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Патент USA US2399475

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Filed April 4, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Apwi? 3% W460
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Filed April 4, 1944 l
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Apr. 30, 1946
Norman E. Dorland, Philadelphia, Pa.
Application April 4, 1944, Serial No. 529,478
4 Claims. (Cl. 114-50)
Referring brie?y to the drawings, wherein is
This invention’ relates to the art of raising
shown an illustrative embodiment of the inven
sunken ships, and concerns itself with both
methods and apparatus for salvaging sunken ves
sels. One of the most important applications of
the invention is to salvage sunken ships Carrying
Figure 1 is a side elevation showing in a- more
or less diagrammatic manner the ship to be sal
vaged, the cradle positioned in juxtaposition
thereto, the anchored cables and the pontoon, just
By way of background, it may be stated that
before the water is blown out of the pontoon;
many ships carrying exceedingly valuable cargoes
Figure 2 is a similar view showing the pontoon
have been sunk within the past few years, prin
cipally by enemy action, in many cases in very 10 reaching the surface and the cradle turned so as
to support the ship;
deep portions of the ocean. As soon as conditions
Figure 3 is'a similar view after the cables are
permit, attempts will undoubtedly be made to sal
disconnected and pontoons are connected to the
vage the cargoes of these ships. Presently-known
sides of the cradle, the cradle and ship being
methods and systems for salvaging ships will not
shown gradually rising;
be equal to the almost insuperable task of salvag~
Figure 4 is a plan view corresponding to the side
ing even a small fraction of the ships that have
view of Figure 1;
been sent to the bottom of the ocean. Many of
Figure 5 is a perspective view of one of the C
the prior methods are wholly impractical, and
shaped cradle-forming elements, partly broken
those that are practical are limited to shallow
away, and showing one way of detachably securing
waters, and generally require very complicated 20
and, cumbersome apparatus and contrivances.
It is the primary object of this invention to
provide a ‘practical and economical method for
raising sunken ships, which does not require the
use of exceedingly complicated and cumbersome 25
apparatus and contrivances. »
a cable thereto; and
Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective View of
said cradle-forming element, showing the man
her in which the cable may be detached when the
cradles is turned onto its bottom.
Reference will now be had to Figures 4, 5 and
6, wherein is illustrated the preferred embodi
At this point, it is to be noted that though I
ment of the skeleton frame-work 0r cradle, which
prefer not to use and need not use apparatus such
is designated generally by the letter F. The
as ?oating docks, I am not precluded from em
ploying such apparatus, if a particular situation 30 frame-Work consists of a number of spaced and
connected C-shaped elements, which are each des—
ignated generally by the numeral I. These ele
Another important object is to provide a method
ments may be connected together by ties, which
for raising sunken ships, which may be used to
raise ships containing heavy cargoes from great
depths (e. g. 600 or more feet).
are denoted by T.
As shown in Figure 5, the cradle-forming ele
ment i has the closed curved side 2, the upper
end 3 and the lower end 4. The distance between
the ends 3 and 4 is greater than the distance from
A further object of importance is to provide an
apparatus for salvaging sunken ships, which is of
relatively simple construction as compared with
the deck to the bilge keel on one side of the vessel
prior art contrivances, which is inexpensive, par
be raised, but is preferably somewhat smaller
ticularly as compared to the value of the salvaged 40
than the distance from the deck in a diagonal
cargoes, and which is very effective for the in-.
direction to the bilge keel on the opposite side
tended purpose.
of the vessel. The ends 3 and 4 may advan
Briefly stated‘, the method of the invention in
tageously be provided with knife edges or points
its broadest aspects consists in lowering a frame
so that they can readily penetrate or obtain a
work onto the ship to be salvaged, turning the
purchase on the ship.
ship and the frame-work so that the ship is sup
The elements I are preferably hollow, and may
ported on the frame-work, and raising both/the
be made of steel or other suitable metal. Welded
frame-work and, the ship carried by the frame~
fabrication is preferred, but they may, if con
sidered desirable, be made of bolted or riveted
The apparatus of the invention is particularly _
plates. Internal braces may be provided to with
designed to be used to carry out the method, and
stand the pressure at the ocean ?oor. They may
in its essential details consists of a skeleton frame
be provided with a small negative buoyancy, so
work or cradle formed of a number of spaced and
that they will sink of their own weight to the bot
connected C-shaped elements, the closed sides of
tom of the ‘ocean. If desired, they may be pro
the C’s constituting the bottom and serving as,
vided with valves, not shown, to admit water to
rockers for the cradle. The O-shaped elemen
facilitate lowering'them. In such case, means
are large enough to partially enclose the ship to
may be provided to blow the water out, as in the
be raised, and in the preferred embodiment they
case of a pontoon, to facilitate raising the cradle
are provided with means for detachably securing
the surface.
Each of the elements may advantageously be
provided near the end 3 with a key slot 5 to render
it possible to detachably secure a cable. As shown
in Figures 5 and 6, each of the slots has a re
stricted opening and is deep enough to receive
a rod or bar such as the one indicated by the nu~
meral ‘I. The rod or bar ‘I is common to all of the
elements I of Figure 4, and has connected thereto
pontoons are preferably of oblong shape, and are
preferably provided with rigid depending rods l4
and [5. Each of these rods may be secured to
a rod or bar (not shown) common to each side '
of thecraolle. These common rods or bars are
detachably secured in the key slots 5 and 6 in
substantially the manner previously described in
connection with the rod 1. The pontoons l2 and
I3 are blown free of water, and as they rise they
designated by 8. The slots are disposed with their 10 lift
the cradle and the ship.
openings inclined away from the closed side 2 of
A variation consists in raising the cradle and
the elements. Hence, the rod or bar cannot be
the ship by means of a crane or derrick support
pulled out by a tug on the cable, unless the cradle
ed from a ?oating dock.
is resting on its rocker bottom.
Another variation consists in refloating both
Each of the elements I is shown as being pro
cradle and the ship by sealing the tanks and
vided near the end 4 with a second key slot 6, of
out the water. Still another variation
similar construction to the key slot 5. As has
is to raise the cradle and ship suf?ciently above
been stated, the key slot 5 serves to detachably
the ocean floor so that the cradle and ship may
secure a rod or bar carrying cables. The key slot
be towed to a dry dock.
6 may be used to attach a pontoon, and the key
In the foregoing disclosure, I have, in con
slot 5 may also be used for this purpose.
formity with the requirements of the patent
The preferred embodiment of the method of
statutes, described the principle underlying the
the invention will now be described in detail.
invention and the preferred manner in which I
The ship to-be raised is denoted by S and is
contemplate applying this principle. Other em
shown lying on its side, as is the usual situation
in the case of a sunken ship (see Figure l). The 25 bodiments of the invention will suggest them
selves to those skilled in the art reading this dis
?rst step is to lower the cradle F on or over the
closure, and I aim in the annexed claims to cover
ship S. The cradle is positioned with the ends
all modi?cations which do not involve a depar
4 of the cradle-forming elements I somewhat
ture from the spirit and the scope of the inven
under the ship and with the ends 3 above the
30 tion.
in a suitable manner a plurality of cables, each
ship, so that the ship is partially enclosed by
the frame-work or cradle. If necessary the ocean
I claim:
1. A method for raising sunken ships, which
floor may be dredged in the vicinity of the ends
4 of the cradle, so that the ends will take a pur
chase on the ship. As stated, both ends 3 and 4
be salvaged, turning said ship and said frame
of a purchase or grip on the ship will be facili
ship carried by said frame-work.
consists in lowering a frame-work onto a ship to
of the cradle-forming elements may be ‘provided 35 work so that said ship is supported on said frame
work, and raising both said frame-work and said
with knife edges or points, so that the obtaining
2. A method for raising sunken ships, which
The next operation is to secure a number of 40 consists in lowering a frame-work onto a ship to
be salvaged, attaching cables to the upper por
cables to the upper ends 3 of each of the cradle
tion of one side of said frame-work, securing the
forming members and anchor them in the ocean
free ends of said cables to the ocean ?oor, at
?oor. The cables may be of a thickness and
taching a pontoon to an intermediate portion of
length depending upon the particular problem
in hand. The anchors are indicated by 9. The 45 said cables, blowing out the water from said pon
toon, thereby causing said pontoon to rise and
cables are secured to the higher end of the cradle
said frame-work and said ship to turn so that
by means of the common rod or bar 1 and the
said ship is supported on said frameework, and
key slots 5 in the cradle-forming elements I.
In the illustrated embodiment, the cables 8 are
arranged so as to cross at a point l0 intermediate
raising both said frame-work and said ship.
3. A method for raising sunken ships, which
the anchors and the ship. This arrangement 50 consists in lowering a frame-work onto a ship to
be salvaged, attaching cables to the upper portion
has several important purposes. For instance,
of one side of said frame-work, securing the free
it facilitates the operation of attaching the pon
ends of said cables to the ocean floor, attaching
toon to the cables, and serves to equalize the load
pontoon to an intermediate portion of said
and resulting strain, However, I am not pre
cluded from arranging the cables in other Ways. 55 cables, blowing out the water from said pontoon,
thereby causing said pontoon to rise and said
The pontoon H, which may advantageously
frame-work and said ship to turn so that said
be of spherical shape is connected at the point
ship is supported on said frame-work, attaching
ll] of crossing of the cables. The water is then
pontoons to both sides of said frame-work, and
blown out of the pontoon in the conventional or
usual manner, thereby causing the pontoon to 60 pumping out the water from said pontoons,
thereby causing said pontoons to rise, lifting said
rise to the surface of the water. The cradle is
frame-work and said ship.
thereby caused to turn onto its rocker bottom,
4. An apparatus for salvaging sunken vessels,
carrying the ship with it (see Figure 2). The
apparatus consisting of a skeleton frame
cables can now be readily detached from the
cradle by means of a horizontal pull on each of 05 .work or cradle adapted to support a ship, said
frame-work or cradle consisting of a number of
the cables (see Figure 6).
spaced C-shaped elements constituting the bot
The next step is to raise the cradle containing
tom and serving as rockers for the frame-work
the ship to the surface of the water. This can
or cradle, and means to detachably secure one
be done by connecting one or more pontoons to
or more pontoons to both ends of said C-shaped
each side of the cradle. Referring to Figure 3, 70 elements.
the two pontoons are denoted by l2 and I3. The
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