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Патент USA US2392464

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Jan. 8, 1946.
Filed Nov. 18, 1943
lO Sheets-Sheet l
Jän. 8, 1946.`
Filed NOV. 18, 1945
l0 Sheets-Sheet >2
Jan, s, 1946,.“
Fi-led Nov. 18, 1943
l0 Sheets-Sheet 5
Jan. 8, `1946.
Filed NOV. 18, 1945
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' Jan. s, 194’6.
' 2,392,464
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Patented Jan. 8, 1946
2,392,464 '
Rudolph paul», West Caldwell, N. J.
Application November 1s, 1943, serial No. 510,717 '
13 Claims.
(cl. 12s-5s)
This invention relates to four-'cycle internal .
combustion engines and particularly to such en
gines for automobiles, trucks, and the like.In road vehicles the demand is for shorter en-`
gines and this has been emphasized by the trend
illustrated in Figs. 10 and INitMhgstaggered
Fig. 13 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view
illustrating the formation of the intake passages
for the distribution of the »intake to the diil’erent.
cylinders of the engine as shown in Figs. 10, 11
An object of this invention is to provide a four
cycle in-line 'engine short in proportion to its
power output and thereby correspondingly short
ening the wheel base of the vehicle and in some
_and 12;
Fig. 14 is a vertical sectional view of a further
cases permitting installation in limited space '
such, for instance,_ as crosswise in a rear engine
drive of a paœenger car.
`positioning of the double cylinders;
encroaching more and more on the space allotted
Fig. 12 is a horizontal section showing a plan
view of a valve gear for the valves of the engine
to fluid `ilywheels and automatic transmissions
to- the engine.
A further object is the provision of an eillcient
modified form of the engine of this invention, i. e.
provisions are made for dual ignition; and
Fig. 15 is` a partial sectional view taken on the
line i5-i5 of Fig.~ 14, and showing the location
of two spark plugs in each combustion chamber.
Fig. 1 shows a cross section- of an engine em
lhigh-compression, high specific output anti-det
bodying the invention. I0 is the cylinder block
onation combustion chamber with overhead valves
cylinder heads cast in one piece and secured
and ports of high capacity for a given piston area.
to the crankcase upper half Il by nuts i2 and
. Further objects of the invention particularly in 20
studs i3. To that end bosses Il for the nuts I2
the double piston structure and cooling of the en
are provided on the cylinder =block at its base and
gine will appear from >the following specification
removed from the combustion chamber.
taken in connection with the accompanying draw
This region of the «block is not subject to the
ings. in which
complicated combined dynamicA and thermal
Fig. 1 is a‘vertical sectional view of the engine
stresses as is the combustion chamber and its im-~ y,
o_f Fig. 3 taken at right angles to the crankshaft
mediate vicinity, and is therefore better suited for
the location of a dividing joint. The same studs
i3 are employed to clamp the two crankcase and
and showing the double piston combination at top
stroke compressing the gas mixture into the spe
cially shaped combustion chamber;
crankshaft bearing halves II and l5 together giv
Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken through
ing an ef?cient structure of _low weight and simple
the combustion chamber adjacent the valve seats
and illustrating the formation of the partsinclud- ,
ing the cooling passages;-
Terminating in the combustion chamber I6 are
both the master cylinder bore i1 and the articu
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view taken in the
plane of the axis of the crankshaft and illustrat 35 lated cylinder bore i8. Reciprocating within these
bores are master piston I9 and articulated piston
' ing an engine having six double cylinders;
20. Both pistons are connected to a single crank
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are diagrammatic views illus
trating piston side thrust:
pin 2i of crankshaft 22 by means of a master
connecting rod 23 and an articulated rod 24. _The
Fig. 7 is a sectional view illustrating a modiiied
position of both cylinder bores of each pair in
form of double piston; ‘
relation to the crankpin is such that a common
Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional view of a modiilca
tion lshowing alcentral positioning of the spark
plane taken' through the bores is normal to the ‘
’plug and corresponding shaping of the piston
heads with vertical valves;l
crankshaft axis 25'. The crankshaft axis lies sub
stantially midway between the axes of the cylinder
Fig. 9 is a similar view of a further modifica
45 bores l1 and I8, i. e., it is considerably offset from ‘
tion showing angular positioning of the valves
the axis of the master cylinder bore i1. This
and valve gear;
Fig. 10 is a similar view of a still further modill
offset causes a great diil’erence between the master
rod angularities during the up and down strokes
cation showing the intake passage lead vertically
of the master piston and a corresponding difier
through the top of the engine and with cylinders 50 ence in piston side loads. Therefore, knuckle
of different diameters:
pin 26 of articulated rod4 24 is so positioned in its
Fig. 11~is a horizontal section of the cylinder
relation to the crankpin center v2'l as to almost
casting shown in Fig. 10 illustrating the staggered
completely correct and normalize these diñ'erences
positioning of the doubleeyiimiersv giving a still
by the action of the articulated piston and ar
shorter cylinder block;
ticulated rod on the knuckle pin and master rod.
der block I0 forms the terminal of the intake~
port I3, exhaust port 4I and spark plug hole I5.
as win be explained later in more detail with
reference to Figs. 4, 5 and 6.
It will be noted that intake port I3 on its way
Coaxial with the` master cylinder is intake
valve 28"_in guide 28' and coaxial with the ar
ticulated cylinder is exhaust valve 29 in guide
in an easy sweep to face I2 straddles the exhaust `
valve guide 90. The intake manifold, exhaust
manifold, hot spot provision, etc., are not shown
bushing 90, permitting the cylinder bores, ‘thevalve seats and valve _guides to be machined in
the same setting.
> and are conventional with the exception that the
branches of the manifolds are shorter, which in
case of the intake manifold facilitates equal dis
10 tribution between the cylinder units.-
The opening for the valve is .
placed in the center of its respective cylinder
end wall to give a stronger structure as com
Having the carburetor, manifolds and spark
pared to the conventional single cylinder over
head vertical valve design wherein the cylinder
end wall is broken through by two openings leav
ing a rather thin bridge directly in the center
plugs all on one side of the engine is important,
particularly in installations in crowded places
where one. side of the power plant~is facing
against a wall as in the rear of a vehicle for
of the cylinder where the stresses are very high.
The vertical valves> able to be accommodated
in a conventional- singlèÁ cylinder design are very
instance, or, if the engine is mounted with its
cylinders horizontally, all the above items' can
bevon top and easily accessible.
much smaller in comparison to the subject dual
cylinder design, as the following-example will
_Camshaft 32 is' driven by gear 46, idler 4l and
20 pinion 48, the latter one being keyed to the front
end-of the crankshaft.
Assuming a piston area of six square inche
per cylinder'unit, the inside diameter of a single
cylinder will be 2.750". Allowing .125" clearance
between the cylinder wall and each valve plus
Gear 49, also meshing
with pinion d8, drives the oil pump E0 (Fig. 3). '
Referring to the combustion chamber _16, it
will be noted that spark plug 30 is placed near
.125" clearance between the valves results in a 25 the exhaust valve 29, i. e., in the “hot” zone of
the chamber. A close clearance space or detona
valve head diameter of 1.187", Yhaving an~ area
of 1.10 square inches.- In`a dual cylinder design
-tion trap 3l is formed in the part of the chamber
farthest remote of the spark plug between the Y
top of the master piston and the bottom of the
of one piston is 1.960", ‘the diameter of the valve _
head can be 1.625” having an area of 2.07 square 30 intake valve. The function of this detonation
.trap is in short as' follows:
inches, an increase in area of over 80% over the
having the same piston area where’the diameter .
The name front starting at the spark plug
single cylinder vertical valve design.
The higher breathing capacity of the valves
' and their parts in cooperation with smaller and
rushes across the chamber towards the master
piston. _' In doing so it raises the pressure and
-v vconventional vlarge piston and small valve com-'- -
»to burn it in an orderly> and "smoot ” manner.
therefore better cooled pistons and cylinders 35 thereby .the temperature of the charge farthest
remote from the plug to a self-igniting vcr deto
gives a higher' output per square inch of pistonl
nating level beforethe ñame front _reaches it
area within a given length as compared to the
bìnation. The subject invention makesY this a
possibility without resorting to the more com
To prevent this, the last part of the charge to
40 burn is .thinned out to promote rapid heat trans
fer into the adjacent combustion chamber walls,
plicated and costly V-engine 2design, nor to the
conventional high capacity valve arrangement
in this case the_master piston and the intake -
` whereby the valves must be angulated to permit -
The dual cylinder coaxial overhead valve de-"
a larger valve diameter necessitating an expen
sive valve actuating mechanism- and in most 45 sign thus fulfills all requirements for a high
power, high eiiiciency power plant, i. e., extremely
cases a detachable cylinder head.î Actually the
large valves, small pistons and small cylinders
capacity of thev new _dual cylinder coam'al valve
` for highspeciñc output, a good anti-detonation
design is even superior to the single `cylinder
chamber, with smooth combustion features "
angulated valve arrangement as a comparison
A’with that of a high output aircraft engine Ycyl 50 adaptable to the highest- compression ratios,'resulting in'low fuel consumption ‘and _increased _
index'. ì Such aircraft engine cylinder has an in
durability, and a compact, light integrally cast
cylinder block and head design, easy and eco
take valve head area of 8.29 square inches (15%"
diam. valve) and a piston area of '29.46 square
inches (65%" diam. piston), hence a ratio of
nomical to produce.
m == .345
The valves are operated by camshaft 32 via _
pushrods 33 and rockers u. The rocker arm
bearings 35 and 36 arevformed as part of the
valve cover.
the holesfor the tappets.
In Fig'. 3 531s the main‘feed hole for the "
lubrication of the main and connecting rod bear
ings. On the-crank-pin farthest to the right are
knuckle pin 26 land its retainers \
Èl‘iowndetails of
an increase of 23%..
articulated cylinders Il and I8. At 52 are shown _
whereas the present dual cylinder engine has a
ratio of
Fig. 2 is a section along the line 2-2 of Fig. l
and shows throat 5I connecting the master and
Hydraulic tappets 31 are provided -
between the camshaft and the pushrods, the tap-,_
` pets‘receiving theirl oil supply through oil hole
38 nmningthe fulllength of tlm cylinder block.
Connected whole Il is the vertical hole i! lu
bricaüngthrough its lower end-the camshaft
llthevalvemckerbearlngx. Fnceßoncylin
halves H _
The crankcase or crankcase
and li are~shown as designed in light alloy in
lorder to eliminate weight and to improve crank
shaft-bearing cooling, since aluminum has a heat '
conductivity of from four to tive times greater
than castirom. Since furthermore, for an engine
of BURRtheentireincludingthe
.flywheelandcam gearhousingvli' is
is posible, thereby greatly increasing its fatigue
strengm-it uniformity and adaptability for mass
production. For the same engine 1(80 EAP.) the
’ 3
dimensions for the combined cylinder block and
pression gasoline engine the injector nozzle hole
head are 151A" long, 9%" high and '1" wide,
invsleeve 63' can be used for a spark plug. The
heads of pistons I9’ and 28' in cylinders l1' and
permitting it to be made of a high quality iron
The outstanding short- .
I8' are shaped to coniine the gases between ap
ness of both crankcase and cylinder block ren 5 proaching surfaces of the pistons and cylinder
ders an assembly of the greatest stiffness in both
head to narrow- the spaces in the directions away
within reasonable cost.
the vertical and horizontal planes thereby elim
inating the second cause of engine roughness,
i. e., deiiection and vibration of and within the
structure, the iirst cause of roughness having
already been dealt with above as originating in
the combustion chamber in the form of detona
from the central spark plug.
Fig. 9 shows a detachable head' 65 with angu
lated valves, 66 for the intake and 61 for the
exhaust. The spark plug is placed at 18 in the
center of the combustion chamber dome. Close
clearance anti-detonation traps 68 are formed
between both pistons and their adjacent parts 69
of the cylinder. head. The valves are driven from
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are line diagrams »of forces
indicating the magnitude of piston side thrust.l 15 cam shafts |32`throug-h hydraulic tappets |31 as
Fig. 4 shows a conventional large piston-small
shown, and the intake passage |43 and exhaust
|44 are directed upward. Pistons ||9 and |20
valve cylinder, while Figs. 5 and 6 illustrate a
reciprocate in the cylinders ||1 and |I8, the
dual small piston-large valve construction.. Pis
cylinder block ||8 being integral with the upper
-ton area and strokes of both types of design are
equal. While the figures on the forces given are 20 part of the crankcase I I'I, ||-5. Liquid circula
approximate, they show the beneficial effect 'of
tion is provided in the jacket spaces 92' and the
the articulated rod and piston action on the mas- .
circulating - passages around the cylinders are
substantially the same as those described in con
ter piston and side thrust thereon, i. e., the loads
nection with Figs. 1, 2 and.,3, including the longi- A
on both the master and articulated pistons are
almost equal in spite of the large offset lof the 25 tudinal spaces 93'.
Figs, 10, 11, 12 and 13 show a modification in
crankshaft center from the centerline- of the
which one cylinder |1I is of larger diameter .than
master cylinder. This holds true with the mas
its mate IBI. The master cylinder | 1| is formed
-ter cylinder. the leading or trailing one in regard
by the walls of the block casting I0’ and th'e
to the crankpin motion past both cylinder bores
in succession, while describing its path around 30 articulated cylinder I8| is formed by the sleeve
|80 fitted into the casting as shown with inter
the crankpin center. 55 designates the valve
heads -of the large bore cylinder, 56 the valve~
heads of the small bore dual cylinder.
As shown in section in Fig. 2, the dual cylinder
assembly is cast within an outer shell 9| of the 35
block, leaving a space 92 for the circulation of
cooling liquid entering preferably at one end of
the block and leaving at the other end. Longi
tudinal spaces 93 are left between the vcylinders
of each dual unit and transverse spaces 94 be
tween adjacentdual cylinder units so that each
cylinder is substantially completely surrounded
vening space for cooling circulation surrounding
the sleeve as indicated at |92, |93, a correspond
ing cooling passage |92 being provided on the
opposite side of the block for the cylinder |1|.
At the upper portion -of the ,block the cooling
circulation surrounds the intake 14 by the spaces
|95 and |99, the latter of which also cooperates
with _the circulation passages |91 and |98 to coolÄ
the exhaust port 12 and the seat for the exhaust
valve 1|.
Fig, 11 shows the engine of Fig. 10 with the
staggered position of the two differently sized
by the cooling circulation. -The jacket 92 is carh
cylinders I1I, |8| inthe inner». cylinder portion
ried upward around the intake passage 48 as
indicated at 95 and 96 and the central circulation 45 83; 84 of the casting I0' for a six cylinder power
plant. By means of this construction it is pos
is carried up between the intake and the exhaust
and around the exhaust as shown at 91, 98 and ' sible to increase th'e piston area and thereby the
horsepower for a given block length approxi
99, completing the jacketing for very complete
and efficient cooling of the entire block by the 50 `mately two and one half times compared to a
iconventional single row six in line engine.
liquid circulation.
The exhaust valve 1I (see Fig. 10) is located
Preferably the circulation entering at one Aen'd
above the level of the intake valve 8| and over
the smaller articulated piston 20a with a row
of three exhaust ports 12I on eachside of the
v and nearer the line of the exhaust valve seats,
the outlet at the other end being substantially 55 cylinder block. The intake manifold .13 is formed
in the valve cover 88 and feeds- all six intake
on the same level and'in longitudinal alignment
ports 14 as best shown in Fig. 12, which is a sec
with the supply opening asl shown in my PatentNo. 2,355,277. With such entrance and discharge Y - tion through the combined manifold valve `cover
88 and rocker arm bearings 82. This figure also
the direct line of circulation will be applied at
the hottest portion of the engine and the remain-` 60 shows the location of the rocker arms which Iare
operated by push rods 15 and tappets 16 (Fig.
ing passages are so interconnected a's to auto
is introduced near the upper portion of the block
substantially along the level of the valve seats
matically and eiliciently distribute the remainder
10). Tappet guide holes and spark plug holes.
of the circulation.
are shown in Fig. 11 at 11 and 18 respectively.
Fig. 13 is la fragmentary longitudinal section'
Fig. 7 shows an alternate connecting rod sys
tem, the rod 23 being of the tuning-fork type 65 through th'e 'intake manifold and valve ports of ’_
an' engine of the type shown in Figs, 10 to 12
with one of its piston endsA having va slot 51
and indicating the’use of two separate carbu
cooperating with iiats -58, of piston pin 59. b
retors attached at flanges 19 and 19'. Partitions
Fig. 8 is a high 'compression Diesel engine with
a sleeve for a fuel injector nozzle at 83 between
85 intervene between the intake passages 13. ‘
by overhead rocker arm mechanism including the
hydraulic tappets 31' and camshaft 32’. In this `
The 'engine shown in Figs. 14 and 15 is'sub-.
stantially the same as _that of Figs. 10 to 13 but
with a double spark plug combustion chamber
and with the valve cover 88’ modified to provide
l . intake valve |28 and exhaust valve |29 actuated 70
design the inletpassage _4'3' above exhaust pas
sage 44' straddles both the exhaust yalve guide
intake passages 88 from a supercharger as a
84 and'nozzle sleeve 83'. For a very high corri--` 75 substitute for the carburetor connections of the '
greater _than one-half _the diameter of said cyl
cover of Figs. JLU-là inclusive. Spark plug holes '
inder -and forming a'combustion space with an
ignition area _between the exhaust and intake
valves, the walls of the combustion space being
are shown at 9|! and 90’ andthe pistons 81 and
88 are preferably crowned as shown.
The enginel of this invention thus compresses'v
the «power development into small space by so,_
increasing each valve area in comparison withE
that of the cooperating pistons and utilizing this
to full extent in four-cycle operation. At th'e
relatively widely spaced at the center and nar
rowing toward each valve so as to form a pair of
detonation traps in each direction from theig
nition,v and intake and exhaust passages located
same time the dual cylinder unit permits a very
above said valves.
a single crank shaft, a single series of parallel dual
and avoids over-heating normally following from >
cylinders and pistons above ~said crank shaft and
having connecting rods driving saidcrank shaft
such increased concentration of power and the
higher temperatures involved.
I claim:
6. An internal combustion engine comprising
eñicient coolingv of the piston heads and valves
as the sole power drive therefor,> said cylinders
1_. A four-cycle internal combustion engine 15 being paired transversely with the pairs in series
longitudinally, 'a single combustion space for each
pair of cylinders, a single intake valve and a sin
comprising a crank shaft, a series of dual cylin
ders and pistons driving said crank shaft, said
cylinders being paired transversely with the pairs
gle exhaust valve for each pair- of cylinders lwith
each intake valve at one side- of its combustion
space and each exhaust valve at the opposite side
.of said combustion space so that the entire in
said cylinders, each of said valves'being above a
corresponding cylinder and having a. diameter -' take of each pair of cylinders is at one side oi'
the combustion space Vand the entire exhaust at
greater than one-half the diameter of said cyl
the other side of said space, and intake and ex
inder and with a relatively wide spacing of the
exhaust valve above'the corresponding piston at 25 haust passages located above said valves.
7. An internal combustion engine as set forth
the area of,ignition, and the intake valve being
in claim 6 in which each intake valve Ahas a diam
relatively closely spaced to its piston so as to form
eter-greater than one-half the diameter of its
detonation traps in the direction of the propaga
in series longitudinally, a series of regularly
spaced overhead intake and exhaust valves above
corresponding cylinder.
tion of the explosion transversely across the com- .
8. An internal combustion -engine as set forth
bustion spaces of each dual cylinder, and intake 30
in claim 6 _in which the intake and exhaust valves
and exhaust passages located above said valves'.
2. An internal combustion engine as set forthl ‘- have diameters greater than one-half the diam
eters of their corresponding cylinders.
v in claim 1 in which the exhaust valve is above
9. An internal combustion engine as set forth
in claim 6 in which the connecting rods com
prise a master rod directly connecting one piston
to the crank shaft and an auxiliary rod articu
lated between said maste'r rod and the other pis~
the level of the intake valve and has an adjacent
area of ignition.
3. A four-cycle internal combustion engine
comprising'a crank shaft, a series ofv dual cyl
inders and pistons driving said, crank shaft, said
cylinders being paired transversely with the pairs
' ton-of the dual pair. î
in series longitudinally, a series of regularly
spaced overhead intake and exhaust valves above
' in claim 6 in which the intake and exhaust valves
10. An internal combustion engine as set forth
space having ignition areas on opposite sides of
have operating means comprising overhead levers
and tappet rods arranged in a series extending
the engine with the ignitionon the exhaust side
longitudinally of the engine. _
said cylinders forming therewith a'c'ombustion
preceding the ignition `on the intake side so that 45
the exhaust spark leads the intake spark by an~
.` angle of not over .ten degrees, each of said valves
being above a corresponding cylinder and having _
longitudinally of theengine and along one side
a diameter greater than one-half th'e diameter _
of _said cylinder, and intake and exhaust passages located above said valves.
4. An internal combustion engine as set forth
in claim 1 in which the exhaust valve is at higher
level than the intake and the intake piston head
- is relatively raised and the exh'aust piston head -
each dual cylinder.
lowered to give the relatively wide spacing of the Y, area of ignition.
12. An internal combustion engine as set forth
in claim 6
which the intake and exhaust pas
sages >both open on the side of the engine car
rying the exhaust valves, vthe intake passage be
ing carried over above the exhaust passage of
surfaces at the exhaust -side of the cylinder at the
11. An internal combustion engine as set forth
in claim 6 in which the intake and exhaust valves
have operating means comprising overhead levers
and tappet rods arranged in a series extending
13. An internal combustion engine as set forth
‘ in claim 6 in whichthe valves and _piston heads
comprising a crank shaft, a series of dual cyl
of each dual cylinderare closely spaced at one
side and widely spaced at the other with the
inders and pistons driving said crank shaft, said
v`cylinders being paired transversely with the pairs
in series longitudinally, va series of regularly
a detonation trap inthe direction of the propa
gation ofthe explosion transversely across the
5. A four-cycle internal combustion engine
‘spaced overhead intake and exhaust valves above
- said cylinders, each vof said valves being above a 65
correspondingcylinder and having adiameter
ignition“ area at -'the wider spacing so as to form
combustion space.
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