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Патент USA US2389678

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Nov. 27, 1945.
E_ J, MERRELL
2,389,678
POWDER FIBER SHEET
Filed Feb. 5, 1943
,
IN VEN TOR.
EDW/A/ JOSEPH ME/P/PELL
h
A TTORNE Y
Patented Nov. 27, 1945'
2,389,678
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE’
2,389,678
‘
POWDER FIBER SHEET
Edwin Joseph Men-ell, Eastchester, N. ‘2., u
slgnor to Phelps Dodge Copper Products Cor
poration, Dover, Del., a corporation oi’ Dela
ware
Application February 5, 1943; Serial No. 474,885
1 Claim.
This invention relates to a strong ?exible sheet
(Cl. 92-3)
consisting of mineral matter and cellulose, the
proportion of- mineral matter being much greater5
than ordinarily attained in such combinations
and useful where the properties of the mineral
matter are of particular value without essential
loss of the ?exibility, porosity and strength of
the sheet.
Hitherto, it has not been possible to form a
'
speci?cation, after which I shall point out in the '
claim those features which I believe to be new
and of my own invention.
.
In the drawing, Figure 1 is a diagrammatic
view of the elements of my powder ?ber sheet
on a scale of approximately 50,000 to 1 showing
a ?ber ?bril and particles or powder.
I have not attempted to illustrate the powder
en masse, as it appears with the aid of an elec
strong and ?exible sheet with the high percentage
tron microscope. It there has the appearance
by weight of mineral ?ller-“contained by the sheet 10 of a pile of jack-straws with e?lcient lnterwlning ‘
of this invention. The reason for this is that the
?llers, usually employed, consist of particles so
shaped that they do not attach themselves to
the paper ?bers or to one another, but merely
of the skeletal crystallite structure of the par
ticles. Su?cient for this disclosure I show a
?bril ii of a cellulose ?ber and three skeletal
crystaliites l2, 33, Id, mutually interwined and
?ll the interstices between the ?bers in the sheet. 15 entwined with the ?bril.
Thus, they prevent the tight interlocking of
Other special carbides and carboxides of metals
?brils and do not provide mutual interlocking of
of the same group in the periodic table, such as
particles which are necessary for the realization
titanium, have been found to possess character
of a strong ?exible sheet, and in themselves offer
istlcs similar to those of submicrosoopic silicon
no contribution to the development of strength.
carbide, but to be less suited than the letter be
An investigation of papers, made with a great
cause of their larger particle size, which approxi
variety of ?llers, by means of an electron micro
mates 5 to lomicrons.
scope, revealed that the essential quality required
Undercooked sulphate wood pulp is the pre
of a ?ller to make a high tensile strength sheet
ferred source of ?ber for the supporting mesh
is a burr-like particle, Such a particle is capable 25 of the sheet. Such pulp mixed with the filler
of engaging with the multitudinous ?brils of ‘ powder is beaten to a slowness of 300 to 400 cc., '
paper fiber and with like particles, thereby virwhich is considerably less than the 500 cc. or
tually forming part of the essential structure of
more, ordinarily used to obtain maximum tensile
30 strength.
the sheet.
,
»
In order to attain a maximum structural inte
Beating to a slowness of 300 cc., notonly de
gration, it was also found necessary to employ a
velops the strength of the loaded sheet, but also
?ller of particle size suitably related to the di
greatly enhances the powder retention charace
mensions of paper ?ber ?brils, which exhibit
teristic of the fiber mesh due to the high order
diameters ranging approximately from 0.1 to 1.9 35 of ?brillation or pile obtained thereby. Thus,
microns.
‘
. , with a fm'nish of four parts powder, by weight,
Such a ?ller was found in a new form of silicon
to one part air-dry pulp, the sheet made with
pulp beaten to a slowness of 300 cc., consists of
This carbide may be obtained as a submicro
- 51 percent powder and 49 percent pulp by weight,
scopic particle, which when viewed with the aid 40 whereas at 500 cc., the sheet consists of 37 per
of an electron microscope is revealed as skeletal
cent powder by welght and 63 percent pulp.
crystallite, having the appearance of a pile of
An interesting characteristic of the sheet,
jackstraws. The maximum‘overall dimension of
which is the subject of this invention, is its high
a‘ particle or crystallite of submicroscopic silicon
porosity, or as ordinarily expressed, its low Gurley
carbide is approximately one micron, each of the 45 density, a valuable characteristic in some of the
component straws or appendages being approx
'arts. Ordinarily a high ?ller content means a
imately ten times as long as they are across.
high Gurley density. The sheet made as de
carbide, namely, submicroscopic silicon carbide.
These intertwine, and entwine with the wood
scribed above, however, is characterized by a very
pulp ?brils,‘ so as to form the sought for,sheet.
low Gurley density, 1. e., 48 seconds as compared
The electron microscope has been employed to 50 with‘ 200 seconds for a normal sheet made ‘solely
study the eiiicient manner in which these par
with the same pulp. It is, of course, possible to
ticles adhere to paper ?ber and to one another.
obtain higher density by any of the means com
The foregoing and other features of my inven
monly employed for this purpose in the art of
tion will now be described in connection with the
paper making.
accompanying drawing forming part of this 55 I wish it distinctly understood that mypowder
2
,
9,889,678
A high porosity ?exible sheet oi high tensile
?ber sheet herein described and illustrated is in
the form in which I desire to- make it and that
changes or variations may be made as may be
convenient or desirable without departing from
the salient features of my invention and I there
fore intend the following claim to cover such
modi?cations as naturally fall within the lines
of invention.
I claim as my invention:
\ strength comprising a ?ber mesh in combination 7
with 37 to 51% by weight of a powder having a
lattice skeletal crystallite structure, the ?ber
mesh being formed 01’ undercooked sulphate wood
pulp beaten to a slowness of 300 to 500 cubic
centimeters, and the powder being submicro
scopic silicon carbide.
EDWIN JOSEPH WHEEL.
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