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Патент USA US2400366

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May 14, 1946.
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A, MURRAY
PHOTOGRAPHIC
SUPPORT
Filed Jan. s, 194s
,PRIOR Ah‘r
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2,400,366
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2 Smets-sheet, 1
May 14, 1946.
'
A, MURRAY
PHOTOGRAPHIC
2,400,366
SUPPORT
Filed Jan. 6, 1945
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_
I
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIAG. |o.
ALEXANDER MURRAY
'
INI/ENTOR
Jímä@
NWS
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ATT'Y ¿a AGT `
Paiements-1_4,
A2,400,366
'
IuNli'lazD »sTATEsfÍPATEN r OFFICE ö .
- 2,400,365
PnoròGnArnlc '_sUrPoR'r
_I .Alexander Murray, Rochester, N. Y., asslgnor to~ ~
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y., a
corporation of New' Jersey
.
Application January s, 1945, sem1N0.571,ss2 .
_ l
_
2o claims.
airspace must be’equal to or'less than this separa- ,I
This invention relates to photographic supports '
particularly those used for photographic color
prints. This is a continuation in part of _Serial
Number 493,367, filed July 3, 1943.
«A
.
In a _copendingf application, Serial No. 576,230,
illed. February 5, 1945,:W. _T. Hanson, Jr., and
, tion, these values -also constitute the upper limits
of the airspace thickness.
Ulv
tion can. have any 'thickness less than that just -
speciñ'ed'but of course there must be _some air
Optical contact or even thicknesses less
than one or two wave lengths of light introducinginterference ’patterns would not allow the inven
tion to operate properly, but mechanical contact
tween alight. diffusing support and the _image
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‘The airspace according to the present ~in'ven» ï
R. M. Evans describe the advantages4 in color
photographyY when anI airspace is introduced be
' bearing layer.
‘
(ci. 95;-8)
,
It is the object 4of the present invention tol'pro
at _scattered points, as with arough or textured _
vide a simple practical and useful method of pro
>-ducing such an airspace.\ .It is also an object
surface would" still permit the operation of the
`present ‘invention .quite satisfactorily.- vThe in
j of the invention to provide a color print having
>yan airspaced support.
_ termediate areas ,of course are> separated more
' than one or two wave lengths of light. _ There
fore. the present invention requires theairspace
_The >purposeof this _continuation in part ap
plication is to include certain limitations as to
' the thickness of the airspace which-are inherent
- _in the invention and which distinguish over prior
_ (or other low index medium) to have a thickness
_ greater than .00005 inch and since the separation
of the picture and diffusing layers is equal to or
arrangements which actually have nothingy
to do with the present invention. For example
greater than the- airspace, this is the lower limit
of the separation. Thus-both the airspace ana '
the separation of tile picture and diffusing layers`
_U. S. Patent 315,703, Bencke et al., shows a picture
layer airspaced from a- diiiusing layer in order to \.
must be between .00005 inch and .005 inch pref-A
erably less than '.001 inch.
'_Other» objectsl and advantag’s of the invention '
will be apparent from the following description
when read inconne'ction with' the accompanying .
drawings, in which:
get a softened appearancedue to halation which- v
is exactly opposite -to the purpose and eii‘ect of
the present invention. In the Bencke arrange
-ment, the separation of the picture layer and the .
diffusing layer is very large, many times the total
. ' ' Figs. 1 and 2 l'illustrate the theory of the air
thickness ofordinaryphotographic papers so that ’
spaced support;
‘ the scattered light reduces the detail contrast, L30
'2 the'sharpness, and the color saturation of _the4
- picture giving asoftened or “porcelain” appear
ance.
Even _in ordinary 'photographic prints in
_ which the diffusing layer is attached to the pivc-
‘e Figs. 3 to 9 illustrate in section or plan various
embodiments of the invention; andI
_' Figs. 10 and-11 illustrate steps in the methodsA _
- 'of preparing the supports illustrated in Figs. 3 to 9.
ture layer, this eiïect is not present. For con-` 35 , In Fig. 1 an image bearing layer I0 is separated
venience the scattering of light in the Bencke et ' ~ by an airspace Il from a light diffusing support
al. arrangement may be referred to as “primary
such as paper or film containing a translucent
pigment. For simplification this support is rep
halation” in which- case it should be-noted that
the effect of “primary halation” in ordinary pho- ` resented by a transparent layer I2 and a trans
tographic printsis negligible since the spreading .40 lucent layer I3, the diifusion being assumed to
of light thereby is less than the minimum detail
of the picture anyway.
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_ take place at'the interface Il. Of course the lay
er .lz may b_e infinitesimal in thickness-‘0r the - v
.
However,‘.in-ordinary- color'prints, 'there is what .- light diifusion may be distributed throughout the .
may be termed “secondary halation”. due to mul
?_iple internal reñections within >.the picture layer. .45 " Light represented by*V a ray 'I5 stri-kes the dlf- .
>This secondaryoxj residual halation is removed _Iifusing surface M_' at _the point l1 and is ’_diil’used.` ' ‘
Support.
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i bythe present-_invention.v 1 vThe present invention -_ _ Part of this light. as represented-bythe ray I8 l
would have no value in any arrangement having lflzia'sses lback through the color layer l0. ~1 Light__ ‘
_;an'objectionable degree of primaryhalatlon. If
'diffused at high -obliqu'ity. such as indicated by '
the separation'of _theïpicture and di-ifusing layers 50A
-n‘ected
within
. l0A may
thelayer
-beïtotally
I 2 and
andstrikes
internally
the dif-_.
re-' _'
were made greater than ‘£000 of an inch, primary , the rays
,halation' due tothe Bencke effect would counter
`fusingasurface Il again» _at the point 2l;
.ray `
act the function of the present invention render-' _ ’
ing" it inoperative. lPreferably this separation
should be less than jA000 of an inch._._ Since the
_20 -may also strike this point-'2l directly and.
v of course,'is much more intense
the ray I8.
owever, light'from theypoint 2l. _is'made .up of
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2.499.860
tive emulsion and the support layer or layers 62
two parts the major portion ofwhich came 'front
the ray 20. Part of this as shown by the ray
22 passes to the eye 23 of an observer who at
the moment is examining a portion of the image
in a layer I0 adjacent to the point 2|. This ray
22 will be mainly colored by the portion of the
layer I0 near the point 2| because the ex
traneous ray I9 is not highly'colored since it
passed through the layerl I0 only once and then
practically directly through as indicated by the
and 5l are transparent.
-
Figs. 3 to 6 are cross sectional views- for either v
the .embodiment shown in Fig. 'l or that shown
in Fig. 8. Fig. 7 is specifically shown as a plan
view of the element 62 of the Fig. 5. In Fig.
8, a similar element 10 has lparallel ridges 1|.~ I
have found it desirable to use a halftone screen
' pattern- such as either of these, in which there
10 are at least 10 lines to the inch, or in_the’case
. portion I6.
However, according to the prior art as shown
in Fig. 2 an extraneous light striking the point
of small prints, possibly 60 or 100 or even more
lines per inch. In any case the width of the
supporting areas should be less than 1/20 of an
inch and the area should be less _than 10% of
v36 is diffused to send a ray 31 directly back and
a highly obliqueray 38 passes, as shown by the 15
portions 39, obliquely and hence through a thick
portion of the color layer 30 before it strikes
a second point of diiîusion lil. Although this ray
38 forms only a small portion of the light in the
the total area.
.
î
Fig. 9 is representative of various texture ar
rangements of »the support pattern. For 'ex
ample, the texture maybe that of linen, tapestry,
silk, lace, burlap, reticulation pattern. or the
ray_42 compared with the primary illuminating 20 grain of coarse paper. The use of a texture has
ray 40 this extraneous ray 33 may be highly
colored and cause highlight stain if the region
of the image 30 adjacent to the point _dl ha-p
pens to be a highlight.
Thus the airspace Il
of Fig. 1 increases the brilliance and decreases
the highlight stains of a color print. This is
all described by Hanson and Evans in the above
mentioned application.
»
According to the present inventionl the air
the advantage that a relatively large pattern can
be employed which is quite visible, especially with
small prints, but is still unobtrusive. The main
support 12 is provided with ridges or other con
tact areas 13 which constitute the -pattern or
texture.
’
` In each> of the figures the- front interface of
the lov.,r index or airlayer is smooth, substan
tially parallel to the front surface of the pic
space is produced by having the picture bearing 30 ture layer and non-diffusing. If this interface
were diffusing as‘it probably is in the Bencke
layer together with any intermediate >layers that
arrangement referred to above, the primary hala
may be necessary separated from the light dif
tion would be extended and also there would no
fusing support by air, but attached thereto by
longer be complete elimination of the secondary
occasional contact areas each of which has a
halation as by the present invention.
width less than 1/2o` oi’ an inch and the area of
In my copending application, Serial No.
contact being lessv than 10% of the total area.
511,661, filed‘concurrently herewith, I have de
Such an arrangement may bein the form of a
scribed a modiiication of the present invention
halftone pattern such as halftone dots or lines
Awhich does not require the contact areas to be
or may be in the form of a texture which is
especially useful when larger contact areas are 4.0 less than A10% of the ‘total area. althoughy they
are still preferably less than 50% for each' set
of contact areas, two such sets being used in
successive layers, but- out of register so that
In Fig. 3 the image bearing layer 50 is sep
effectively there is’ a 100% airspace.
arated by an -airspace 5l from a transparent '
Fig. l0 illustrates one method of making the
layer 53 and a light diffusing layer 5s. The laye.“ 45
`support
and hence the whole photograph illus
50 is supported by adhesive spots 52 on the layer
trated in Fig. 4. An adhesive 15 is picked up by
53.
a drum 1B and appliedthereby to the tops of
In the antihalation embodiment' of the inven-s
relief areas 18 on a. drum 11. These areas are
tion the layer '50 is a sensitive emulsion and isÍ the
desired which are, however, only unobtrusively
apparent.
.
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light diffusing one; the layers 53 and 54 are 50 shown large for clarity, but in practice are quite small. A transparent pellicle 55 moves over the
both transparent.
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drum 11 being held in contact therewith by a
Fig. 4 differs from Fig. 3 by the inclusion of a
pressure roller 19 and this pellicle 55 picks up,
pellicle layer 55 as part of the image bearin‘sr
52. The
layer which has the advantage that the support ~ from the relief area 18, _adhesive spots
pellicle
55
and
adhesive
spots
52
are
then
pressed
consisting of the pellicle layer 55, the layer 5! 55
with adhesive spots 52 and the layers 53 and 55
can be prepared separately before the sensitive
y, layer 55 is applied thereto.
Figs. 5 and 6 are similar 'to 3 and ,4, the pic
>'rito contact with a -layer 53 between pressure
rollers 80. This results in the arrangement shown
as interlayers in the cross section of Fig. 4.
. Fig. 11 similarly shows the method of produc
ture layer being 60, the airspace being 5I, the 60 ing the combination of layers 65 and 62 shown in
Fig. 6. The layer 62 is molded to have relief
support being made up of transparent layer 62
and a translucent layer 64. The contact areas
in this case are in the form of relief spots 63
areas 53 projecting from one surface thereof.__
The tops of these relief- areas are provided with
adhesive 85 by means of a _drum 56 and pressure
on the layer 82, _the image bearing layer being
supported only by the tops of the elemental 65 roller 81. The pellicle 65 is then pressed into
contact with theftops of the relief areas 63 by
spots. In Fig. 6 an additional pellicle 65 forms
means of pressure rollers 85. The resulting unit
part of the image bearing layer and a layer 66
consisting of layers 52 and 55 with van airspace
of cement is shown between the layer 62 and the
is useful both in the manufacture of supports for
layer.- 64. The layers 65 and 82 as mounted form ,
prints and also for transparent sensitive ñlm since
a unit which can be added to any translucent
>the airspace acts to reduce halation.
support before the color picture or sensitive layer
The airspace support ls thus particularly useful
is added to the surface thereof.
'.
with a. sensitive photographic `>material since it
As with Fig. 3, these Figs. 5 and 6 are also
reduces halation and- with finished colorl prints
representative of the antihalatlon form of lthe
invention in which the front layer 50 is a sensi 75 since it reduces highlight stain and improves color
.
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.
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a,soo,see
`saturation. Both -oi’ these eifects are obtained,
y
when the sensitive nlm is intended ‘for color pho-> -
tography -and-- the final result is processedl to a
1.*A'- photographic color print comprising- a
layer containing a multicolor picture, a light
diffusing support for the picture layer and be
tween the 'support and the'picture layer an air- . By `way of examples.' it is pointed out that a 5 space with~ occasional contact areas between the .
' picture layer and the support which contact areas
halftone dot pattern, say 150 lines per linch which
.
have a width less than onetwentieth of an inch
will not be_detectable tothe unaided. eye, is'im
color print.
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._ printed, transferred orfoiiset allover the surilace> '_ _» and have en area ereentaet less than 10%'01 the
'_vto. be treated._ vThe ink thus printed-is,- for ex- ` _ -total area, the separation of the picture. layer
. 'ample'a flexible thermoplastic material or syn- 10 vund the diifusing support `and the thickness of
thetic resin rendered solvent. Preferably thel 4 the airspace both being between .00005 inch and '
-dots areof sucha size on the plate -that they
2. A photographic color print according to
_ - occupy about 1%v 'of the total area. iThe adhesive
.005 inch.
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' spreads. somewhat ¿in the printing «operation " 4 claim 1 in which -the contacts are dots distributed
The solvent from the adhesive spots is allowed to 15 according to a halftone screen pattern with more
than 100 to the square inch. `
’ evaporate after which the sheets can be rolled or"
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3. Av photographic color print according to
piled and stored until required. When such a
sheet is to be used in laminating a finished trans
claim- 1 in which the contacts are distributed ac
cording to a-texture pattern. _
parency containing a multi-color picture, onto -
paper-or a light diiïusing nlm. the transparency -20
Ais rolled in'contact -with‘the prepared side o_f the
y.
4. A photographic color print according to
claim 1 in which the contacts are relatively nar- >
row parallel _lines separated by relatively wide
. support, between heated steel rolls at a tempera-`
spaces.
5 'ture which Ais harmless to the j colorants in the
_
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_
.
5. A- photographic color print comprising _a
layer containing a multicolor picture
spread still-further in the operation but reasòn- 25 f transparent
and a light diifusing support for the layer, the
ablefco'ntrol of the'fusing temperature, which
support and layer being attached only by ad
dependson the/resin used, _keeps thev final-area ' e hesive spots less than`0ne twentieth of> an inch
less than 10%"ofthe total area thus permitting
'width and having an area less than 10% of the
realization of at least. 90% o'f the advantages o_f o in
total
area, whereby there is effectively an air
airspaced backing.
y
_ 3
space between the‘layer and the support, the
Stiliï'another example involves the making of
a prefabrication airspaced printing stock, such as ' separation of the ‘picture layer and the'difl’using
support and the thickness of` the airspace both
described inV connection with Figs. 10 and 11 above.
' picturebut which fuses the resin dots. The dots
peper.
` being between .00005 inch and .005 inch.
6. A photographic color print according to I Y
white pigmented plastic sheet, .translucent glass, 35 -claim
5 in -which between the adhesive spots and.
porcelain, or enameled metal-sheets, .is used .for '
the
picture
layer, there is an additional pellicle‘
a'. .base and-separated from this baseby a thin
layer adhering uniformly to the picturelayer. - .
airspace occupying the major portion of the "total
' ’1. A photographicl color print comprising a
- The white reflecting base which may be
'
\ area is a- transparent layer or pellicleor Cellotransparent layer containing a multicolor'picture' _
’ ph'ane, synthetic or natural plastic sheet, gelatin, 40 and a light-diffusing support for the layer, the
etc., the lamination or 'fastening to the reflected
surface .ofthasuppo’rt in contact-with the layer Ibase is providedby ‘dispersed areas, e. g. glues, ’
having elemental areas in- relief less than one
twentieth ofv an'inch wide and comprising less
j gelatin, casein-,pitch wax, natural- or synthetic
resins or gums, rubber, cellulosic esters, etc., so
distributed that the sanering regions produce 45' than 10% oi' thetotai area; the area or‘fthese '
-relief elements being the, only. areas in intimate
. optical contact over only a minor fraction. of the
total picture area.'4 These adhesives may of course
contact l with the transparent layer, whereby an
be plasticized with glycerol,«glycols, polyglycerols,
~the,support, the separation of the picture layer
airspace isA between the transparent layer and
' oils, soft resins or pitches, high boiling syntheticF f
plasticizers -such -as tricresylphosphate or iso- 50
amylphthalate. ’I'he adhesive which is applied
and. the diffusing support and the thickness of .
the airspace bothbeing between .00005 inch and .
.005 inch.
either to the reflecting base or to the transparent
8. A photographic color print according to
sheet or even to both is distributed by any of the
claim 'l Ain which an additional transparent pel
usual photomechanical printing processes such as
'licle
is included as part ofthe transparent layer.
offsetting or transferring from a plate or .cylin- 55 lbetween the image bearing .part Aand the support. ~'
der form, or by spraying from an atomizer ar- _ ' 1 , -i). A thin supporting layer for photographic
ranged to deposit only dispersed areas of adhesive.
- records which comprises a light >diffusing layer,
Alternatively, the fluid 'adhesivey may be applied
a transparent peilicle attached tol the layer only
on a receiving surface arranged with a-high- wet
" etdistributed areas of contact less than 10% of _
ting _angle so that theadhesive forms small.dis-. 60 the total area and each less than one 'twentieth _
crete droplets 'which dry or vset in discrete areas
of _an inch wide, the airspace between the layer
oron the other hand, the adhesive may hev inthe.
and the pellicle Ahaving a `thickness between \ I
form of >globules dispersed in a fluid which is
.00005 andv .005 inch.'
_»
flowed over the surface, the continuous phase of '
._ 1'0. A thin supporting layer for a photographic t
the fluid .containing a quantity or ‘colloid drying 65 record comprising a light diiiusing layer and a
to a thin> layer on the surface whereas the globf ` 'transparent peuieleeanered to the laye;- enly' by .
ules are relatively thick and constitutethe ad- '
hesive >at which the only optical contact is made
between the laminated sheets. .
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’
Having thus-described ‘various embodiments of
elements _or adhesive covering less than 10%- of
„the total area. the «airspace between the layer
'70
and thev pellicle .having av thickness between
.11. Aand
thinsupporting
.005 inch.> '~ layer. _for. alphotolraphic
.
,
not ` . 1.00005
my invention, I wish to'point out that it
limited to these structures 'but is of the scope of
record comprising a light-diffusing layer. the top
the appended claims.
surface of which has elemental areas in' relief
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coveringlessthlnl0$>cithetotàlarea~anda
2,400,366
4
thin transparent pellicle adhering only at the
with an airspace between theiayer and the pel;
top of the elemental areas, the airspace between
the layer and thepellicle having a thickness be
licle having a thickness? between .00005. and .005 v
inch except at sa-id elemental areas.
tween .00005 and .005 inch.
17. A thin supporting layer for photographic'
records comprising two transparent pellicles at'
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l
.
12. A light sensitive. material comprising a sup
port according to claim 9 and a sensitive layer on
tached to each other only at distributed areas
of’ contact less than.10% of the >total area and
each less than one twentieth' of anl inch’wide,
the airspace between the pellicles having a thick
port according to claim l0 and a sensitive. layer
10 ness between .00005 and '.005' inch and a light dif
on the pelllcle.
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’
. fusing layer attached to the outside of one o_f‘
14. A light sensitivevmaterial comprising a sup
port according to claim 11 and a sensitive layer
the pellicle.
'
13. A light sensitive material comprising a sup
the pellicles.
on the> pellicle.
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18. A photographic sheet material-- comprising
a transparent layer, a light diffusing layer and
15. The method of preparing a support for a
photographic record which comprises printing 15 between the two layers an airspace with a thick
adhesive according to a halftone screen pattern
ness between .00005 and .005 inch and with occa
onto a layer of a light-diffusing support, the ad
hesive covering less than 10% of the total area
sional contact' areas which ‘have a width less 'than
one twentieth of an inch and which have an area
‘land fastening a thin transparent pellicle to the
less than 10% of thetotal area.
`
19; A sheet material according- to claim 18 in
layer only by said adhesive, with an airspace be-, 20
which the transparent layerV contains a multi
tween the layer and the pellicle having a thick
colored picture and the light diffusing layer is a
ness between .00005 and .005 inch except at said
adhesive areas. '
'
support for the picture; '
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20. A sheet material according to claim 18 in
-16. The method of preparing a support for a photographic record which comprises forming a >25 which the light diffusing layer is a sensitive emul
sion and the transparent layer is a support for
light diiîusing layer with elemental areas in low
relief less than 10% of the total area on one.
surface thereof and'fastening a thin transparent
pellicle only to the tops of said elemental areas,
the emulsion.
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j ALEXANDER MURRAY.
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