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Патент USA US2399814

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May 7, 1946.
P. s.‘ MARTIN
‘
2,399,814
SOLID FUEL HEATING STOVE
Filed Jan. 4, 1943 .
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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May 7, 1946.
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P, s, MARTIN
' 2,399,814
SOLID FUEL HEATING STOVE
Filed Jan. 4, 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
May 7, 1946.
.
P. S. MARTIN
2,399,814
SOLID FUEL HEATING STOVE
Filed Jan. _4, 1945
6 'jya
Ilm i'
\y
4 sheets-sheet s
May 7, 1946.
’
P. s. MARTIN
Filed Jan. '4, 1945
Il
2,399,814
SOLID FUEL HEATING STOVE
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
I Patented May 7, 1946
2,399,814 ‘
|
l
I
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,399,814
SOLID ‘FUEL HEATING s'rovE
, Perry S. Martin, Harrisonburg, Va.
Application January 4, 1943, Serial No. 471,275
'
13 Claims,
> > ’
This invention relates to a solid fuel heating
stove particularly adapted to the use of anthracite
or bituminous coal.
‘
'
'
'
One of the objects of the invention is to provide
a heating stove'in which the magazine, located
(o1. 126-73)
of the hot gases in the gas combustion chamber
against the inner side of the stove casing to pro
mote uniform heat exchange through said casing,
. and against the outer side of, the distillation
~ chamber for preheating the fuel mass therein,
above a fuel combustion chamber, functions as
a distillation chamber for preparing the fuel prior
prior to their discharge through the chimney
the gas combustion chamber by way of a sec
swelling of the coke, when bituminous coal is em
connection.
A further object of the invention is to provide
to its descent into the fuel combustion chamber,
a draft tube for by-passing a limited air flow
the magazine being surrounded by a, gas combus
tion chamber into the‘ lower part of which the 10 from the draft chamber below the grate past
the gas combustion chamber to the top of the
?aming products from the fuel combustion cham
distillation chamber ?xed on the inner side of
ber and the distillation gases from the coking
the stove casing at the front and forming a key
chamber are commonly discharged, air being
or rib which determines a de?nite orienta
supplied to the lower part of the gas combustion
chamber for completing combustion of the dis 15 tionof the ?re brick in the walls of the fuel com
bustion chamber as well as the sections of the
tillation gases, controlled by means responsive to
air conduit which supplies air to the gas com
stove temperature whereby the supply of air is
bustion chambers, said key and the inter?tting
proportionate to stove demands.
parts appurtenant thereto creating ba?les for the
vAnother object of the invention is to provide a
stove of the type described, in which the side wall 20 gas combustion chamber and the air conduit, de
termining a symmetrical ?ow through said gas
of the combustion chamber and distillation cham
combustion chamber and said air conduit in op
ber are of fire brick constructionthroughout.
posite directions from said baffles, the air inlet
Still another object of the invention is to pro
to said conduit and the chimney connection for
vide a heating stove in which the ?re brick side
wall of the fuel combustion chamber is closely 25 said gas combustion chamber being at the back of
the stove.
bounded by the casing of the stove, and the ?re
" Still another object of the invention is the
brick side wall of the distillation chamber is close
provision
‘of a longitudinally channeled side wall
1y bounded by a circumferential shell, the lateral
for the distillation chamber, the channels pro
interfaces between the ?re brick being radial
whereby the ?re bricks are self-keyed in the walls 30 viding limited draft passages for burning the pe
ripheral layer‘ of the coke in the distillation
of which they form a part.
chamber, offsetting the tendency of the coke to
A'further object of the invention is to provide
bridge the distillation chamber through inherent
a heating stove in which the air is supplied to
tional construction within the casing immediately 35 ployed, and permitting: free gravitational descent
of the coke into the fuel combustion chamber.
above the side wall of the fuel combustion cham
‘ Other objects of the invention will appear as
ber, providing a circumferential conduit adjacent
the'following description of a preferred and prac
the casing, and circumferentially arranged co-m
tical-embodiment thereof proceeds:
partments adjacent the distillation chamber
forming the lower part of the gas combustion 40 In the‘ drawings which accompany and form a
part of the following speci?cation, and through
chamber, air being admitted to the conduit by
way of a damper-controlled inlet responsive to
stove temperature, the conduit communicating
with each of the compartments by means of air
ports, and the ?aming combustion products from
the fuel combustion chamber and the distillation
gases from the distillation chamber being ad
mitted together to the several compartments
through louvers formed in the upper end of the
?re brick side wall of the fuel combustion cham
ber communicating with said compartments. ~
Another object of the invention is to provide
the gas combustion chamber with a plurality of
longitudinal baffles or partitions so constructed
and arranged, as to secure uniformdistribution
out the‘several ?gures of which the same char
acters of reference‘ have been employed to desig
nate identical parts: _
Figure 1 is a vertical section through a heating
stove‘, embodying the ‘principles of the invention,
a portion of the base being broken away;
Figure 2 is a cross-section taken along the line
2-2 of Figure 1;
' Figure 3 is a cross-section taken along the line
3-3 of Figure 1;
Figure 4 is across-section taken along the line
4-4 of Figure 1;
‘
‘
Figure 5 is a development of a portion of the
inside of the stove casing inthe zone of the gas
2
2,399,814
combustion chamber showing the positions of the
distributing baiiles from the front of the stove to
the chimney connection;
Figure 6 is a front elevation of the thermostatic
damper control which admits secondary air to the
gas combustion chamber;
Figure '7 is a vertical sectional view through the
key member;
of the fuel combustion chamber, the end ribs I'I
projecting inwardly further than the intermedi
ate ribs, in order to afford such support.
The outer periphery of the distillation cham
ber I4 is spaced from the casing 3, forming a gas
combustion chamber 22 surrounding said distilla
tion chamber. In order that the ?re bricks of
the distillation chamber shall maintain them
Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view taken along
selves self-keyed in the same manner as the ?re
the line 8-8 of Figure 5;
4
10 bricks of the fuel combustion chamber, a shell
Figure 9 is a horizontal section taken along the
I8 is provided which ?ts about the several series
line 9—9 of Figure 1;
Figure 10 is a perspective view of one of the
sections of the secondary air conduit.
Referring now in detail to the several ?gures,
of ?re bricks constituting the distillation chamber.
The upper end of this shell has an outwardly ex
tending ?ange I9 which contacts the casing 3,
forming a top for the gas combustion chamber.
the numeral I represents the stove as a whole, __ The shell l8 does not necessarily extend down
which as shown, has the base 2 supporting the
wardly throughout the full length of the lower
upright casing 3. The illustrated stove is cylin
series of ?re bricks I5, and preferably does not
drical, but the invention may be embodied in a
do so. The ?ange I9 has an arcuate opening 20
stove of oval cross-section or other desired shapes. 20 at the back, which places the gas combustion
At a distance above the bottom of the casing 3,
chamber in communication with a chimney con
the grate 4 is suitably supported, the space within
nection, as will later be described.
the casing between the base 2 and grate 4 con
The stove is provided with a domed cover 23
stituting the ash pit 5 having a clean-out door
which ?ts the casing 3, forming a chamber above
6 at the front of the stove, and a draft opening
and communicating with the upper end of the
1 at the back, controlled by a damper 8 which may
distillation chamber, and provided with a hinged
be thermostatically operated, if desired.
solid-fuel door 24, giving access to the upper open
The grate is formed with a horizontal periph
end of the distillation chamber for replenishing
eral ?ange 9 serving as a support for the side
the fuel in said chamber. The cover is provided
wall of the fuel combustion chamber I0.
30 at the back with a chimney connection 25. A
Said side wall is composed of a circumferential
partition 26 normally excludes the draft of the
series of ?re bricks I I. The front and back of the
chimney connection from the distillation cham
?re bricks, as shown, are of circular curvature,
ber. Said partition is provided with a normally
the backs resting against the casing 3. The front
closed damper 21 which opens automatically when
walls are ribbed in a longitudinal direction with
the fuel door 24 is opened, so as to provide a di
respect to the height of the stove. The ends of
the ?re bricks lie in planes which are radial with
respect to the axis of the stove. Each of the ?re
bricks I l is formed in its upper portion with sym
metrically spaced upwardly and outwardly con
rect draft through the fuel door open into the
vergent louvers I2.
I
The casing 3 is provided on its inner side at
the front of the stove with a longitudinally ex
tending draft tube I3, the draft function of which
will presently be explained. This tube is ?xed
to the casing and in the illustrated embodiment
is of V-shaped cross-section with the apex di
rected toward the axis of ‘the stove, functioning
as a rib or key. The two ?re bricks II’ which lie
adjacent this rib are chamfered along their ad- '
jacent end faces so as to ?t against the rib I3.
In this manner a de?nite and symmetrical orien
tation of the ?re bricks in the side wall of the
combustion chamber is obtained, and the fact
that the said ?re bricks abut against the casing
3 and have radial lateral interfaces, causes them
to become self-keyed in the stove so that they
cannot fall out into the combustion chamber, and
require no further means of securement.
In
chimney connection to prevent gases escapting
by way of the open fuel door. The outlet opening
20 from the gas combustion chamber is always
in communication with the chimney connection.
The adjacent upper end of the fuel combustion
chamber and lower end of the distillation cham
ber are open and contiguous.
A secondary air conduit, which as awhole is
designated by the reference character 28, is pro
vided within the casing 3 in a zone immediately
above the fuel combustion chamber. Said conduit
is of sectional construction, each section 31 com
prising an intermediate upright vertical Web 29
having upper and lower outwardly extending hori
zontal ?anges 30 and 3|, the adjacent ends of the
said ?anges of adjacent sections being contiguous,
so that a continuous conduit is thereby formed
outside of said Webs 29. This conduit is provided
with an air inlet 32 through the casing 3 at the
back of the stove. Said air inlet is in communi
cation with the interior of a thermostat housing
33 secured against the casing 3 and containing
the adjustable thermostatic element 34, which as
building up the side wall of the combustion cham 60 shown, is a bimetallic strip, attached to a damper
35, which damper moves to occlude, more or less,
ber, the bricks are placed side by side upon the
peripheral ?ange 9 of the grate and the last brick
an air inlet 36 to the thermostat housing. The
is slipped downwardly into place from the top of
housing 33 excludes the thermostatic element
the series.
from room temperature so that it responds to
stove temperature through heat, exchange by way
Above the fuel combustion chamber In is the
distillation chamber M which functions also as a
of the portion of the casing 3 which is enclosed
by the housing 33.
fuel magazine and coking chamber when bitumi
nous coal is employed. The side wall of the dis
The ends of the flanges 30 and 3! and the web
tillation chamber is formed of one or more cir
29 of each section 31 terminate in planes radial
cumferential series of ?re bricks I5 and I6, two 70 with respect to the axis of the stove and all the
such series being shown in superposed relation.
sections, save one, are provided with a vertical
The diameter of the distillation chamber is pref
partition 38 extending inwardly from an inter
erably smaller than that of the fuel combustion
mediate part of the web 29, into contact with the
chamber, so that the ?re bricks I5 rest upon a
outer surface of the ?re brick wall of the distilla
narrow marginal area of the top of the side wall 75. tion chamber. Compartments 39 are thus formed,
2,399,814
each embracing adjacent halves of contiguous
sections, said compartments constituting the
lower part of the gas combustion chamber. The
3
inlet 1, through the grate, the louvers‘ i2, and‘
the gas combustion chamber. The gases in that
part of the mass of fuel in the distillation cham
sections 31 are preferably so circumferentially
ber which is adjacent the fuel combustion cham
arranged that two of the louvers I2 of adjacent Cl ber are evolved through heat from the fuel com
?re bricks ll communicate with each compart
bustion" chamber and are entrained in the ?am
ment.
ing gases from the combustion chamber, passing
1
The webs 29 of each section are provided with
out with said ?aming gases into the compart—
air ports 48, on each side of the partition 38, es
ments 39. Here secondary air is admitted to
tablishing communication between the conduit 28 10 the compartments 39 in quantity sulhcient to
and each of the compartments 39. One of the
produce complete ‘combustion of the ‘distillation
sections 31 is provided intermediately with an in
gases. The proper quantity of air is determined
wardly projecting salient 4|, permitting the said
by the thermostatically controlled damper 35,
'which operates responsive to stove temperature.
The burning products of combustion and distil
lation are distributed uniformly through the gas
section to be ?tted about the rib l3. This de
termines the orientation of the sections 31, par
ticularly with respect to the ?re bricks l l and the
louvers l2. The rib i3 forms a longitudinal baf?e
in the gas combustion chamber at the front of
the stove dividing the flow of gases in said gas
combustion chamber and forms a partition in the
conduit 28 which produces a symmetrical flow of
air through both sides of said conduit from the
air inlet 32. The salient 4| also functions as a
combustion chamber in the manner which has
been described. The fact that the distillation
chamber is supplied with air solely through the
draft tube 13 which is of relatively small cross
section, limits combustion from this air source
to the peripheral layer of fuel in the distillation
.chamber to which said air has access by way of
the channels formed by the corrugated inner sur
face of the side wall of the distillation chamber.
The combustion from the fuel combustion cham
ber also invades the lower part of the fuel in the
distillation chamber, the mass of carbonaceous
fuel from which the gases have been distilled
moving progressively downward into the combus
partition wall between adjacent compartments 39.
In order to secure uniform distribution of ‘the
hot gases through said gas combustion chamber,
a plurality of longitudinal baffles 42 are provided
in the gas combustion chamber, resting upon the
?anges 38 and the upper ends of the partitions 38,
forming continuations of said partitions. The_
lower end of the shell l8 terminates at the level
tion zone. The transition from raw coal to sub
stantially gas free carbon or coke in the distil
lation chamber is gradual and continuous as the
mass .of fuel in the distillation chamber pro
of the ?anges 30 and the inner ends of the baffles
42 preferably contact the outer surface of said
shell. The ballies 42 terminate short of the top of
the gas combustion chamber and are progres
sively shorter as they approach the arcuate open
ing 20 to the chimney connection, as shown in
Figure 5. A downwardly divergent baffle 44 be
neath the opening 20 compels the gases which
emerge from the louvers which are immediately
under the opening 20 to follow a circuitous path
before discharging through said opening.
35 gressively sinks into the fuel combustion cham
ber. The location of the conduit 28 within the
casing 3 and in the zone of initial‘discharge of
the combustion gases from the fuel combustion
chamber and the ignition of the distillation gases.
causes the secondary air supplied to the gas coni
bustion chamber to be pre-heated, and the loca
tion of the draft tube l3 within the casing 3 pre
By
means of these ba?les, a substantially uniform
distribution. of the hot gases through the gas
. heats the air supplied to the distillation chamber.
The disposing of the hot combustion gases in the
combustion chamber is secured,‘ so that all Parts ‘45 form of an outer envelope immediately surround
of the casing 3 which bound the gas combustion
chamber are at substantially the same hot tem
perature. ‘Also, the distillation chamber is sub
ing the distillation chamber and within the stove
casing assures the optimum utilization of the
generated heat, while the complete combustion
stantially uniformly heated circumferentially.
of the distillation gases in the zone immediately
adjacent the exterior of the stove also makes for
The above construction provides acompletely
smooth metallic surface for the interior of the
gas combustion chamber to which fly ash will
not adhere but will gravitate to the lower part of
the gas combustion chamber and down thesteeply
sloping walls of the louvers l2. Ordinarily, the <,.
?y ash will be gradually consumed by the in
tensity of complete combustion in the gas com
bustion chamber.
The ?re brick side wall of the distillation cham
ber is internally corrugated so that longitudinal
channels are formed between the side wall of
60
said chamber and the fuel mass, whereby a lim
ited amount of air supplied by the draft tube
is drawn down through said channels, burning .
the peripheral layer of coke in the distillation
chamber where bituminous fuel is employed. It
is, of course, well known that in the formation '
of coke the fuel mass swells and would tend to
form a bridge across the distillation chamber.
The burning of the peripheral layer offsets the
swelling, prevents the cokebridging, and permits ~
its free gravitational descent into the fuel com
maximum heat exchanging efficiency.
The 'rate of combustion in the fuel combustion
chamber and of distillation in the distillation
chamber is coordinated because they derive air
from the same controlled air supply, causing a
gradual release of gases proportionate to com
bustion demands instead of a ?ash release in ex
cess of the capacity of the heat dispelling sur-
faces of the stove to discharge.
The provision of a complete ?re brick lining
for the fuel combustion and distillation chambers
not only insulates the burning and distilling
mass from sudden extraneous temperature ?uc~
tuations, but also’ prolongs the life of the stove
by the avoidance of the burning out of metallic
linings, and permits the major mass of the stove
to be made of noncritical materials il'lVOlVil'lg' the
employment of a minimum of metal. All these
and other factors contribute to the production of
a heating stove which has achieved a rating in
In operation, the chimney draft induces a flow
the Bureau of Standards tests of 77%, a higher
ei?ciency rating than has been obtained by any
other heating stove previously tested.
Although in the above disclosure the use of
‘of air through the damper-controlled primary air
fire brick is emphasized for the lining of the fuel
bustion chamber.
"
I
I
4
21.3.9. 918.], 4
combustion and distillation chambers as, contrib
?re bricksv with radial interfaces, within. said cas
uting materially to the e?iciency- of the, stove, it
ing, forming the side wall of a distillation. cham
is within the purview of; the invention to employ
ber supported. by the side wall of said fuel com
any other material than ?re bricls, if desired, nor
bustion chamber, the adjacent ends of said dis
is it essential that the walls of said chamber to
tillation chamber and fuel combustion chamber
semblage.
ability of manufacture and convenience of as:
being open and contiguous, the side wall of said
distillation chamber being spaced from said cas
ing forming a gas combustion chamber about said
distillation chamber, a sectional conduit within
While I have in the above disclosure described
what I believe to be a preferred and practical
said casing resting upon the upper end of the. side
wall of said fuel combustion chamber, each sec
fashioned from individual units offbrick or other
material, this being largely a matter of; practic-v
tion having an intermediate upright arcuate. web
embodiment of the invention, it will be under
having upper and lower ?anges extending out
stood to those skilled in the art that the speci?c
wardly from said web into contact with said cas
details of construction and the arrangement of
parts, as shown, are by way of‘ illustration and 15 ing and at their ends contacting the correspond
ing ?anges of adjacent sections making said con—
not to be construed as limiting the scope of the
invention which is de?ned in the appended
duit continuous outide of said web, an air inlet
to said conduit through said casing, each sece
claims.
tion having an intermediate ?ange extending ra
What I claim :Is:
1. Solid fuel heating stove comprising an up; 20 dially inward from said web’ contacting the side
right cylindrical casing, a grate supDOrted above
wall of said distillation chamber, said radially ex
tending ?anges partitioning the lower part of said
the bottom of said casing having a'peripheral
?ange, a longitudinally extending rib in fixed
gas combustion chamber into a plurality of- com
partments communicating with the upper part
position on the interior side of said casing, a
circumferential series of ?re bricks, with radial
of said gas combustion chamber, the side Wall
of said- fuel combustion chamber- having a series
interfaces, within said casing, supported by said
flange and contacting the casing constituting the
of louvers at its upper end, communicating with
said compartments, whereby the ?aming prod
side wall of a fuel combustion chamber, a cir
cumferential series of laterally contiguous ?re
ucts from said fuel combustion chamber and the
bricks with radial interfaces, within said casing, 30 distillation gases from said distillation chamber
have common access to said gas combustion
forming the side wall of a distillation chamber
supported upon the side Wall of said fuel come
chamber, said casing being provided with a
damper-controlled air inlet below said grate, a
bustion chamber, the adjacent ends‘ of said 0113:111
chimney connection communicating with the
bers being open and contiguous, the side wall of
said distillation chamber being Spaced from said
upper end of said gas combustion chamber in
casing forming a gas combustion chamber about
ducing draft through said fuel combustion cham
said distillation chamber, a shell closely surround
her, a cover for said distillation chamber exclud
ing it from the direct pull of said chimney draft,
ing the ?re brick wall of said distillation cham
ber having an outwardly extended upper ?ange
each compartment having air ports through said
forming a top for the gas combustion chamber, 40 web communicating‘ with said conduit for supply
ing secondary air to said compartment sufficient
the ?re bricks which constitute the side wall of
for complete combustion of the distillation gases.
the fuel combustion chamber having louvers at
3. Solid fuel heating stove comprising an up
their upper ends communicating with the lower
right casing, a grate supported above the bottom
portion of said' gas combustion chamber where
of said casing having a peripheral ?ange, a cir~
by the ?aming products from said- fuel combus
cumferential series of ?re bricks with radial inter
tion chamber and the distillation gases from said
faces, within said casing, supported by said ?ange
distillation chamber have common access to said
and contacting said casing constituting the side
gas combustion chamber, said casing being pro
vided with a damper-controlled air inlet below
wall of a fuel combustion chamber, a circumferen
said grate, a chimney connection communicat 50 tial wall of laterally contiguous ?re bricks with
ing with the upper end of said gas combustion
radial interfaces, within said casing, forming the
side wall of a distillation chambersupported by
chamber inducing draft through said fuel com
the side wall of said fuel combustion chamber, the
bustion chamber, a cover for said distillation
adjacent ends of said distillation chamber and
chamber having a solid-fuel door, excluding- said
distillation chamber from the direct pull of said 5,5 fuel combustion chamber being open and con
chimney draft, and means forming a conduit
tiguous, the side Wall of said distillation chamber
being spaced from said casing forming a gas com
about the lower part of said gas Cqmbustion
chamber having an air inlet and provided with
secondary air ports communicating with said gas
combustion chamber to supply air thereto su?i
cient for complete combustion of the distillation
gases, the ?re bricks adjacent both sides of said
rib in the side wall of said fuel combustion cham
bustion chamber about said distillation chamber,
a sectional conduit within said casing resting
60 upon the upper end of the side wall of said com
bustion chamber, each section having an inter
mediate upright 'arcuate web having upper and
lower ?anges extending outwardly from said web
into contact with said casing and at their ends
ber being shaped to inter-fit with said rib where
contacting the corresponding ?anges of adja
by de?nite orientation of the bricks constituting
cent sections making said conduit continuous
the side wall of said fuel combustion chamber,
outside of said web, an air inlet to said conduit
within said casing is determined.
through said casing, each section having an in
2. Solid fuel heating stove comprising an up
termediate ?ange extending inwardly from said
right cylindrical casing, a grate supported above
the bottom of said casing having- a peripheral 70 Web contacting the side wall of said distillation
chamber, said radially extending ?anges parti
flange, a circumferential series of ?re bricks with
radial interfaces, within said casing, supported
tioning the lower part of said gas combustion
by said ?ange and contacting said casing conchamber into a plurality of compartments com
municating with the upper part of said gas com
stituting the side wall of a fuel_ combustion cham
her, a circumferential wall of laterally‘contisuous 75 bustion chamber, baffles within said gas combus
2,399,814
tion chamber above said sections and alined with
said inwardly extending ?anges, terminating
short of the top of said gas combustion chamber,
the side wall of said fuel combustion chamber be
,
5
5.'Solid fuel heating stove comprising an up
right cylindrical casing, a grate supported above
the bottom of said casing having a peripheral
?ange, a circumferential series of ?re bricks with
ing provided with a series of louvers at its upper Cl radial interfaces, within said casing, supported
by said ?ange and contacting said casing con
end communicating with said compartments on
stituting the side wall of a fuel combustion cham
both sides of. said alined ?anges and baffles,
ber, a circumferential series of laterally contigu
whereby the ?aming products from said fuel
ous ?re bricks with radial interfaces, within said
combustion chamber and the distillation gases
from said distillation chamber have common ac 10 casing, forming the side wall of a distillation
chamber, supported upon the side wall of said
cess to said gas combustion chamber between said
?anges and battles, said casing being provided
with a damper-controlled air inlet below said
grate, a chimney connection communicating with
the upper end of said gas combustion chamber in
ducing draft through said fuel combustion cham
ber, a cover for said distillation chamber exclud
ing it from the direct pull of said chimney draft,
each compartment having air ports through said
web communicating with said conduit for supply
ing secondary air to said compartment sufficient
for complete combustion of the distillation gases.
4. Solid fuel heating stove comprising an up
fuel combustion chamber, the adjacent ends of
said distillation chamber and fuel combustion
chamber being open and contiguous, the side wall
of said distillation chamber being spaced from
said casing, forming a gas combustion chamber
about-said distillation chamber, the ?re bricks
which constitute the side wall of the fuel com
bustion chamber having louvers at their upper
ends communicating with the lower portion of
said gas combustion chamber whereby the ?am
ing products from said fuel combustion chamber
and the distillation gases from said distillation
chamber have common access to said gas com
right cylindrical casing, a grate supported above
the bottom of said casing having a peripheral 25 bustion chamber, said casing below said grate
constituting an air chamber communicating with
?ange, a circumferential series of fire bricks with
said fuel combustion chamber through said grate
radial interfaces, within said casing, supported
and having a controlled air inlet, a shell sur
by said ?ange and contacting said casing con
rounding the side wall of said distillation cham
stituting the side wall of a fuel combustion cham
ber, a circumferential series of laterally contigu 30 ber having an outwardly extending peripheral
?ange constituting the top of said gas combus
ous ?re bricks with radial interfaces, within said
tion chamber, a chimney connection communi
casing, forming the side wall of a distillation
chamber, supported upon the side wall of said
eating with the upper end of said gas combus
chamber have common access to said gas com
upper end of said distillation chamberin com
bustion chamber, said casing below said grate
munication with said air chamber, said conduit,
and the ?re bricks adjacent both sides of said rib
in the side wall of said fuel combustion chamber
being shaped'to inter?t with said rib- whereby
tion chamber inducing draft through said fuel
fuel combustion chamber, the adjacent ends of
said distillation chamber and fuel combustion 35 combustion chamber, a cover for said distillation
chamber excluding it from the direct pull of said
chamber being open and contiguous, the side wall
chimney draft, means forming a conduit within
of said distillation chamber being spaced from
the lower part of said gas combustion chamber
said casing, forming a gas combustion chamber
having an air inlet and provided with'air ports
about said distillation chamber, the ?re bricks
which constitute the side wall of the fuel com 40 communicating with said gas combustion cham
ber to supply air thereto sufficient for complete
bustion chamber having louvers at their upper
combustion of the distillation gases, a tubular rib
ends communicating with the lower portion of
extending longitudinally through said grate
said gas combustion chamber whereby the ?am
?ange, said gas combustion chamber and the top
ing products from said fuel combustion chamber
and the distillation gases from said distillation 45 of said gas combustion chamber placing the
constituting an air chamber communicating with
said fuel combustion chamber through said grate
and having a controlled air inlet, a shell sur
rounding the side wall of said distillation cham
ber having an outwardly extending peripheral
?ange constituting the top of said gas combus
tion chamber, a chimney connection communi
cating with the upper end of said gas combustion
chamber inducing draft through said fuel com
bustion chamber, a cover for said distillation
chamber excluding it from the direct pull of said
chimney draft, means forming a conduit about
the lower part of said gas combustion chamber
having an air inlet and provided with air ports
communicating with said gas combustion cham
ber to supply air thereto sufficient for complete
combustion of the distillation gases, a tubular rib
de?nite orientation of the bricks constituting the
side Wall of said fuel combustion chamber is de
termined relative to said conduit.
‘
'
6. In a stove for burning solid fuel, means
forming an up-draft solidfuel combustion cham
ber, a superposed down-draft distillation cham
her, the latter being a fuel magazine, and a gas
combustion chamber surrounding said distillation
chamber, the adjacent ends of said solid fuel
combustion chamber and distillation chamber be
ing open and contiguous, said stove being provided
with a plurality of circumferentially distributed
ports adjacent the plane of contiguity of the adja
cent ends of said solid fuel combustion and dis
extending longitudinally through said grate 65 tillation chambers, in communication therewith
and with the lower part'of said gas combustion
?ange, said gas combustion chamber and the top
chamber, and commonly discharging the gaseous
of said gas combustion chamber placing the up
products from said solid fuel combustion anddis
per end of said distillation chamber in communi—
tillation chambers into said gas combustion
cation with said air chamber, the ?re bricks ad
jacent both sides of said rib in the side wall of 70 chamber, a common primary air inlet, air in
takes opening respectively into the top of said
said fuel combustion chamber being shaped to
distillation chamber and the-bottom of said solid
interfit with said rib whereby de?nite orientation
fuel combustion chamber communicating with
of the bricks constituting the side wall of the
said primary air inlet proportionately sized to
fuel combustion chamber within said casing is
75 supply a major portion of air to the bottom of
determined.
6
2,399,814
said solid fuel combustion chamber and a minor
portion of air to the top of said distillation cham
ber, a secondary air manifold within the lower
part of said gas combustion chamber extending
circumferentially thereabout and spaced from the
wall of said distillation chamber forming a pas
sage within said gas combustion chamber above
said ports, a secondary air inlet communicating
with said manifold, the latter having circumfer
solid fuel combustion chamber in said fuel free
zone, the wall of said solid fuel combustion cham
ber being of fire brick having a plurality of
circumferentially distributed restricted‘ upward
ly and outwardly divergent ports communi
cating with said respective passages, and a chim
ney ?ue connection to the upper part of said gas
combustion chamber.
10. In a stove for burning solid fuel, an upright
entially distributed openings communicating with 10 casing, a. grate supported above the base of said
said passage, and a chimney flue connection to
casing having a peripheral ?ange, a circumfer
the upper part of said gas combustion chamber.
ential wall of ?re brick sections resting on said
7. A stove for burning solid fuel, as claimed in
?ange having radial contiguous faces, said grate
claim 6, including a, thermostatically controlled
and wall constituting a solid fuel combustion
damper for said secondary air inlet, having a 15 chamber, means positioned above said wall con
thermostatic element shielded from room atmos
stituting a distillation chamber, the adjacent ends
phere and responsive to stove temperature.
of said solid fuel combustion chamber and dis
8. In a stove for burning- solid fuel, walls de
tillation chamber being open and contiguous, an
?ning an up-draft solid fuel combustion cham
air inlet in said casing below said grate, a con
ber, a superposed down-draft distillation cham
duit opening through said ?ange to the space
ber, the latter being a fuel magazine, and a gas
beneath said grate communicating with said air
combustion chamber surrounding said distilla
inlet and with the top of said distillation cham
tion chamber, the adjacent ends of said solid
ber, said conduit extending in longitudinally ?xed
fuel combustion chamber and distillation cham
position with respect to said casing and intersect
ber being open and contiguous, the wall of said 25 ing the outer boundary of said ?re brick wall, en
distillation chamber inwardly overhanging the
gaged by adjacent sections of said wall whereby
wall of said solid fuel combustion chamber at an
the sections of said wall are de?nitely arranged,
angle less than the angle of repose of the solid
symmetrically on opposite sides of said conduit,
fuel whereby the upper peripheral zone of said
the open area of said grate and the cross-sec
solid fuel combustion chamber is maintained free 30 tional area of said conduit being proportionately
of fuel, the wall of the latter chamber in said
sized to supply a major portion of air to said solid
zone being formed with a plurality of circumfer
fuel combustion chamber through said grate, and
entially distributed restricted ports communicat
a minor portion of air to said distillation cham
ing with the lower part of said gas combustion
ber, and means for subjecting the contiguous ends
chamber, forming avenues of discharge for the
of said chambers to chimney suction.
gaseous products from said distillation chamber
and solid fuel combustion chamber, a common air
inlet, air intakes opening respectively in the top of
said distillation chamber and the bottom of said
fuel combustion chamber and in communication 40
11. In a stove for burning solid fuel, walls de
?ning an up-draft solid fuel combustion chamber,
with said air inlet, proportionately sized to supply
a major portion of air to the bottom of said solid
fuel combustion chamber and a minor portion of
air to the top of said distillation chamber, and a
chimney flue connection to the upper part of
a superposed down-draft distillation chamber, the
latter being a fuel magazine, and a gas combus
tion chamber surrounding said distillation cham
ber, the adjacent ends of said solid fuel combus
tion chamber and distillation chamber being open
and contiguous, the wall of said distillation cham
ber inwardly overhanging the wall of said solid
fuel combustion chamber at an angle less than
the angle of repose of the fuel whereby the upper
said gas combustion chamber.
9. In a stove for burning solid fuel, walls de~
peripheral zone of said solid fuel combustion
?ning an up-draft solid fuel combustion cham
chamber is maintained free of fuel, a common
ber, a superposed down-draft distillation cham
primary air inlet, air intakes opening respectively
50
ber, the latter being a fuel magazine, and a gas
into the bottom of said solid fuel combustion
combustion chamber surrounding said distilla
chamber and the top of said distillation chamber
tion chamber, the adjacent ends of said solid fuel
and in communication with said air inlet, pro
combustion chamber and distillation chamber be
ing open and contiguous, the wall of said distilla
tion chamber inwardly overhanging the wall of
said solid fuel combustion chamber at an angle
less than the angle of repose of the fuel, whereby
the upper peripheral zone of said solid fuel com
bustion chamber is maintained free of fuel, a
portionately sized to supply a major portion of
air to the bottom of said solid fuel combustion
chamber and a minor portion of air to the top of
said distillation chamber, a secondary air mani
fold within the lower part of said gas combustion
chamber extending circumferentially thereabout,
forming a circumferential preheating chamber
common primary air inlet, air intakes opening 60 for secondary air, having an inner wall spaced
respectively into the bottom of said solid fuel
from the wall of said distillation chamber de?n
combustion chamber and the top of said distilla
ing a passage within said gas combustion, a sec
tion chamber and in communication with said
ondary air inlet to said preheating chamber, said
primary air inlet, proportionately sized to supply
inner wall having circumferentially distributed
a major portion of air to the bottom of said solid
ports between said preheating chamber and pas
fuel combustion chamber and a minor portion of
sage, the wall of said solid fuel combustion cham
ber being of ?re brick having a plurality of cir
air to the top of said distillation chamber, a sec
ondary air manifold within the lower part of said
cumferentially distributed restricted upwardly
gas combustion chamber extending circumferen
and outwardly divergent ports communicating
tially thereabout and spaced from the wall of
with said fuel free zone of said solid fuel com
said distillation chamber forming a circumfer
bustion chamber and said passage, and a chim
ential passage within said gas combustion cham
ney ?ue connection to the upper part of said gas
ber, a secondary air inlet communicating with
combustion chamber.
'
said manifold, the latter having circumferentially
12. In a stove for burning solid fuel, means
distributed openings communicating with said
forming an up-draft solid fuel combustion cham
2,399,814
her, a superposed down-draft distillation cham
ber, the latter being a fuel magazine, and a gas
combustion chamber surrounding said distillation
chamber, the adjacent ends of said sOlid fuel
combustion chamber and distillation chamber
being open and contiguous, said stove being pro
vided with a plurality of circumferentially dis
tributed ports adjacent the plane of contiguity of
7
circumferentially thereabout and spaced from the
wall of said distillation chamber forming a pas
sage within said gas combustion chamber above
said ports, a secondary air inlet communicating
with said manifold, the latter having circumfer
entially distributed openings communicating with
said passage, a chimney ?ue connection to the
upper part of said gas combustion chamber, and
means forming spaced bailies longitudinally posi
the adjacent ends of said solid fuel combustion
and distillation chambers, in communication '10 tioned within the lower part of said gas combus
tion chamber terminating short of the top of said
therewith and with the lower part of said gas
gas combustion chamber de?ning between them
combustion chamber, and commonly discharging
lines each embracing at least one of said ports
the gaseous products from said solid fuel com
for directing the ?ow of gaseous products there
bustion and distillation chambers into said gas
from upwardly in segregate columns, the distance
combustion chamber, a common primary air inlet,
from the top of said ba?ies to the top of said
air intakes opening respectively into the bottom
gas combustion chamber, proceeding in both di
of said solid fuel combustion chamber and the top
rections from a point opposite said chimney ?ue
of said distillation chamber and in communica
connection, progressively increasing.
tion with said air inlet, proportionately sized to
l3. Stove for burning solid fuel as claimed
supply a major portion of air to the bottom of 20
in claim 12, including a balile obstructing direct
said solid fuel combustion chamber and a minor
flow to said chimney connection from those ports
portion of air to the top of said distillation cham
directly beneath said chimney connection.
ber, a secondary air manifold within the lower
PERRY S. MARTIN.
part of said gas combustion chamber extending
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