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Патент USA US2384582

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SePt- 11; ‘1945-
E. WILDHABERT
‘2,384,582
FACE CLUTCH
.
Filed May 22, 1942
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 1 ‘
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Zmventor
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Wittering
SePt- 11, 1945.
E. WILDHABER
2,384,582
mom CLUTCH
Filed May 22, 1942
.
43
s sheets-sneak 2_ '
'
'
'
3nventor
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Sept 11, 1945.
- ' E. WILDHABER
2,384,582’)
.FACE CLUTCH '
Filed May 22, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
_
Zinnentor
EENES r W/LDHH BER
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Gttorneg
Patented Sept. 11, 1945
2,384,582
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,384,582
FACE CLUTCH
Ernest Wildhaber, Brighton, N. Y., asslgnor to
Gleason Works, Rochester, N. Y., a corporation
of New York
Application May 22, 1942, Serial N0. 444,031
38 Claims. (Cl. 192-108)
The present invention relates to toothed face
'bolted together in use, but it is a detriment in
clutches and to methods of producing the same.
the case of releasable clutches, for the load
The present application covers speci?cally the
carrying capacity of the clutch varies as the
novel clutch of this invention. The new method
members move into and out of full engagement.
of producing clutches is covered in a separate
Of course, the formation of “bias bearing” can
divisional application, Serial No. 520,463, ?led
January 31, 1944.
"be avoided by using face-mill cutters of the
ever more generally used practice. A face-mill
be no concentration of the load at one end of
the teeth, even when only the chamfered parts
spherical type, but they are more dimcult to
Toothed face clutch members are ordinarily
make than-the simple, straight-sided-blade cut
made with radially disposed teeth. Such clutch
ter.
members can be cut readily with reciprocating 10
Another difficulty that arises in connection
planing tools, but this process does not lend it
with releasable-type toothed face clutches is the
self to mass-production requirements. To in
provision of suitable chamfer on the teeth. The
crease the speed of production, it has therefore
teeth have to be chamfered to facilitate engage
been proposed to cut such clutch members with
ment while in motion. The chamfered portions
face-mill cutting tools and this has become an 15 of the teeth should be so formed that there will
cutter cuts continuously except for the periods
required for indexing the blank, whereas a re
ciprocating tool is idle on its return strokes as
are in engagement.
.
'
One object of the invention is to provide a
well as during the indexing periods; it cuts only 20 toothed face clutch whose members may be made
on its strokes in one direction. The face-mill
accurately at low cost and in which two sides
cutter used is ordinarily provided with inside and
of the teeth of a clutch member can be cut or
outside cutting edges, and one‘side of a tooth
ground simultaneously to mesh without “bias
space is cut with the outside cutting edges of the
bearing.”
cutter and the opposite side of the tooth space 25 Still another object of the invention is to pro
out with the inside cutting edges of the cutter
vide a toothed face clutch which will be insensi
as the cutter rotates in engagement with the
tive to slight errors in cutting and to hardening
work. Such a cutter produces tooth spaces whose
distortions and which will carry properly the
opposite sides are coaxial surfaces, of concave
transmitted loads, without the loads being unduly
and convex lengthwise curvature, respectively. 30 concentrated at the ends of the clutch teeth.
By properly positioning the cutter, however, tooth
surfaces may be out which are of zero spiral
A further object of the invention is to provide
a toothed face clutch in which the two members
may have well rounded tooth bottoms and
rounded or chamfered tooth tops so that only a
angle and the teeth may extend substantially
radially of the clutch axis.
Where both members of a clutch have the op 35
moderate clearance will be required between the
posite sides of their tooth spaces formed as oo
of the tooth spaces and the tops of the
axial surfaces in the manner described, however, _ bottoms
teeth of the two members of the clutch and the I
it is necessary to cut the tooth spaces with taper
maximum effective tooth height may be em
in depth from'end to end, ‘and the taper in depth
ployed.
'
of the tooth spaces has to be increased over 40
Another
object
of
the
invention
is
to
provide
standard proportions of tapering depth teeth in
a toothedface clutch'member of such form that
order to obtain the necessary contact between
two tooth sides may be cut and the tops and
, the clutch members. The tooth spaces have to
bottoms thereof rounded simultaneously.
be cut extra deep at their outer ends. Thus,
with this process, the structure of the clutch 45 Other objects of the invention will be appar-b
ent hereinafter from the speci?cation and from
members has to be adapted to the process of
cutting.
- the recital of the appended claims.
When the two members of a clutch are cut in
In the method of the present invention, a
ing'tooth surfaces contact with a so-called “bias
teeth and in the chamfering thereof. A face
mill cutter of large diameter is used and the
cutter is so positioned that it will cut at two
complete-departure from previous practice is
the described manner, moreover, with face-mill
cutters having straight side-cutting edges, mat 50 made, both in the cutting of the sides of the
bearing,” that is, with a bearing which extends
diagonally of the teeth from one end to the other.
This is of little consequence in the case of ?xed
clutches, that is, clutches whose members are
spaced points on its periphery simultaneously. to
cut or chamfer simultaneously opposite side sur
faces of two spaced teeth of the blank. Here
2
2,384,582
tofore face-mill cutters have been employed, at
_neously with the cutting of the sides of the teeth,
most, to cut simultaneously opposite sides of a
single tooth space of a blank.
In the cutting of the side surfaces of the teeth,
by the method of the present invention, the cut
ter is preferably so positioned that its axis is
parallel to the clutch axis, and teeth of uniform
depth from end to end may be out. In the cham
fering of the teeth, the cutter is positioned with
and the bottom rounding edges can therefore
follow parallel paths as the blades of the cutter
because the teeth of a clutch member produced
lby the method of this invention are of constant
depth from end to end. The top rounding edges
travel from end to end of a tooth space in the
cutting of the sides ‘of the tooth space.
Y
The teeth of releasable clutches are, however,
its axis inclined to the clutch axis so as to cut 10 differently chamfered. In chamfering, a face
mill cutter with concave cutting-edges ‘is em
chamfered surfaces which approximate helicoidal
ployed. This a?ects the cutter diameter. to be
used. The cutter, as already stated, is tilted
with reference to the work axis in chamfering
the clutch will carry properly the transmitted
load, even when only the chamfered portions of 15 so that the tooth surface cut by the chamfering
tool will approximate a helicoidal surface of
the teeth are in engagement.
surfaces of varying lead. When both members
of a face clutch have such chamfered surfaces,
varying lead; and the mean pressure angle of
the ?nish-cutting edges of the chamfering cut
ter are selected in accordance with the amount
In the cutting of the side tooth surfaces of
the two members of a clutch, the preferable
method is to cut one member with a cutter whose
this tilt.
‘?nish-cutting edges are all outside cutting edges 20 of It
is to be noted that in its chamfering phase,
and the other member with a cutter whose ?nish
at
least,
the invention is not limited to use in the
cutting edges are all inside cutting edges. With
production of clutch members having longitu
the ?rst cutter, opposite side tooth surfaces will
dinally curved side tooth surfaces. .The inven
be out simultaneously on spaced teeth of the
tion may be ‘employed, also, foi- instance, in the
blank which are longitudinally concave. With 25 chamfering of clutch members having radially
the second cutter, opposite side tooth surfaces
disposed teeth with longitudinally straight tooth
will be cut simultaneously on spaced teeth of the
sides.
blank which are longitudinally convex. Thus
Several different embodiments of the inven
one clutch member will have teeth whose op
tion
are illustrated in the accompanying draw
posite sides are longitudinally convex, and the 30
ings, in which:
I
other clutch member -will have teeth whose op
Fig. 1 is a sectional view‘ showing a pair of
posite sides are longitudinally concave.
toothed face clutch members made according to
By using a cutter for cutting one clutch mem
this invention in engagement, the section being
ber whose outside cutting diameter at mean cut
taken in a mean plane, hereinafter referred to
ting depth is equal to the inside cutting diameter 35 as the pitch plane, which is perpendicular to the '
of the cutter, which is used for cutting the other
clutch axis;
clutch member, the two clutch members
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary elevational view ‘of
have full length tooth contact when in engage- -
engaging clutch members;
ment. Ordinarily, however, it is preferred to ' theFig.
3 is a diagrammatic view, showing one of
have the clutch members engage with less than 40 the clutch members in section in the pitch plane,
full length tooth contact. This can be accom
‘ and illustrating the method of cutting this clutch
plished by making the inside cutting diameter
member;
of the cutter, which cuts one of the clutch mem- ,
Fig. 4 is a part elevational, part sectional view
bers, smaller than the outside cutting diameter
taken at right angles to that of Fig. 3, further
45
of the cutter which cuts the teeth of the other
illustrating diagrammatically the method of cut
clutch member. The mating clutch teeth then
ting this clutch member; '
,
will have less than full length contact, and may
Figs. 5 and 6 are views, corresponding to Figs.
have their tooth bearing or contact localized at ,
3 andv 4, respectively, and illustrating diagram
the longitudinal center of the teeth and disap
matically one method of cutting a mating clutch
50
pearing at the tooth ends. Thus the clutch
member;
members may be rendered insensitive to slight
Fig. 7 is 'a diagrammatic view, similar to Figs.
errors in cutting and to hardening distortions
4 and 6, illustrating the cutting of a somewhat
and be able to carry properly the transmitted
modi?ed form of clutch according to this inven
loads without the loads-being unduly concentrat
»
55 tion;
ed at the ends of the clutch teeth.
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 5. but illustrat
Localization of tooth bearing canv be achieved,
ing diagrammatically how one member of the v
also, by a modi?cation of the invention in which
clutch may have its tooth surfaces cut to have
both members of a clutch are cut with cutters
a slightly different radius of lengthwise tooth
having all inside ?nish cutting edges. Both
curvature from the engaging tooth surfaces of
60
members have, then, opposite side tooth sur
the mating clutch member, so that the two clutch
faces which are longitudinally convex, and- the j members
may engage with a localized tooth bear
mating
engage, tooth
therefore,
surfaces
‘withof less
the ‘than
two members
-full’ length
tooth contact.
In all of the described embodiments of .the in
vention, the clutch members will have side
tooth surfaces which are longitudinally curved.
Despite this, however, the cutters used in cut
ting them may be so positioned that the tooth
'
ing;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view in the
pitch plane showing in engagement two mating
clutch members which have been made accord
ing to the present invention to engage with 10
calized tooth contact;
Figs. 10‘ and 11 are vlews'at right angles to
one another, illustrating diagrammatically the
sides have a radial direction at a mean point in 70
basic principles underlying the application of.
their length, and to all intents and purposes,
the present invention to the chamfering of the
therefore, the clutch members themselves have
tops of the teeth of clutch members;
substantially radial teeth.
v
Figs. 12 and 13 are similar views, illustrating _
The teeth of the members of a ?xed clutch
can be rounded o? at top and bottom simulta 75 how opposite sides of spaced teeth of one mem
2,384,682
ber of a clutch may be chamfered according to
the present invention;
'
3
,
of a tooth'25a and the opposite side 26b of a tooth
25b of the clutch member.
In the cutting of the clutch member 2|, the '
cutter is rotated on its axis 31 and simultaneously
fed relative to the work into depth until two tooth
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary elevational view, illus-_
surfaces of the work have been ?nish cut for their
trating diagrammatically how the tops and bot
full height. Then the cutter is withdrawn from
toms of a tooth of a member of a ?xed clutch may
engagement with the work, and the work is in
be rounded simultaneously with the cutting of
dexed. Then the cutter is fed back into the work
the side of the tooth when the clutch member is 10 and the cycle begins anew. The pressure angle or
constructed according to the present invention;
inclination of the inside ?nish-cutting edges of
and
the cutter at 35 is equal to the pressure angle or
Fig. 17 is a fragmentary elevational view of a
inclination of the sides of the teeth of the clutch
releasable clutch member made according to this
member at any point 38 in the common pitch
invention, and illustrating particularly the char 15 surface 33, that is, the pressure angle or inclina
acter of the chamfered portions of the tooth sur
tion of the inside cutting edges 36 of the cutter
faces of this clutch member.
35 is equal to the-pressure angle or inclination
In Figs. 1 to 6 inclusive, the two members of a
of the outside cutting edges 3| of the cutter 33.
?xed face clutch made according ‘to this inven
It will be noted that the ?nish cutting edges of
tion are designated at 20 and 2 I, respectively. 20 the two cutters 30 and 35 are straight and of
The member 120 has teeth 22 whose opposite sides
positive pressure ang1e._ Nevertheless, there is no
23 and 2d are longitudinally concave. The mem
di?iculty with reference to “bias bearing” because
ber H has teeth 25 whose opposite sides 26 and 27
the teeth of the two clutch members are cut to be
are longitudinally convex. In one embodiment of
of constant depth from end to end. Thus rela
the invention, the radius of lengthwise curvature .- ; tively simple types of cutters may be employed.
of the concave sides of the teeth of one clutch
The two clutch members 20 and 2! will engage
member 23 is equal to the radius of lengthwise ' with full lengthwise tooth contact because the
curvature of the mating convex sides of the teeth
outside cutting edges H of the cutter 3B and the
of other clutch member 2i, and the teeth of the
inside cutting edges 36 of the cutter 35 consti
two clutch members, when in engagement, have 30 tute complementary cutting surfaces which match
therefore full length contact. This is the condi
each other and which have the same radii at
tion illustrated in Fig. l. The common axis of
points 3% and 38, respectively, in the pitch plane
the two clutch members is here denoted at 28.
33. Where it is desired that ‘the mating tooth
For cutting the sides of the teeth of the clutch
surfaces of the clutch members mesh with 10
member Zii, a face-mill cutter 30 is employed 35 calized tooth contact instead of full length con
which has outside ?nish cutting edges 3!. In
tact, one member of the pair may be cut with
stead of tilting the cutter, as would be conven
tooth surfaces having a different radius of length
Figs. 14 and 15 are similar views, illustrating
the preferred method of chamfering the teeth
of the other member of the clutch;
tional practice, so as to avoid having it cut at
more than one part of the tooth zone of the work,
wise curvature from the tooth surfaces of the
mating member of the pair. Thus the clutch
member, which is to mesh with the clutch mem
side diameter is made su?flciently large for it to
ber 20, may be provided with teeth whose side
cut the opposite sides 23 and 24 of two spaced
surfaces have different lengthwise curvature, as
teeth of the clutch member simultaneously.
has the clutch member 45 shown in Fig. 8.
Thus, it is positioned with its axis‘ 32 parallel to
The clutch member 45 has its tooth surfaces
the axis 28 of the work and in the embodiment 45 ?nish-cut by a face-mill cutter 46 whose inside
illustrated in Fig. 3, its outside cutting diameter
cutting diameter is considerably smaller than the
is su?iciently large for the cutter to ?nish simul
inside cutting diameter of the cutter 35 of Figs.
taneously one side 23a of a tooth 22a and the op
5 and 6. The cutter 46 cuts Opposite sides 48
posite side 2411 of a tooth 22b which is spaced a
50 and 49 of teeth. 50 which are spaced three pitches ,
distance of ?ve pitches from the tooth 22a.
apart, while the cutter 35 cuts opposite sides, such
Cutting is effected by rotating the cutter in
as 26b and 21a, of teeth 25 which are spaced four
engagement with the work while simultaneously
pitches apart. The cutter 46 has its axis 41 par
e?’ecting relative depthwise feed movement be
allel to the axis 28' of the clutch member in the
tween the cutter and work until the tooth sur
cutting operation, and the teeth of the clutch
55
faces have been cut to full depth. After the cut
member 45 are cut, as before, by rotating the
ting of one pair, of tooth' surfaces, the cutter is
cutter 46 on its axis 41' while effecting a relative
withdrawn from engagement with the work and
depthwise feed movement between the cutter and
the work is indexed through one pitch. Then the
the work until the tooth surfaces have been cut to
cutter is fed back into the work and another pair
their full height. Then the cutter is withdrawn _i .
of tooth surfaces are ?nish~cut as before. The 60 from engagement with the blank, and the blank
indexed.
pressure angle or inclination of the outside cut
‘ Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing frag
ting edges 3| vof the cutter will correspond to the
mentarily how the teeth 22 of the clutch member
pressure angle or inclination of the sides of the
teeth to be cut.
a
65 20 engage with the teeth 50 of the clutch mem
ber 45 when the two clutch members are in en
The mating member 2| of the clutch may ‘have
gagement. As will be seen, the opposite sides 23
its tooth sides ?nish-cut with a face-mill cutter
and 24 of the teeth 22 of the clutch member 20
35 which has inside ?nish-cutting edges 36. This
cutter is positioned with its axis 31 parallel to the ' contact with the matinglopposite sides 48 and 49,
axis 28 of the clutch member and the diameter of 70 respectively, of the teeth 50 of the clutch meme
ber 45 with less than full lentgh contact. By suit
‘ this cutter is again such that it will ?nish-cut,
the cutter is deliberately positioned and its out
ably positioning the cutter 46, the contact be
tween the mating tooth surfaces of the two clutch
members can be concentrated midway the length
position shown in Fig. 5, the inside cutting edges
of the cutter-35 cut simultaneously one side 2111 75 of their teeth so that the clutch members may
accommodate themselves to slight errors in cutting“
simultaneously opposite . side surfaces of two
spaced teeth of. the clutch member. Thus, in the -
2,884,682
illustrated diagrammatically in Figs. 10 and 11.
and carry properly the transmitted‘loads with
out danger of these loads being unduly concen
trated at the ends of the teeth.
80 denotes the clutch member whose teeth 8i are
to be chamfered.‘ The teeth of .this particular
clutch member have opposite side surfaces 62
.
Localization of tooth bearing can also be ob
and 83 which are longitudinally concave, but it
tained by making the sides of the teeth of both
will be understood that the invention applies
equally to the chamfering of the teeth of clutch‘
members whose opposite side tooth surfaces are
clutch members longitudinally convex. Thus the
teeth of two clutch members, like the clutch
member 2i of Fig. 5, would engage with one an
other with a localized tooth contact. This con
longitudinally convex.
diameters of the clutches are quite small.
Many advantages result from the cutting of
.
For the chamfering operation, a face-mill cut
ter 85 may be employed which has outside cut
ting edges 88 that are of concave profile shape.
struction may be employed especially where the 10
the clutch members with teeth of constant depth
from end to end, additional to those already indi
cated. Thus, as illustrated in Fig. 16, it is pos
‘This cutter is tilted with reference to the work
a clutch blank 64 and simultaneously fed rela
tively in depth, it will cut tooth surfaces on the
of the cutter which cuts the longitudinally con
cave sides 82 and 83 of the teeth. Due to the tilt
blank which are of straight pro?le and positive
pressure angle for the greater portion of their
heights, as indicated at 60, and which have well
rounded tooth space bottoms as denoted at 6!
of the clutch teeth.
so that its axis 81 is inclined to the root plane
88 of the work and the cutter is ‘revolved in
engagement with the work. In the instance
sible to cut the sides and round off the tops and
shown, the cutter is tilted in a direction length
bottoms of the teeth of such clutch members
wise of the engaged clutch teeth only so that
simultaneously. ~To do this, a face-mill cutter
_ only one side surface of the clutch teeth is cham
may be employed whose blades 55 have ?nish
cutting edges 56 which are rounded at the base 20 fered at a time. The cutter axis 81 is inclined
to a normal 89 at a point 89’ in the chambered
of the blades, as indicated at 51, and which are
portion of the clutch member. Due to the in
also rounded off, as indicated at 58, where they
clination of cutter axis and the concave cutting
join the tip cutting edges 59 of the blades. In
profile 86, a. lengthwise curve of larger radius
the instance shown, the ?nish-cutting edge 56
of the blade is straight and inclined to the axis 25 will be cut on the chamfered portions of the teeth
than the radius of the chamfering cutter. It is
of-the cutter for the greater part of its height,
for this reason that the diameter of the cham
that is, of positive pressure angle.
fering cutter is made smaller than the diameter
When this cutter is rotated in engagement with
and rounds at their tops as indicated at 62.
.
of the chamfering cutter, also, the inclination of
the chamfered surface will vary along the length
Thus a chamfered surface
will be produced on each tooth which will ap
35 proximate, as desired, a helicoidal surface of
varying lead, having its pressure angle increasing
The method of the present invention is not
with
increasing distance from the clutch axis.
limited to production of clutch members having
The principle on which the chamfering oper- .
side tooth surfaces of positive pressure angle.
ation depends is further illustrated diagrammati
Thus, as illustrated in Fig. 7, it may be employed
also in the production of clutch members whose 40 cally in Fig. 12. Here 90 denotes the teeth of a
clutch member 9| whose opposite side tooth sur
side tooth surfaces 66 and 61 are parallel to the
faces 92_and 93 are of longitudinally concave
clutch axis 68. Here a face-mill cutter ‘i0 is
shape and approximately zero pressure angle. As
employed that has outside cutting edges H or
previously stated, the chamfered surface, which
inside cutting edges 12 that are parallel to the
it is desired to produce on each tooth, is a heli
cutter axis 13; the cutter is positioned so that its
coidal surfaceof varying lead. This is a sur
axis 13 is parallel to the clutch axis 68; and the
face such as might be produced by a line, pref
tooth surfaces of the clutch'members are pro
erably a circular arc, which is moved about the
clutch axis 95 and simultaneously fed in the direc
duced by “rotating the cutter on its axis while _
effecting relative depthwise feed movement be- '
tween the cutter and work until the tooth sur
faces of the work have been cut for their full
height. By suitably rounding the blades of the
50,
tion ‘of the clutch axis at a varying rate. The
intersection ‘of such a helicoidal surface with any
plane perpendicular to the clutch axis will beva
circular arc. Thus, the intersection of the chaml '
cutter as illustrated in Fig. '7, rounded tooth space
fered surface of a tooth with a plane containing
bottoms 69 may be formed on‘ the work. The
cutting edges of the cutter may also be formed, 55 the tops of the clutch teeth and perpendicular to
the clutch axis might be a circular arc such as
if desired, in a manner similar to that shown in
Fig. 16, to round off the sides of the clutch teeth
at their juncture with the tops of the teeth.
‘denoted at 96 in Fig..12, while the intersection
' of the chamfered portion of a tooth with a plane
Clutch members, such as shown in Figs. 1 to 6
perpendicular to the clutch axis but somewhat
inclusive and 16, are intended primarily for use 60 lower down on the chamfered surface might be a
in ?xed clutches where the two clutch-members
circular are such as denoted at 81. The two cir
are rigidly bolted together in use. For releas
cular arcs 96 and v9'! have the same radii of
able clutches, which are intended to be repeatedly
curvature 98 but their centers of curvature 88
engaged and disengaged, the side surfaces of the
and I00, respectively, are displaced from one an
teeth may be cut in the manner described, but it 65 other about the axis 95 of the clutch and in the
is desirable to chamfer the teeth insuch way
direction of this axis 85.
that the teeth will carry the required loads even
Such a helicoidal surface of varying lead can
when the chamfered portions only of the teeth
be approximated very closely, as already stated,
are in engagement and not-have these loads con
by a surface of revolution of circular arcuate
centrated at one end‘ of the teeth. The desired 70 pro?le shape. .This is the kind of surface pro
type of chamfer may be produced by applica
duced by a rotating face-mill cutter when the
. tion of the cutting method of this invention to
cutter hascutting edges of circular arcuate pro
the production of chamfered tooth surfaces which
?le shape and the axis of the cutter is tilted with
. approximate helicoidal surfaces of varying lead.
The principles of the chamfering operation are 75 reference to the clutch member to out further
2,384,582
5
down on- the tooth pro?les at the outer ends of
the clutch teeth than at the inner ends thereof.
Figs. 10 and 11 are intendedonly to illustrate
the principle underlying the formation of cham
fered surfaces by the method of the present in
might [be of any other, suitable shape, as, for in
stance, involute curvature.
vention. ' In actual practice, the cutter employed
enlarged scale in Fig. 17. The chamfered por
for chamfering is so positioned and tilted that it
tions of the teeth are convex surfaces of revo
lution. It will be noted that the inclination of
the chamfered portion ll‘! of each tooth sur
chamfers simultaneously opposite sides of spaced
teeth of the work. This is illustrated in Figs. 12
to 15 inclusive for both clutch members having
longitudinally concave tooth surfaces and clutch
members having longitudinally convex tooth sur—
A portion of a clutch member H0 whose teeth
“.2 have chamfered portions produced according
to the method of this invention, is shown on an
face increases with increasing radial distance
from the clutch axis. Thus, the pro?le curve I l 9
of the chamfered surface at the outer end of a
faces.
clutch tooth has a greater inclination to the tooth
Figs. 12 and 13 show the chamfering of the
side H4 than the pro?le curve H9’ at the inner
teeth of a clutch member whose teeth 90 have 15 end of the chamfered portion of the tooth.
longitudinally concave tooth sides 92 and 93.
In the embodiment shown in Fig, 17, the side
Here the chamfer is produced by a face-mill cut
cutting edges of the chamfering cutter are so con
ter I05 having outside cutting edges I06 of con
structed that the chamfered portions of the teeth
adjoin the side surfaces of the teeth smoothly
cave circular arcuate Pro?le shape. This cutter
without break. The juncture may be at an an
is so tilted relative to the work that its axis I01
intersects the axis 95 of the clutch member in
gle, however, but, if so, this is preferably kept as
small as possible.
'
stead of being oil-‘set therefrom as is the case with
The method of the present invention is not re
the cutter of Figs. 10-and 11. The outside cutting
stricted to the chamfering of clutch members
edges I06 of this cutter will then chamfer opposite
having teeth with longitudinally curved sides. It
side surfaces on spaced teeth of the work which
may be used also, as will be obvious, in chamfer
will be surfaces of revolution whose pro?les have
ing clutch members having radially disposed teeth
varying inclination from end. to end of the teeth.
and tooth sides. chamfered surfaces in the form
In Fig. 12 the cutter is shown in the position
of helicoidal surfaces of varying lead are essen
where it is chamfering the top portions of the
sides 92a and 93b, respectively, of the teeth 90a 30 tial to such clutch members also, if concentration
of the loads at one end of the teeth is to be
and 90?), respectively, of the clutch. chamfering
avoided when the clutch members are moving into
is effected simply by rotating the cutter in en
and out of engagement. Here the cutters em
gagement with the work while effecting such rela
ployed for chamfering ‘will have outside cutting
tive depthwise feed between cutter and work as
edges like those illustrated in Figs. 12 to 15 inclu
is required to chamfer the tooth surfaces to the
sive.
desired depth; and after one pair of tooth surfaces
While the invention has been described in con
has been chamfered, the cutter is withdrawn
nection with the use of face-mill cutters, it is to
from engagement with the work and the work is
indexed.
be understood that oscillatory “tools might be
The convex side surfaces H3 and N4 of the 41 employed instead. It is to'loe understood, also,
that the term cutter is intended to include grind
teeth N2 of the clutch member llll, which is to
ing rwheels also and is so used throughout speci
engage with the clutch member 9 i, may be cham
?cation and claims.
fered with the inside cutting edges of a cutter. It
It is further to be understood that while the
is preferred, however, particularly where the di
ameter of the cutter gets large, to use a cutter 45 invention has been described in connection with
the use of cutters having all outside or all in
having outside cutting edges to chamfer the side
side blades, this ,part of the description refers
surfaces even of teeth whose sides are longitudi
to ?nish-cutting only, and that for rough-cut
nally convex. This is illustrated in Figs. 14 and
ting or for ?nish-cutting directly from the solid
15. Here the opposite side surfaces H3 and llll
of the teeth H 2 of the clutch member Hll are 50 blank, a cutter might be employed having both
inside and outside cutting edges to take out the
chamfered by a face-mill cutter H5 having out
stock more readily. In this event the point
side cutting edges H6 of circular arcuate pro?le
width
of the cutter would be less than the ?n
shape and suitable pressure angle. This cutter
is so tilted with reference ,to the work that it , ished width of the tooth spaces so that only
the side-cutting edges at one side of the cutter
will chamfer simultaneously opposite sides of
would ?nish-cutthe desired tooth sides of the
spaced teeth of the work. Its axis H8 is in
work.
clined to the axis III of the work but lies in the
While several different embodiments of the in
same plane as the axis of the work and inter
vention have been described, it will be under
sects the axis of the work. Thus, as shown in 60 stood that the invention is capable of further
Fig. 14, the cutter may chamfer simultaneously
modi?cation, and this application is intended to
the opposite side “3a and ll4b of the spaced
cover any adaptations, uses, or modi?cations of
teeth “2a and H 2b, respectively, of the work.
the invention. following, in general, the principles
The chamfering is effected by rotating the cutter
of the invention and including such departures
on its axis I I8 in engagement with the work while 65 from the present disclosure as come within known
the work is held stationary on its axis l M. After
a pair of tooth surfaces have been chamfered,
the cutter is withdrawn from engagement with
the work and the work indexed. 120 denotes a
normal at point |2l to the chamfered portion
|l3a of one side of the tooth I I2a of the work.
While it is preferred to use chamfering cut
ters whose cutting edges are of circular arcuate
pro?le shape, the invention is not restricted to
the use of such cutters. The chamfering edges
or customary practice in the art to which the in
vention pertains and as may be applied to the es
sential features hereinbefore set forth and as fall
within the scope of the invention or the limits
of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
'
1. A face clutch member having teeth whose
opposite sides are curved longitudinally from end
to end, the centers of lengthwise curvature of
2,884,582
6 .
the opposite sides of each tooth lying, respec
teeth being parts of a common surface of revo
tively, at opposite sides of the tooth.
lution.
.
’
-
13. A toothed face clutch member whose tee
are chamfered at their tops, the chamfered por
tions of the teeth being of convex‘ pro?le, the
pro?le inclination to the axis of the clutch mem
2. A face clutch member having generally
radial teeth, containing longitudinally curved
tooth portionswhich are parts of surfaces of
revolution, the axes of said surfaces being dis
ber increasing with increasing distance from the -
posed in planes containing the axis of the clutch
clutch axis, the chamfered portions of opposite
member.
'
'
sides
of spaced teeth being parts of a common
3. A face clutch member having teeth, all of
which extend generally radially of the clutch axis, 10 surface of revolution.
14. A toothed face clutch member having teeth
opposite sides of each tooth being longitudinally
which
are of constant height from end to end
curved, and opposite sides of spaced teeth lying
whose sides are chamfered at their tops, opposite
in the same surface of revolution.
_
sides of spaced teeth being parts of a common
4. A toothed face clutch member having teeth,
all of which extend generally radially of the clutch 15 surface of revolution, the chamfered portions of
opposite sides of spaced teeth being also parts of
axis, the side surfaces of each tooth being of
a common surface of revolution whose axis is in
straight pro?le and longitudinally curved, and
clined to the axis of the ?rst named surface of
opposite side surfaces of spaced teeth lying in a
common surface of revolution.
revolution.
'
g
15. A toothed face clutchmember having teeth
5. A face clutch member having teeth which 20
which are of constant height from end to end
are of uniform height from end to end, opposite
sides of the teeth being portions of surfaces of ' whose sides are chamfered at their tops, oppo
site sides of spaced teeth being parts of a com
revolution whose axes are parallel to the axis of
mon surface of revolution whose axis is parallel
the clutch member, opposite sides of spaced teeth
being parts of a common surface of revolution. 25 to the axis of the clutch member, and the cham
fered portions of opposite ‘sides of spaced teeth
6. A face clutch member having teeth, portions
being also parts of a common surface of revo
of the opposite side surfaces of each tooth of which
lution whose axis is inclined to the axis of the
are curved about centers which lie, respective
clutch member.
_
ly.‘at opposite sides of the tooth, the said por
16. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
tions of opposite sides of spaced teeth lying in a 30
are chamfered along their top edges, the'cnam
common surface of revolution whose axis is par
fered portions of the teeth being longitudinally
allel to the axis of the clutch member.
curved.- and being parts of surfaces of revolution.
7. A face clutch member having teeth, por
17. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
tions at opposite sides of each tooth being lon
are chamfered along their top edges, the cham
gitudinally curved and having centers lying, re 35 ferecl
portions of the teeth'being longitudinally
spectively, at opposite sides of the tooth, the. said
curved and being parts of surfaces of revolution
portions at opposite sides of spaced teeth lying
whose axes are inclined to the clutch axis.
in a common surface of revolution whose axis is
inclined to and intersects the axis of the clutch
member.
8. A face clutch comprising a pair of toothed
members, one of which has generally radial teeth
whose opposite sides are longitudinally convex,
and the other of which has generally radial teeth
whose opposite sides are longitudinally concave.
9. A face clutch comprising a pair of toothed
members, one of which has generally radial teeth
whose oppositesides are longitudinally convex,
and the other of which has generally radial teeth
whose opposite sides are longitudinally concave,
the radii of lengthwise curvature of contacting
convex and concave tooth sides being equal.
10. A face clutch comprising a pair of toothed
members, one‘ of which has generally radial teeth
whose opposite sides are longitudinally convex,
and the other of which has generally radial teeth
whose opposite sides are longitudinally concave,
the radius of lengthwise curvature of the convex
sides of the teeth of one member being less than
the radius of lengthwise curvature of the mating
18. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
40 are chamfered along their top edges, the cham
fered portions of the teeth being portions of con
vex surfaces of revolution whose axes are inclined
to and intersect the clutch axis.
19. A toothed face clutch whose members have
45 their teeth chamfered along their top edges, the
chamfered portionsof the teeth of one member
being of longitudinally convex lengthwise curva
ture, and the chamfered portions of the teeth of
the other member being. of longitudinally concave I
50
lengthwise curvature,
20. A toothed face clutch whose members have
longitudinally curved teeth which are chamfered ~
along their top edges, the chamfered portions of
the teeth of both members being of convex pro?le
65 shape.
v21. \A toothed face clutch whose members have
- their teeth chamfered along their top edges at
opposite sides of the teeth, the chamfered por
tions of the teeth of each member being longi
60 tudinally concave surfaces of revolution of convex
tooth sides of the other member.
.
11. A toothed face clutch member having teeth »
pro?le shape.
.
22. A toothed face clutch WhOSe members have
their teeth chamfered along their top edges at
opposite sides of the teeth, thechamfered por
which are of uniform height from end to end and
which extend substantially radially of the clutch 65 tions of the teeth of each member being longitu- ‘
dinally concave surfaces of revolution of convex
axis, opposite sides of each tooth being longitudi
nally curved and having their axes of lengthwise
curvature lying, respectively, at opposite sides of
the tooth, opposite sides of spaced teeth lying in
pro?le shape whose pro?les have increasing in
clination to the clutch axis with increasing d-is
'_ tance from the clutch axis.
23. A toothed face clutch, one member of which
70
a common surface of revolution.
has longitudinally convex side tooth surfaces, and
12. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
the other member of which has longitudinally
are chamfered at their tops, the chamfered por
concave side tooth surfaces, both members hav
tions of the teeth being parts of surfaces of revo
ing their teeth chamfered along their top edges,
clutch member, the chamfered portions of spaced 75 the chamfered portions of the teeth of both mem
lution whose axes are inclined to the axis of the
7
2,384,582 ‘
bers being longitudinally concave surfaces of rev
are‘ chamfered along their top edges, opposite
olution of convex pro?le shape.
sides of the teeth being parts of surfaces of revo
lution of straight pro?le shape whose axesare
24. A toothed face clutch, one member of I
which has longitudinally convex side tooth sur
faces, and the other member of which has longi
tudinally concave side tooth surfaces, both mem
bers having their teeth chamfered along their top
edges, the chamfered portions of the teeth of
both members being longitudinally concave sur
faces of revolution of convex pro?le shape whose
axes are inclined to the axis of the clutch. I
25. A toothed face clutch whose members have
their teeth chamfered along their top edges, the
chamfered portions of the teeth of one member
being of longitudinally convex lengthwise curva
ture, and the chamfered portions of the teeth of
the other member being of longitudinally con
parallel to the' clutch axis, and the chamfered
portions of the teeth being parts of surfaces of
revolution of convex circular arcuate pro?le shape
whose axes are. inclined to and intersect the
clutch axis.
-
_
32. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
have longitudinally curved side surfaces and are
chamfered along their top edges, the sides of said
teeth at mean points in their length being radial
of the clutch axis, and the chamfered portions of .
said teeth at mean points in their length being
radial of the clutch axis.
33. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
have longitudinally curved side‘surl‘aces and are ~
cave lengthwise curvature, the radius of length- _ chamfered along their top edges, opposite sides of
wise curvature of the longitudinally convex sur
spaced teeth being parts of a common surface of
faces of one member being less than the radius 20 revolution, and the chamfered portions at oppo~
of lengthwise curvature ‘of the longitudinally
site sides of spaced teeth being parts of a com
co‘ncave surfaces of the mate member.
mon surface of revolution.
26. A toothed face clutch member having 1on
34. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
gitudinally curved teeth whose sides are parts of
have longitudinally curved side surfaces that are
surfaces of revolution and which are chamfered 25 chamfered along their top edges, opposite sides of
along their top edges, the chamfered portions of
spaced teeth being parm of a common surface of
the teeth being parts of surfaces of revolution
revolution,
the chamfered portions of said tooth
whose radii of lengthwise curvature are less than
sides being also parts of a common surface of‘
the radii of lengthwise curvature of‘oorrespond
revolution whose axis is inclined to the axis of
ing sides of the teeth.
30 the side tooth surfaces.
27. A toothed face clutch member having 1on
35. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
gitudinally curved teeth whose sides are parts
have longitudinally curved side surfaces and are
of surfaces of revolution and which are cham
chamfered along their top edges, the sides of the
fered along their top edges, the chamfered por
tions of the teeth being parts of surfaces of rev 85 teeth being longitudinally convex, and the cham
fered portions being longitudinally concave.
olution whose axes are inclined to the clutch axis
36. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
and whose radii of lengthwise curvature are less
have longitudinally curved side surfaces and are
than the radii of lengthwise curvature of the cor
responding sides of the teeth.
,
'
1
.
28. A toothed face clutch member having lon
gitudinally curved teeth which are chamfered
along their top edges, the chamfered portions of
the teeth being radial of the clutch axis at mean
points in their lengths, and the inclination to the
clutch axis of the pro?les of the chamfered por
tions varying along the length of said portions
and increasing with increasing distance from the
clutch axis. .
chamfered along their top edges, the chamfered
portions of the teeth being of convex pro?le shape
and extending generally radially of the clutch
axis.
37. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
have longitudinally curved side surfacesand are
chamfered along their top edges, opposite sides of
spaced teeth being parts of a common surface of
revolution whichis of straight pro?le shape, and
the chamfered portions at opposite sides of
' spaced teeth being parts of a common surface of
29. A toothed face clutch member having lon
gitudinally curved teeth which are - chamfered 50 revolution which is of convex pro?le shape, both
along their to!) edges, the chamfered portions of
the sides and the chamfered portions of the teeth
extendinggenerally radially of the clutch axis.
the teeth being parts of surfaces of revolution of
circular arcuate pro?le shape whose axes are in
clined to the clutchaxis.
38. A toothed, face clutch member whose teeth
have longitudinally curved side surfaces and lon
30. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth
are chamfered along their top edges, opposite
gitudinally curved chamfered portions extending
along their top edges, each side of a tooth being
sides of the teeth being parts‘ of surfaces of revo
lution of straight pro?le shape, and the cham
curved longitudinally about an axis lying at one
side of the tooth, and the chamfered portion at
that side of the tooth being curved longitudinally
fered portions of the teeth being parts of surfaces
of revolution of convex circular arcuate pro?le 60 about arr axis lying at the opposite side of the
shape.
31. A toothed face clutch member whose teeth“
tooth.
'
ERNEST W'ILDHABER.
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