fig. 19,
that the hook units may be held yieldingly in
however, knife 30 will engage the surfaces 5| of
their normally raised tuft engaging position we
all the hooks at each cutting operation when
provide resilient means which in the present
moving from the full line to the dotted line posi
instance takes the form of a ?at strip of spring
tion of Fig. 19 and move the units 43 down to
steel having a solid lower rail 56 from which
the dotted line position of that ?gure. It is be
spring tongues 51 extend upwardly into the slots
cause of the inclined surface 5| on each hook that
55 between teeth 40. As shown more particu
the loom can be converted from weaving high pile
larly in Fig. 3 the rail 56 is secured as at 60 to,
to low pile Without changing the nose board or
the under inclined surface 6| of the breast beam
risking damage to it, and without altering the
20, and as shown in Fig. 10 the tongues 51 extend
cloth board. The surface 5| is inclined down
upwardly through the forward parts of the slots
wardly and toward the side of hook 50 from
55 into engagement with the depending arms 45
which approaches the knife that engages the
of thehook units, while the teeth 40 are received
hooks.
by slots 58 between the ‘spring tongues. The
During the beat-up operation of the reed the
spring tongues hold the units 43 up. against the
warp binders B exert some downward pull on the
cloth board 2| which is fastened as at 62 to the
breast beam and in the present instance serves 35 hook units, but the spring tongues 51 are suf
?ciently strong under normal conditions to with
stand this downward pull of the warp. The
not only to support the fabric being woven but
also as a stop to limit upward movement of the
hook units and cause the latter to be aligned hori
zontally across the loom in their normally raised
spring tongues 51 and arms 450i the hook units
will ordinarily be stopped by walls ‘I8 formed
position. The units 43 are thus separate from 40 on the breast beam at the forward ends of slots
55 before the hook ends 50 can move below and
and movable relatively to the breast beam and
cloth board.
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get out of register with the binder warps.
somewhat narrower than the rear part thereof
From the foregoing it will be seen that we
have provided means whereby the hooks of the
and in order to accommodate the wider parts of
nose board of an Axminster loom are mounted
As shown in Fig. 6 the body 46 of each unit is
the hook unit the rear ends of the teeth 40, are
reduced in thickness as at 65. The slots 48 may
terminate in a forward edge which is, inclined
downwardly and forwardly as at 66, although we
do not wish thus to be limited. The teeth 40
separate adjacent units 43 by a space 61 similar
in width to slots 48 to receive a reeddent.
'
In operation, the knives will be spaced to Del”.-v
mit the tube frame to have its rolling-in move
ments and assume the position shown in Fig. 1
with the tuft T to be out from the yarns Y rest
ing on the cloth board and the hooks 50 in nor
mal raised position behind the tufts; The front
knife moves rearwardly over the hook units‘,
breast beam and cloth board, and reaches‘ a po
sition over the hooks 50 at the beginning of the
cutting operation as shown in Fig. 1. It will be
understood, however, that due to the conditions
illustarted in Figs. 16 and 17, certain of the hooks
50 will be in the path of knife 3|) and will be
engaged by it during some part of they operation
as knife 30 moves to the pile tuft cutting position
shown in Fig. 2‘. When the engagement occurs
the lower side or edge of the rear part of knife
30 below the cutting edge 36 will strike inclined 70
surfaces 5| of the hooks involved and push'the
latter downwardly away from their normal raised
position out of the path of the knife. As shown
herein, downward movement of the hooks against
the action of spring tongues 51 is effected by‘
on the breast beam for movement out of the
path of the knife 30 when engaged by the latter
to prevent damage to them during tuft cutting
operation. It will further be seen that downward
movement of the books can occur to avoid their
breakage by the knives when the condition set
forth particularly in Fig. 6 exists, or when the
knives sag as suggested in Fig. 17, or when low
tuft piles are being cut, as indicated in Fig. 19._
It will also be noted that the cloth board 2|
serves to limit upward movement of the hook
units and acts in cooperation with the spring
tongues 51 to align all of the hooks horizontally.
The nose board N is shown herein as comprising
a ?xed member, such as the breast beam, on
which the hook units are pivoted, but we do not
wish to be limited to this particular mounting
for the hooks.
Having thus described our- invention it will
~ be seen that changes and modi?cations may bev
made therein by those skilled pin the art without
departing from the spirit and scope of the in
vention, and we do not wish to be limited to the
details herein disclosed, but what we claim is:
l. In an Axminster loom having a knife mov
ing to pile tuft cutting position to cut Ipile tufts,
pile tuft engaging hooks which when in normal
position are behind the tufts to be cut and in
position to be engaged by said knife when the 1
latter moves‘ to cutting position, andmeans
4
2,384,322
mounting said hooks for movement away from
the normal‘ position thereof by said knife when
engaged by the latter...
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ient means normally holding said units in raised‘
position against said cloth board, said knife when
moving. to cutting position engaging'said hooks
'
I 2. In an Axminster loom having a knife move
ing to'pile'tuft cutting position to cut .pile tufts,
pile-‘tuft engaging. hooks behindthe tufts to
be cut;.:means normally holding said hooks in
position‘ to be engaged by said knife when the
latter moves to pile tuftcutting position, and
means mounting said hooks for movement away
and moving them downwardly.
9. In an Axminster loom'having abreast beam,
piletuftengaging hook units projecting rear
wardly from and pivotallymounted on the breast
beam for vertical movement relatively to the
breast beam, and resilient means normally hold-i
10 ing said hook units in‘ raised tuft engaging posi
from the normal position thereof when engaged
by saidknife.
'
.3. In an Axminster loom having aknife mov
ing: topile tuftcutting position to cut pile tufts,
pile tuft engaging hooks behind the tufts to be
cut; resilient means holding said hooks in nor
mal positicn'and in the. path of the knife as the
latter moves to tuft forming position, and means
mounting said hooks for ‘movement from the nor
mal‘ Iposition thereof by said knife against the
action of said resilient means when the knife
moves to cutting position.
tion.
.
.
.
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.10. In an Axminster loom having a breast beam
.
7
¢ 4.» In an Axminster. loom having a breast
beam and a knife moving to pile tuft‘ cutting po
sition;'to cut pile tufts, pile tuft engaging hooks,
behind the tufts to be cut, resilient means on the
breast beam holding said hooks in normal posi
tion and in the path of the knife as the latter
moves to tuft forming position, and means piv
provided with rearwardly extendinghorizontallyi
spaced teeth, pile‘tuft engaging hook- units lo
cated between said teeth‘and pivotally mounted
on the'breast beam for vertical movement be
tween said teeth, and‘ resilient means normally
holding said hook units in raised position but‘
yielding to’ permit downward movement of said
units away from said-raised position.
‘
vll. In an Axminster loom having a breast beam’
formed with spaced vertically extending teeth, a
pivot "rod {carried by said teeth, pile tuft engaging
hook units pivotally mounted on ‘said rod, stop
means limiting upward movement of the hook
units, and resilient means between said teeth nor-‘
mally holding said hook‘ units against said stop
means but permitting said hook unitsv to ‘move
otally mounting said hooks on said breast beam ‘
downwardlywith
12. In‘ an Axminster
respect
loom
to having
said stop
a breast
means}
beam'
-
for movement from the normal position thereof
by said knife against the action of said resilient
means when the knife moves to cutting position.
formed with horizontally spaced rearwardly ex-‘
5. In an Axminster loom having a breast
tending ‘teeth, pile'tuft engaging hook units 10'
co'ated between said teeth, a rod supported by said
teeth and providing pivotal support forsaid hook
beam and ‘a pile tuft cutting knife moving there
over during a tuft cutting operation, units on the r units, and resilient means carried by the breast
beam and normally-holding said hook units in‘
breast beam having rearwardly extending ends
raised position with'respect to the breast beam;
formed with hooks behind the tuft to be cut
but permitting downward movement of saidunits
and located under the knife when the latter is
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' '
in tuft cutting position, means mounting the 40 relatively to the breast beam.
> 13'. A nose board for an Axminster loom com
hook units for downward movement of said ends
prising a‘ ?xed member extending transversely of
relatively to the breast beam, and means hold
the loom, a plurality of pile tuft engaging hook‘
ing the units with said ends normally in raised
units'extending
rearwardly from and pivotally
position but yielding to permit downward move
ment of said ends upon engagement of the hooks 45 mounted ’on1said member, and'vresilient means
by the knife.
.
6. In an Axminster loom having a breast beam
and a tuft cutting knife moving to cutting po
holding said hook ‘units normally in raised‘ posi',—'
tion but'permitting downward movement thereof
with respect to said member.
,
H174.‘ A nose board for an Axminster ‘loom com
sition during a tuft cutting operation, pile tuft.
engaging units extending rearwardly from said 60 prising a member extending transversely of the
loom, a plurality‘ of piletuft engaging hook units
breast beam and having hooks behind the tuft
formed separately fromisaid member and mount~
to be cut and under said knife when the latter
ed thereon for movement'in vertical planes, and
is in cutting position, means mounting said hook
resilient means normally holding said hook;
units for movement relatively to the breast beam
in raisedposition relatively to said member but
to‘ permit downward movement of said hooks,
permitting downward movement of' said hook
resilient means normally holdingsaid hooks in
units with respect to said member.
, ‘
raised position and yielding uponv engagement
‘ 15.1 A pile tuft engaging unit for the nose board
of said knife with said hooks to permit downward
of an Axminster loom, said unit having a body
movement of said latter.
7. In an Axminster loom having a knife moving 60 provided with a ‘bearing to receive a pivotal sup:
to pile tuft cutting position to cut pile tufts, pile
port, and said body having a rearwardly extend- .
tween said units and the breast beam, and resil-_
mounting said hooks for downward movement’,
ing part with a ?at upper surface to engage the
tuft engaging hooks behind the tufts to be cut,
nose: board and having integral therewith a rear
means mounting said hooks for vertical move
wardly extending member provided with an up
ment, and means normally holding said hooks in
raised position but permitting said hooks to be 85 standing tuft engaging hook su?iciently high to
extend above the nose board.
'
moved d0wnwardly_ by said knife when the latter
, 16.v In an Axminster loom having a knife move
is in tuft cutting position.
ing to pile tuft cutting position to cut pile tufts,‘
8. In an Axminster loom having a breast beam,
pile tuft engaging hooks which when in normal
a cloth board secured thereto, and a knife moving
to pile .tuft cutting position, units extending un 70 position are behind the tufts to be out, said hooks.
having top surfaces inclined downwardly and to
der the cloth board and projecting rearwardly,
ward the side of the hook which the knife ap
therefrom and having hooks behind the pile tuft
proaches ' during a cutting operation, said top‘
to be cut in the path of said knife as the latter
moves to cutting position, pivotal connections be
surfaces being in the path of the knife, and means,
a
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away from normal position when the knife en
gages said inclined surfaces.
17. In an Axminster loom having a breast beam
formed with a rearwardly extending tooth, a pile
tuft engaging unit on each side of said tooth, and
a plurality of pile tuft engaging hooks oneach
unit separated by reed dent receiving slots, said
tooth separating said units so that adjacent hooks
5
teeth, and resilient means holding said units in
normal position relatively to the breast beam but
permitting said units to pivot around said rod
away from normal position.
19. A pile tuft engaging unit for an Axminster
loom operating with a tuft cutting knife and hav
ing a nose board, said unit comprising a body
‘having provision for pivotal support with respect
to the nose board and having a pile tuft engaging
thereof de?ne a reed dent receiving space.
18. In an Axminster loom having a breast beam 10 hook integral with said body, the hook having a
top surface for engagement with said knife and
formed with horizontally spaced rearwardly ex
over which tufts are adapted to pass.
tending teeth having upwardly opening aligned
slots therein, a rod located in said slots and ex
tending transversely of said teeth, pile tuft en
gaging units pivoted on said rod between said 15
STANLEY N. MCCASLIN.
ARTHUR LAMB.
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