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Патент USA US2385263

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SePt- 18, 1945.
'ca_ R. ERlcsON ErAL
Filed May 21, 1941
Patented Sept. 18, 1945
` 2,385,263
i.. i
sPA'rsr orrios
George R. Ericson, Kirkwood, and lrven E.
Coirïey, Normandy, Mo.
Application May 21, 1941, Serial No. 394,418
3 Claims.
l (Cl. 60-54)
' cover member i I attached to the rotor housing i.
This invention relates to iluld drives and par
ticularly to those having a pair of vane or tur
bine wheels, together deñning a chamber con
taining oil or similar operating huid.y Previous
devices of this character have been subject to
the diiiiculty caused by the dragging of the tur-'
bine wheels at low speeds, whereas, it is desir
able that the wheels become completely free and
disengaged when the speed of rotation drops be
low a predetermined rate. Attempts have been
made to eliminate this dragging by withdrawing
the fluid from between the turbine wheels, but
devices for this purpose have not been entirely
successful, and itis an object of this invention
to vproduce a new and improved ñuid drive, to
gether with a new and improved method and
The rotor housing contains aplurality of float
chambers -or cylinders I2 in which are mounted
the floats or pistons I3. These floats are not
necessarily iltted to the members i2 in such a
manner as to prevent leakage, as the principle
of operation is not dependent on the prevention
of leakage at this point.
The pistons , I3 are connected to a slidable
member Il by means of connecting rods I5 hav
means oi withdrawing the huid from between
lng wrist vpins st I6 and Il, respectively. The
member I4 is slidable on the shaft 9, but keys it
may be provided to prevent relative rotation be
tween pistons i3 and the shaftyif desired. A
strong spring It ls mounted between the flange
1 at the end of the shaft i and the slidable mem
ber N. This spring is strong enough to over
the turbine wheels.
come the centrifugal force of the pistons iii when _
Other objects and advantages will be appar
the operating speed is below the speed at which
ent upon consideration of the following descrip 20 the clutch or drive is desired to be engaged.
It will be understood that the housing is sup
' tion, claims, and accompanying’drawing.
Referring to the drawing,
plied with at least suiilcient oil to cause theime .
Figure l. isa somewhat diagrammatic, longi
peller 5 and turbine t to be completely filled
tudinal section of our improved duid drive show
when the parts are in theposltion shown in Fiil- »
ing the parts in the msitions which they occupy 26 ure 1. However, when the pistons it are with..
at high speeds when the clutch or drive is en-~
drawn, the capacity of the cylinders it is sum
cient to receive substantially all the oil con
Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure l., but show..
tained in the rotor chambers so that the oil may
ing the parte in the positions they occupy when
the drive> is disengaged.
Figure 3 is a cross sectional view taken along
the line il-ii oi’ Figure i.4
The reference numeral i indicates a housing
which is attached to a prime mover (not shown)
which may be an automotive internal combus
slightly more distantly from the center of ro
tation than the rotor or baille chambers 5 and B,
so that the oil will naturally tend to ñow from
rotor chambers to the chambers I2 by cen
tion engine. It will be understood that the en
gine is attached at the left> of Figures l and 2,
whiie the transmission housing 2 is at the oppo
site end of the housing. Power shaft 3 is con
nected to the engine and carries a rotary main 40
casing d which contains the- driving impeller 5'
and also the driven turbine i. 'I'hese rotors are
of known construction, but for a more detailed
showing, reference is had to United States Pat
ents No. v1,199,359, 1,199,360, 1,199,364 and
The impeller 5 is attached to a -flange 'I4 on
Athe end oi the shaft 3 and rotates as a unit with
be completely withdrawn therefrom.
Tl‘e chambers or cylinders l2 are locatedv
trifugal force whenever the pistons I3 are with
drawn. it being understood that suitable pas
sages 29 are formed to connect the periphery of
the turbine housing with the chambers I2.
In operation, the spring Il holds the pistons
or iloats Il in the positions shown in Figure 2
while the device is at rest and until the speed
of rotation imparts sutl'lcient centrifugal force to
the floats I3 to cause them to move outwardly ,_
to the. positions shown in Figure 1, thereby dis
placing the oil from the iloat chambers I2 into
` the rotor housing. The speed of rotation at which
~the rotor housing is filled may be controlled by
the strength of the spring I9 and by the weight
the shaft and the housing l, while the'> turbine
t is rotatably mounted in the housing d and in 50 of the pistons or iloats I3, but for normal auto
motive use lthe rotor housing should be filled at
the end of the shaft 3 by means ci’ suitable ball
between 400'and 500 R. P, M. When the
'bearings d `and s, respectively. A packing gland ‘
rotor housing is filled, the drive is engaged, al
iii is provided to prevent the escape of oil or
though a completeengegement of the drive does
other duid from the rotor housing. it being un
55 not occur until the speed is still further in
derstood thatthe turbine t is enclosed by _a
. 2
creased. It is also understood that some slippage
is always necessary with this type of drive.
While the terni "piston‘" has been used in con
nection with the members i8 'and while these
members should be guided with accuracy by the
sal action, and speed responsive means for caus
ing said fluid displacing device to be moved into
, said duid chamber when a predetermined speed
is exceeded and withdrawn therefrom nt lower
walls oi the chambers or cylinders iii to main
tain a proper balance of the device, it should be
understood that some leakage past these pistons
' is necessary to prevent the
2. In a ñuid drive mechanism, a rotor chamber
containing an impeller and a turbine, a iiuid re
ceiving chamber mounted more distantly from
retention of oil inthe
inner part of the housing while the vdevice is op
erated. Normally sumcient leakage past the walls
the axis of rotation than said rotor chamber is
10 mounted, and means for positively urging the
operating huid from one oi’ said chambers to the
other in accordance with the speed oi’ rotation
of the pistons to taire care of this will occur, but
the skirts 2i oi’ the pistons should be provided
with drain holes 22 to prevent oil from being re
tained inside the pistons.
We claim:
through a conduit connected to the outer periph
ery of the rotor chamber, said means comprising
iduid displacing members having a combined vol
ume equal to the volume oí’ the ?iuid which is all
l. In a iiuid drive mechanism, e rotary hous
the oil contained in the rotor chambers.
ing member, means forming a rotor chamber in
3. in a ñuid drive mechanism, a rotonchom~
said housing, and an impellerin said chamber,
means forming a, uuid chamber in said housing, 20 ber containing an impeller and a turbine, a duid
receiving chamber mounted more distantly from
at least a portion oi’ said chamber being more
the axis oí' rotation than said rotor chamber is
distantly spaced from the axis than the main
portion of the rotor chamber whereby operating
mounted, and means for shifting the operating
ñuid from one of saldi chambers to the other in
accordance with the speed of rotation through a
fluid will tend to flow from said rotor chamber to
said iìuid chamber through a conduit connected 25
conduit-connected to the outer periphery oi’ 'the
to the outer periphery of the rotor chamber by
centrifugal i'orce, a duid displacing device hav
ing a volume equal to the volume of the fluid
which is to be displaced movable into said ñuid
chamber to cause duid to be forced into said ro
tor chamber and withdrawable from said ñuid
chamber to permit the return oi iiuid from said
rotor chamber to said ñuid chamber by centrifu
rotor chamber, said means including a plurality
of radially movable fluid displacing members
having a combined volume equal to the volume oi’
all of the ñuid contained in the rotor chambers
constructed and arranged to be moved by cen°
trifugal force into said fluid receiving chamber.
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