Патент USA US2399475код для вставки
Am @ WQ-? ‘ . N. E. DQRLAN ' 2,3wm5 ART OF'RAISING SUNKEN SHIPS Filed April 4, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. NORMAN E. DORLAND ATTQBNEVS Apwi? 3% W460 N. E. DQRLAND _ ~ > ART’ OF RAISING SUNKEN SHIPS 23999475 ‘ Filed April 4, 1944 l ' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. NORMAN E. DORLAND. BY ’ ATTORNEYS 2,399,475 Patented Apr. 30, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT oFFlcE 2,399,475 ART OF RAISING SUNKEN‘ SHIPS Norman E. Dorland, Philadelphia, Pa. Application April 4, 1944, Serial No. 529,478 4 Claims. (Cl. 114-50) Referring brie?y to the drawings, wherein is This invention’ relates to the art of raising shown an illustrative embodiment of the inven sunken ships, and concerns itself with both methods and apparatus for salvaging sunken ves sels. One of the most important applications of the invention is to salvage sunken ships Carrying tion: Figure 1 is a side elevation showing in a- more or less diagrammatic manner the ship to be sal vaged, the cradle positioned in juxtaposition thereto, the anchored cables and the pontoon, just By way of background, it may be stated that before the water is blown out of the pontoon; many ships carrying exceedingly valuable cargoes Figure 2 is a similar view showing the pontoon have been sunk within the past few years, prin cipally by enemy action, in many cases in very 10 reaching the surface and the cradle turned so as to support the ship; deep portions of the ocean. As soon as conditions Figure 3 is'a similar view after the cables are permit, attempts will undoubtedly be made to sal disconnected and pontoons are connected to the vage the cargoes of these ships. Presently-known sides of the cradle, the cradle and ship being methods and systems for salvaging ships will not shown gradually rising; be equal to the almost insuperable task of salvag~ Figure 4 is a plan view corresponding to the side ing even a small fraction of the ships that have view of Figure 1; been sent to the bottom of the ocean. Many of Figure 5 is a perspective view of one of the C the prior methods are wholly impractical, and shaped cradle-forming elements, partly broken those that are practical are limited to shallow away, and showing one way of detachably securing cargoes. waters, and generally require very complicated 20 and, cumbersome apparatus and contrivances. It is the primary object of this invention to provide a ‘practical and economical method for raising sunken ships, which does not require the use of exceedingly complicated and cumbersome 25 apparatus and contrivances. » a cable thereto; and Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective View of said cradle-forming element, showing the man her in which the cable may be detached when the cradles is turned onto its bottom. Reference will now be had to Figures 4, 5 and 6, wherein is illustrated the preferred embodi At this point, it is to be noted that though I ment of the skeleton frame-work 0r cradle, which prefer not to use and need not use apparatus such is designated generally by the letter F. The as ?oating docks, I am not precluded from em ploying such apparatus, if a particular situation 30 frame-Work consists of a number of spaced and connected C-shaped elements, which are each des— warrants. ignated generally by the numeral I. These ele Another important object is to provide a method ments may be connected together by ties, which for raising sunken ships, which may be used to raise ships containing heavy cargoes from great depths (e. g. 600 or more feet). are denoted by T. 35 As shown in Figure 5, the cradle-forming ele ment i has the closed curved side 2, the upper end 3 and the lower end 4. The distance between the ends 3 and 4 is greater than the distance from A further object of importance is to provide an apparatus for salvaging sunken ships, which is of relatively simple construction as compared with the deck to the bilge keel on one side of the vessel prior art contrivances, which is inexpensive, par to be raised, but is preferably somewhat smaller ticularly as compared to the value of the salvaged 40 than the distance from the deck in a diagonal cargoes, and which is very effective for the in-. direction to the bilge keel on the opposite side tended purpose. of the vessel. The ends 3 and 4 may advan Briefly stated‘, the method of the invention in tageously be provided with knife edges or points its broadest aspects consists in lowering a frame so that they can readily penetrate or obtain a work onto the ship to be salvaged, turning the purchase on the ship. ship and the frame-work so that the ship is sup The elements I are preferably hollow, and may ported on the frame-work, and raising both/the be made of steel or other suitable metal. Welded frame-work and, the ship carried by the frame~ fabrication is preferred, but they may, if con work. sidered desirable, be made of bolted or riveted The apparatus of the invention is particularly _ plates. Internal braces may be provided to with designed to be used to carry out the method, and stand the pressure at the ocean ?oor. They may in its essential details consists of a skeleton frame be provided with a small negative buoyancy, so work or cradle formed of a number of spaced and that they will sink of their own weight to the bot connected C-shaped elements, the closed sides of tom of the ‘ocean. If desired, they may be pro the C’s constituting the bottom and serving as, vided with valves, not shown, to admit water to rockers for the cradle. The O-shaped elemen facilitate lowering'them. In such case, means are large enough to partially enclose the ship to may be provided to blow the water out, as in the be raised, and in the preferred embodiment they case of a pontoon, to facilitate raising the cradle are provided with means for detachably securing 60 to the surface. cables. 2 2,399,475 Each of the elements may advantageously be provided near the end 3 with a key slot 5 to render it possible to detachably secure a cable. As shown in Figures 5 and 6, each of the slots has a re stricted opening and is deep enough to receive a rod or bar such as the one indicated by the nu~ meral ‘I. The rod or bar ‘I is common to all of the elements I of Figure 4, and has connected thereto pontoons are preferably of oblong shape, and are preferably provided with rigid depending rods l4 and [5. Each of these rods may be secured to a rod or bar (not shown) common to each side ' of thecraolle. These common rods or bars are detachably secured in the key slots 5 and 6 in substantially the manner previously described in connection with the rod 1. The pontoons l2 and I3 are blown free of water, and as they rise they designated by 8. The slots are disposed with their 10 lift the cradle and the ship. openings inclined away from the closed side 2 of A variation consists in raising the cradle and the elements. Hence, the rod or bar cannot be the ship by means of a crane or derrick support pulled out by a tug on the cable, unless the cradle ed from a ?oating dock. is resting on its rocker bottom. Another variation consists in refloating both Each of the elements I is shown as being pro the cradle and the ship by sealing the tanks and 15 vided near the end 4 with a second key slot 6, of blowing out the water. Still another variation similar construction to the key slot 5. As has is to raise the cradle and ship suf?ciently above been stated, the key slot 5 serves to detachably the ocean floor so that the cradle and ship may secure a rod or bar carrying cables. The key slot be towed to a dry dock. 6 may be used to attach a pontoon, and the key 20 In the foregoing disclosure, I have, in con slot 5 may also be used for this purpose. formity with the requirements of the patent The preferred embodiment of the method of statutes, described the principle underlying the the invention will now be described in detail. invention and the preferred manner in which I The ship to-be raised is denoted by S and is contemplate applying this principle. Other em shown lying on its side, as is the usual situation in the case of a sunken ship (see Figure l). The 25 bodiments of the invention will suggest them selves to those skilled in the art reading this dis ?rst step is to lower the cradle F on or over the closure, and I aim in the annexed claims to cover ship S. The cradle is positioned with the ends all modi?cations which do not involve a depar 4 of the cradle-forming elements I somewhat ture from the spirit and the scope of the inven under the ship and with the ends 3 above the 30 tion. in a suitable manner a plurality of cables, each ship, so that the ship is partially enclosed by the frame-work or cradle. If necessary the ocean I claim: 1. A method for raising sunken ships, which floor may be dredged in the vicinity of the ends 4 of the cradle, so that the ends will take a pur chase on the ship. As stated, both ends 3 and 4 be salvaged, turning said ship and said frame of a purchase or grip on the ship will be facili ship carried by said frame-work. consists in lowering a frame-work onto a ship to of the cradle-forming elements may be ‘provided 35 work so that said ship is supported on said frame work, and raising both said frame-work and said with knife edges or points, so that the obtaining tated. . 2. A method for raising sunken ships, which The next operation is to secure a number of 40 consists in lowering a frame-work onto a ship to be salvaged, attaching cables to the upper por cables to the upper ends 3 of each of the cradle tion of one side of said frame-work, securing the forming members and anchor them in the ocean free ends of said cables to the ocean ?oor, at ?oor. The cables may be of a thickness and taching a pontoon to an intermediate portion of length depending upon the particular problem in hand. The anchors are indicated by 9. The 45 said cables, blowing out the water from said pon toon, thereby causing said pontoon to rise and cables are secured to the higher end of the cradle said frame-work and said ship to turn so that by means of the common rod or bar 1 and the said ship is supported on said frameework, and key slots 5 in the cradle-forming elements I. In the illustrated embodiment, the cables 8 are arranged so as to cross at a point l0 intermediate raising both said frame-work and said ship. 3. A method for raising sunken ships, which the anchors and the ship. This arrangement 50 consists in lowering a frame-work onto a ship to be salvaged, attaching cables to the upper portion has several important purposes. For instance, of one side of said frame-work, securing the free it facilitates the operation of attaching the pon ends of said cables to the ocean floor, attaching toon to the cables, and serves to equalize the load a pontoon to an intermediate portion of said and resulting strain, However, I am not pre cluded from arranging the cables in other Ways. 55 cables, blowing out the water from said pontoon, thereby causing said pontoon to rise and said The pontoon H, which may advantageously frame-work and said ship to turn so that said be of spherical shape is connected at the point ship is supported on said frame-work, attaching ll] of crossing of the cables. The water is then pontoons to both sides of said frame-work, and blown out of the pontoon in the conventional or usual manner, thereby causing the pontoon to 60 pumping out the water from said pontoons, thereby causing said pontoons to rise, lifting said rise to the surface of the water. The cradle is frame-work and said ship. thereby caused to turn onto its rocker bottom, 4. An apparatus for salvaging sunken vessels, carrying the ship with it (see Figure 2). The said apparatus consisting of a skeleton frame cables can now be readily detached from the cradle by means of a horizontal pull on each of 05 .work or cradle adapted to support a ship, said frame-work or cradle consisting of a number of the cables (see Figure 6). spaced C-shaped elements constituting the bot The next step is to raise the cradle containing tom and serving as rockers for the frame-work the ship to the surface of the water. This can or cradle, and means to detachably secure one be done by connecting one or more pontoons to or more pontoons to both ends of said C-shaped each side of the cradle. Referring to Figure 3, 70 elements. the two pontoons are denoted by l2 and I3. The NORMAN E. DORLAND.