Патент USA US2400366код для вставки
May 14, 1946. - ' . A, MURRAY PHOTOGRAPHIC SUPPORT Filed Jan. s, 194s ,PRIOR Ah‘r o o o 'o .o > ‘ 2,400,366 ` ' ¿ 2 Smets-sheet, 1 May 14, 1946. ' A, MURRAY PHOTOGRAPHIC 2,400,366 SUPPORT Filed Jan. 6, 1945 l _ I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIAG. |o. ALEXANDER MURRAY ' INI/ENTOR Jímä@ NWS „ ggz ATT'Y ¿a AGT ` Paiements-1_4, A2,400,366 ' IuNli'lazD »sTATEsfÍPATEN r OFFICE ö . - 2,400,365 PnoròGnArnlc '_sUrPoR'r _I .Alexander Murray, Rochester, N. Y., asslgnor to~ ~ Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y., a corporation of New' Jersey . Application January s, 1945, sem1N0.571,ss2 . _ l _ 2o claims. airspace must be’equal to or'less than this separa- ,I This invention relates to photographic supports ' particularly those used for photographic color prints. This is a continuation in part of _Serial Number 493,367, filed July 3, 1943. «A . In a _copendingf application, Serial No. 576,230, illed. February 5, 1945,:W. _T. Hanson, Jr., and , tion, these values -also constitute the upper limits of the airspace thickness. Ulv tion can. have any 'thickness less than that just - speciñ'ed'but of course there must be _some air Optical contact or even thicknesses less than one or two wave lengths of light introducinginterference ’patterns would not allow the inven tion to operate properly, but mechanical contact tween alight. diffusing support and the _image ' - ‘The airspace according to the present ~in'ven» ï R. M. Evans describe the advantages4 in color photographyY when anI airspace is introduced be ' bearing layer. ‘ (ci. 95;-8) , It is the object 4of the present invention tol'pro at _scattered points, as with arough or textured _ vide a simple practical and useful method of pro >-ducing such an airspace.\ .It is also an object surface would" still permit the operation of the `present ‘invention .quite satisfactorily.- vThe in j of the invention to provide a color print having >yan airspaced support. _ termediate areas ,of course are> separated more ' than one or two wave lengths of light. _ There fore. the present invention requires theairspace _The >purposeof this _continuation in part ap plication is to include certain limitations as to ' the thickness of the airspace which-are inherent - _in the invention and which distinguish over prior _ (or other low index medium) to have a thickness _ greater than .00005 inch and since the separation of the picture and diffusing layers is equal to or arrangements which actually have nothingy to do with the present invention. For example greater than the- airspace, this is the lower limit of the separation. Thus-both the airspace ana ' the separation of tile picture and diffusing layers` _U. S. Patent 315,703, Bencke et al., shows a picture layer airspaced from a- diiiusing layer in order to \. must be between .00005 inch and .005 inch pref-A erably less than '.001 inch. '_Other» objectsl and advantag’s of the invention ' will be apparent from the following description when read inconne'ction with' the accompanying . drawings, in which: get a softened appearancedue to halation which- v is exactly opposite -to the purpose and eii‘ect of the present invention. In the Bencke arrange -ment, the separation of the picture layer and the . diffusing layer is very large, many times the total . ' ' Figs. 1 and 2 l'illustrate the theory of the air thickness ofordinaryphotographic papers so that ’ spaced support; ‘ the scattered light reduces the detail contrast, L30 '2 the'sharpness, and the color saturation of _the4 - picture giving asoftened or “porcelain” appear ance. Even _in ordinary 'photographic prints in _ which the diffusing layer is attached to the pivc- ‘e Figs. 3 to 9 illustrate in section or plan various embodiments of the invention; andI _' Figs. 10 and-11 illustrate steps in the methodsA _ - 'of preparing the supports illustrated in Figs. 3 to 9. ture layer, this eiïect is not present. For con-` 35 , In Fig. 1 an image bearing layer I0 is separated venience the scattering of light in the Bencke et ' ~ by an airspace Il from a light diffusing support al. arrangement may be referred to as “primary such as paper or film containing a translucent pigment. For simplification this support is rep halation” in which- case it should be-noted that the effect of “primary halation” in ordinary pho- ` resented by a transparent layer I2 and a trans tographic printsis negligible since the spreading .40 lucent layer I3, the diifusion being assumed to of light thereby is less than the minimum detail of the picture anyway. ' , ^ - _ take place at'the interface Il. Of course the lay er .lz may b_e infinitesimal in thickness-‘0r the - v . However,‘.in-ordinary- color'prints, 'there is what .- light diifusion may be distributed throughout the . may be termed “secondary halation”. due to mul ?_iple internal reñections within >.the picture layer. .45 " Light represented by*V a ray 'I5 stri-kes the dlf- . >This secondaryoxj residual halation is removed _Iifusing surface M_' at _the point l1 and is ’_diil’used.` ' ‘ Support. _ ' . i bythe present-_invention.v 1 vThe present invention -_ _ Part of this light. as represented-bythe ray I8 l would have no value in any arrangement having lflzia'sses lback through the color layer l0. ~1 Light__ ‘ _;an'objectionable degree of primaryhalatlon. If 'diffused at high -obliqu'ity. such as indicated by ' the separation'of _theïpicture and di-ifusing layers 50A -n‘ected within . l0A may thelayer -beïtotally I 2 and andstrikes internally the dif-_. re-' _' were made greater than ‘£000 of an inch, primary , the rays ,halation' due tothe Bencke effect would counter `fusingasurface Il again» _at the point 2l; .ray ` act the function of the present invention render-' _ ’ ing" it inoperative. lPreferably this separation should be less than jA000 of an inch._._ Since the _20 -may also strike this point-'2l directly and. v of course,'is much more intense the ray I8. owever, light'from theypoint 2l. _is'made .up of I _ 2.499.860 tive emulsion and the support layer or layers 62 two parts the major portion ofwhich came 'front the ray 20. Part of this as shown by the ray 22 passes to the eye 23 of an observer who at the moment is examining a portion of the image in a layer I0 adjacent to the point 2|. This ray 22 will be mainly colored by the portion of the layer I0 near the point 2| because the ex traneous ray I9 is not highly'colored since it passed through the layerl I0 only once and then practically directly through as indicated by the and 5l are transparent. - Figs. 3 to 6 are cross sectional views- for either v the .embodiment shown in Fig. 'l or that shown in Fig. 8. Fig. 7 is specifically shown as a plan view of the element 62 of the Fig. 5. In Fig. 8, a similar element 10 has lparallel ridges 1|.~ I have found it desirable to use a halftone screen ' pattern- such as either of these, in which there 10 are at least 10 lines to the inch, or in_the’case . portion I6. However, according to the prior art as shown in Fig. 2 an extraneous light striking the point of small prints, possibly 60 or 100 or even more lines per inch. In any case the width of the supporting areas should be less than 1/20 of an inch and the area should be less _than 10% of v36 is diffused to send a ray 31 directly back and a highly obliqueray 38 passes, as shown by the 15 portions 39, obliquely and hence through a thick portion of the color layer 30 before it strikes a second point of diiîusion lil. Although this ray 38 forms only a small portion of the light in the the total area. . î Fig. 9 is representative of various texture ar rangements of »the support pattern. For 'ex ample, the texture maybe that of linen, tapestry, silk, lace, burlap, reticulation pattern. or the ray_42 compared with the primary illuminating 20 grain of coarse paper. The use of a texture has ray 40 this extraneous ray 33 may be highly colored and cause highlight stain if the region of the image 30 adjacent to the point _dl ha-p pens to be a highlight. Thus the airspace Il of Fig. 1 increases the brilliance and decreases the highlight stains of a color print. This is all described by Hanson and Evans in the above mentioned application. » According to the present inventionl the air the advantage that a relatively large pattern can be employed which is quite visible, especially with small prints, but is still unobtrusive. The main support 12 is provided with ridges or other con tact areas 13 which constitute the -pattern or texture. ’ ` In each> of the figures the- front interface of the lov.,r index or airlayer is smooth, substan tially parallel to the front surface of the pic space is produced by having the picture bearing 30 ture layer and non-diffusing. If this interface were diffusing as‘it probably is in the Bencke layer together with any intermediate >layers that arrangement referred to above, the primary hala may be necessary separated from the light dif tion would be extended and also there would no fusing support by air, but attached thereto by longer be complete elimination of the secondary occasional contact areas each of which has a halation as by the present invention. width less than 1/2o` oi’ an inch and the area of In my copending application, Serial No. contact being lessv than 10% of the total area. 511,661, filed‘concurrently herewith, I have de Such an arrangement may bein the form of a scribed a modiiication of the present invention halftone pattern such as halftone dots or lines Awhich does not require the contact areas to be or may be in the form of a texture which is especially useful when larger contact areas are 4.0 less than A10% of the ‘total area. althoughy they are still preferably less than 50% for each' set of contact areas, two such sets being used in successive layers, but- out of register so that In Fig. 3 the image bearing layer 50 is sep effectively there is’ a 100% airspace. arated by an -airspace 5l from a transparent ' Fig. l0 illustrates one method of making the layer 53 and a light diffusing layer 5s. The laye.“ 45 `support and hence the whole photograph illus 50 is supported by adhesive spots 52 on the layer trated in Fig. 4. An adhesive 15 is picked up by 53. a drum 1B and appliedthereby to the tops of In the antihalation embodiment' of the inven-s relief areas 18 on a. drum 11. These areas are tion the layer '50 is a sensitive emulsion and isÍ the desired which are, however, only unobtrusively apparent. . ‘ light diffusing one; the layers 53 and 54 are 50 shown large for clarity, but in practice are quite small. A transparent pellicle 55 moves over the both transparent. ' ' drum 11 being held in contact therewith by a Fig. 4 differs from Fig. 3 by the inclusion of a pressure roller 19 and this pellicle 55 picks up, pellicle layer 55 as part of the image bearin‘sr 52. The layer which has the advantage that the support ~ from the relief area 18, _adhesive spots pellicle 55 and adhesive spots 52 are then pressed consisting of the pellicle layer 55, the layer 5! 55 with adhesive spots 52 and the layers 53 and 55 can be prepared separately before the sensitive y, layer 55 is applied thereto. Figs. 5 and 6 are similar 'to 3 and ,4, the pic >'rito contact with a -layer 53 between pressure rollers 80. This results in the arrangement shown as interlayers in the cross section of Fig. 4. . Fig. 11 similarly shows the method of produc ture layer being 60, the airspace being 5I, the 60 ing the combination of layers 65 and 62 shown in Fig. 6. The layer 62 is molded to have relief support being made up of transparent layer 62 and a translucent layer 64. The contact areas in this case are in the form of relief spots 63 areas 53 projecting from one surface thereof.__ The tops of these relief- areas are provided with adhesive 85 by means of a _drum 56 and pressure on the layer 82, _the image bearing layer being supported only by the tops of the elemental 65 roller 81. The pellicle 65 is then pressed into contact with theftops of the relief areas 63 by spots. In Fig. 6 an additional pellicle 65 forms means of pressure rollers 85. The resulting unit part of the image bearing layer and a layer 66 consisting of layers 52 and 55 with van airspace of cement is shown between the layer 62 and the is useful both in the manufacture of supports for layer.- 64. The layers 65 and 82 as mounted form , prints and also for transparent sensitive ñlm since a unit which can be added to any translucent >the airspace acts to reduce halation. support before the color picture or sensitive layer The airspace support ls thus particularly useful is added to the surface thereof. '. with a. sensitive photographic `>material since it As with Fig. 3, these Figs. 5 and 6 are also reduces halation and- with finished colorl prints representative of the antihalatlon form of lthe invention in which the front layer 50 is a sensi 75 since it reduces highlight stain and improves color . . . . - a,soo,see `saturation. Both -oi’ these eifects are obtained, y when the sensitive nlm is intended ‘for color pho-> - tography -and-- the final result is processedl to a 1.*A'- photographic color print comprising- a layer containing a multicolor picture, a light diffusing support for the picture layer and be tween the 'support and the'picture layer an air- . By `way of examples.' it is pointed out that a 5 space with~ occasional contact areas between the . ' picture layer and the support which contact areas halftone dot pattern, say 150 lines per linch which . have a width less than onetwentieth of an inch will not be_detectable tothe unaided. eye, is'im color print. - ' Y '_ ~ _ ` _ _ ._ printed, transferred orfoiiset allover the surilace> '_ _» and have en area ereentaet less than 10%'01 the '_vto. be treated._ vThe ink thus printed-is,- for ex- ` _ -total area, the separation of the picture. layer . 'ample'a flexible thermoplastic material or syn- 10 vund the diifusing support `and the thickness of thetic resin rendered solvent. Preferably thel 4 the airspace both being between .00005 inch and ' -dots areof sucha size on the plate -that they 2. A photographic color print according to _ - occupy about 1%v 'of the total area. iThe adhesive .005 inch. . -- ~ . ' spreads. somewhat ¿in the printing «operation " 4 claim 1 in which -the contacts are dots distributed The solvent from the adhesive spots is allowed to 15 according to a halftone screen pattern with more than 100 to the square inch. ` ’ evaporate after which the sheets can be rolled or" ' ' ï 3. Av photographic color print according to piled and stored until required. When such a sheet is to be used in laminating a finished trans claim- 1 in which the contacts are distributed ac cording to a-texture pattern. _ parency containing a multi-color picture, onto - paper-or a light diiïusing nlm. the transparency -20 Ais rolled in'contact -with‘the prepared side o_f the y. 4. A photographic color print according to claim 1 in which the contacts are relatively nar- > row parallel _lines separated by relatively wide . support, between heated steel rolls at a tempera-` spaces. 5 'ture which Ais harmless to the j colorants in the _ '_ _ . 5. A- photographic color print comprising _a layer containing a multicolor picture spread still-further in the operation but reasòn- 25 f transparent and a light diifusing support for the layer, the ablefco'ntrol of the'fusing temperature, which support and layer being attached only by ad dependson the/resin used, _keeps thev final-area ' e hesive spots less than`0ne twentieth of> an inch less than 10%"ofthe total area thus permitting 'width and having an area less than 10% of the realization of at least. 90% o'f the advantages o_f o in total area, whereby there is effectively an air airspaced backing. y _ 3 space between the‘layer and the support, the Stiliï'another example involves the making of a prefabrication airspaced printing stock, such as ' separation of the ‘picture layer and the'difl’using support and the thickness of` the airspace both described inV connection with Figs. 10 and 11 above. ' picturebut which fuses the resin dots. The dots peper. ` being between .00005 inch and .005 inch. 6. A photographic color print according to I Y white pigmented plastic sheet, .translucent glass, 35 -claim 5 in -which between the adhesive spots and. porcelain, or enameled metal-sheets, .is used .for ' the picture layer, there is an additional pellicle‘ a'. .base and-separated from this baseby a thin layer adhering uniformly to the picturelayer. - . airspace occupying the major portion of the "total ' ’1. A photographicl color print comprising a - The white reflecting base which may be ' \ area is a- transparent layer or pellicleor Cellotransparent layer containing a multicolor'picture' _ ’ ph'ane, synthetic or natural plastic sheet, gelatin, 40 and a light-diffusing support for the layer, the etc., the lamination or 'fastening to the reflected surface .ofthasuppo’rt in contact-with the layer Ibase is providedby ‘dispersed areas, e. g. glues, ’ having elemental areas in- relief less than one twentieth ofv an'inch wide and comprising less j gelatin, casein-,pitch wax, natural- or synthetic resins or gums, rubber, cellulosic esters, etc., so distributed that the sanering regions produce 45' than 10% oi' thetotai area; the area or‘fthese ' -relief elements being the, only. areas in intimate . optical contact over only a minor fraction. of the total picture area.'4 These adhesives may of course contact l with the transparent layer, whereby an be plasticized with glycerol,«glycols, polyglycerols, ~the,support, the separation of the picture layer airspace isA between the transparent layer and ' oils, soft resins or pitches, high boiling syntheticF f plasticizers -such -as tricresylphosphate or iso- 50 amylphthalate. ’I'he adhesive which is applied and. the diffusing support and the thickness of . the airspace bothbeing between .00005 inch and . .005 inch. either to the reflecting base or to the transparent 8. A photographic color print according to sheet or even to both is distributed by any of the claim 'l Ain which an additional transparent pel usual photomechanical printing processes such as 'licle is included as part ofthe transparent layer. offsetting or transferring from a plate or .cylin- 55 lbetween the image bearing .part Aand the support. ~' der form, or by spraying from an atomizer ar- _ ' 1 , -i). A thin supporting layer for photographic ranged to deposit only dispersed areas of adhesive. - records which comprises a light >diffusing layer, Alternatively, the fluid 'adhesivey may be applied a transparent peilicle attached tol the layer only on a receiving surface arranged with a-high- wet " etdistributed areas of contact less than 10% of _ ting _angle so that theadhesive forms small.dis-. 60 the total area and each less than one 'twentieth _ crete droplets 'which dry or vset in discrete areas of _an inch wide, the airspace between the layer oron the other hand, the adhesive may hev inthe. and the pellicle Ahaving a `thickness between \ I form of >globules dispersed in a fluid which is .00005 andv .005 inch.' _» flowed over the surface, the continuous phase of ' ._ 1'0. A thin supporting layer for a photographic t the fluid .containing a quantity or ‘colloid drying 65 record comprising a light diiiusing layer and a to a thin> layer on the surface whereas the globf ` 'transparent peuieleeanered to the laye;- enly' by . ules are relatively thick and constitutethe ad- ' hesive >at which the only optical contact is made between the laminated sheets. . ' ’ ’ Having thus-described ‘various embodiments of elements _or adhesive covering less than 10%- of „the total area. the «airspace between the layer '70 and thev pellicle .having av thickness between .11. Aand thinsupporting .005 inch.> '~ layer. _for. alphotolraphic . , not ` . 1.00005 my invention, I wish to'point out that it limited to these structures 'but is of the scope of record comprising a light-diffusing layer. the top the appended claims. surface of which has elemental areas in' relief ` _ ' ' " coveringlessthlnl0$>cithetotàlarea~anda 2,400,366 4 thin transparent pellicle adhering only at the with an airspace between theiayer and the pel; top of the elemental areas, the airspace between the layer and thepellicle having a thickness be licle having a thickness? between .00005. and .005 v inch except at sa-id elemental areas. tween .00005 and .005 inch. 17. A thin supporting layer for photographic' records comprising two transparent pellicles at' ' l . 12. A light sensitive. material comprising a sup port according to claim 9 and a sensitive layer on tached to each other only at distributed areas of’ contact less than.10% of the >total area and each less than one twentieth' of anl inch’wide, the airspace between the pellicles having a thick port according to claim l0 and a sensitive. layer 10 ness between .00005 and '.005' inch and a light dif on the pelllcle. ~ ’ . fusing layer attached to the outside of one o_f‘ 14. A light sensitivevmaterial comprising a sup port according to claim 11 and a sensitive layer the pellicle. ' 13. A light sensitive material comprising a sup the pellicles. on the> pellicle. ' . ‘ ì , , . , I 18. A photographic sheet material-- comprising a transparent layer, a light diffusing layer and 15. The method of preparing a support for a photographic record which comprises printing 15 between the two layers an airspace with a thick adhesive according to a halftone screen pattern ness between .00005 and .005 inch and with occa onto a layer of a light-diffusing support, the ad hesive covering less than 10% of the total area sional contact' areas which ‘have a width less 'than one twentieth of an inch and which have an area ‘land fastening a thin transparent pellicle to the less than 10% of thetotal area. ` 19; A sheet material according- to claim 18 in layer only by said adhesive, with an airspace be-, 20 which the transparent layerV contains a multi tween the layer and the pellicle having a thick colored picture and the light diffusing layer is a ness between .00005 and .005 inch except at said adhesive areas. ' ' support for the picture; ' ` 20. A sheet material according to claim 18 in -16. The method of preparing a support for a photographic record which comprises forming a >25 which the light diffusing layer is a sensitive emul sion and the transparent layer is a support for light diiîusing layer with elemental areas in low relief less than 10% of the total area on one. surface thereof and'fastening a thin transparent pellicle only to the tops of said elemental areas, the emulsion. - ‘ I ' g t , j ALEXANDER MURRAY. '