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Патент USA US2400867

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Mgy 21, 1946.
N. E. LINDENBLAD
2,400,867
ANTENNA
Filed June 27, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
May 21, 1946.
N. E. LINDENBLAD
‘ANTENNA
2,400,857
Filed June 27, 1942
$711974’
40 f
I
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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40
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780°
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TO
BY
ATTORNEY
Patented
ay 21, 1946
2,400,867
_
‘Nils a. Lindenblad, Rocky-Point, N. Y., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a. corporation of
' Delaware
‘
, Application June 27, 1942, Serial No. 448,744
11 Claims. (c1. 250—“33) '-
.
~ the form of an elongated somewhat cylindrical
tennas'and, more particularly, to such antennas
‘tube having a ‘streamline cross-section. The
which are particularly adaptable to useon air- >
cross-sectionv is somewhat in the form ‘of a tear
planes with a minimum disturbance of the aero- '
dropiasj‘shown in Figure 1a. The tube is pro
The present invention relates to directive an
~
, dynamics of the supporting structure.
~
'
. vlded with a narrow slot it! running longitudi
- ‘nally‘along its vblunt edge. While not so shown,
‘the slot‘may be ‘?lled in or covered with an insu
' lating material of good dielectric characteristics.
, An object of the present invention is the pro
vision of a directive antenna for use on airplanes.
Another object of the present invention is the
provision of an'antenna, asaforesaid, which is
Any of the recently discovered plastics, such as
streamline in form and is adapted ,tobe mounted 10 polymerized styrene, may be used. The slotted
externally. on the. supporting structure. '
A further object of the present invention is the ~
provision of a compact directive antenna struc- ~
ture.
.
.
.
l
,
tube is'fed by high frequency oscillatory energy
from ‘a source of such energy (not shown) by
‘ ‘means of a transmission line TL. The transmis
: sion line TL may conveniently be of the concen~v
Still; another object of the present invention is 45.?‘ ‘tric type havinglan outer sheath f3 and an inner
vthe provision of a simple, mechanically sturdy‘;
conductor ' l4. ? The‘outer sheath is, of course,
directive antenna'foruse on an airplane.
- , _.
' 1* electrically connected to the tube while the inner
The foregoing objects, andothers which may “conductor I 4 is ‘connected to a. predetermined
‘appear, from the following detailed description,
point l5 within the tube. The point of connec
tion I5 01’ conductor'l?v‘to‘ the interior of tube
10 irs's‘o?chosen‘that the impedance of the an
are attained by the provision of an antenna in
the form of a conductive tubehavinga tear drop
cross-section, said tube being slotted along its
blunt edge. The slot maybe covered by plastic
or other insulating material?having good dielec
tenna is'lmatched to the ‘impedance of the trans
mission‘ line TL,.thus avoiding reflection of en
ergy back into the transmission line.
In Figure l-lthe radiator H) has been indicated
1‘as having a length approximately equal to one
‘wavelength for the energy with which it is ener
tric characteristics. Theptub'e is fed transversely
25 1
at one point and is of ys'uch dimensions that a
phase velocity within the antennais obtained
whichis-of a higher-order than the velocity of
‘ gize'd. ' Of course, the length may be made greater,
light.v The radiator thusradiates energy polar- - -' >
'
if desired. However, lifl'the length is increased
ized in the plane of its transverse, cross-section. 30 ‘very
greatly it may be desirable to energize the
The radiation pattern obtained is of the ?gure 8
antenna ‘at several points along its length in
type with the frontallobe in the direction of the ‘7 ‘order ‘to prevent random phase irregularities
blunt edge much greater than the rear lobe. The
‘along-the length of ‘the radiator ill. Since the
- pattern in the plane of the axis of the tube and
circumferential dimensioning of tube it has been
of the slot is a-function of the length of the tube.
The presentinvention will. be vmore fully un 3.5 so chosen that a phase velocity along the length
of the tube‘ I0 is of 'a‘higher order‘ than the
derstood by reference to the-following detailed
velocityo'f light,‘ energy in all sections of the
description, which is accompanied by‘drawings in ‘i cylinder‘.
is ‘substantially in ‘phase if the length
which Figure 1 illustrates a side View of an em
does
not
exceed one wave length. The
bodiment of the invention, while Figure 1a is a 40‘ radiation greatly
from‘ the ‘antenna is polarized in a
cross-section taken along lines la, la of Figure "plane of the‘cross-section
of Figure 1a. The
1, and Figure 2 illustrates diagrammatically‘ the -' radiation Pattern obtained in this plane, which
is
» directivity patterns obtained with the antenna of
usually the horizontaliplane, is of the ?gure 8
Figure 1; Figure 3 isv amodi?cati'on of the'form
with the rrontanob'e in the direction of the
of the antenna shown in FigureLwhile Figure 45*"type
blunt edge; much greater than the rear lobe. A
4 is a'further modi?cation; and Figure 5 is a - ~ typical directivity pattern in the horizontal plane
directivity pattern for the modi?cation of Fig
is shown by curVeIlI-of'Figure 2. The radiation
‘ure 4.
‘
-
~.
In the following detailed description for con
venience-the operation of the'inv‘ention will be
considered as a transmitting antennaonly. How
over. it -must' be‘ clearlylunderstoodl that,~'if~ de
sired, the invention is equally adaptable to the
i pattern in the pl‘ane'of the axis of the tube Hi
' {and'the slot’is a function of the length of the
1-cylinder.‘ ‘For ‘the' particular length shown in
~1Figure‘1, the radiation "pattern-in this plane, the
-¢vertical,.is shown by‘ ‘curve 22 of Figure '2." - I This
jf‘directivitypattern will‘ be somewhat aifected by
the amplitude distribution valong the length of
In Figure 1 there is shown an antenna vIll in as cylinder 10 which, in turmdepends on the ter
reception of radiant energy waves.
>
2,400,887
mination of the ends of the cylinder of the tube.
1
mounted near the nose of theplane where the
If the ends are closed by conductive sheets the '
' distribution will approach the sinusoidal from
side walls converge rather sharply. '
' -
i
While I have particularly shown and described
several modi?cations of my invention,‘ it is to be '
end to end. The vertical directivity pattern will
then be somewhat broader but more free from
distinctly understood that my invention‘ is ‘not
limited thereto but that improvements within the
secondary lobes. .
In Figure 3 is shown an'fapplication; of the p ' "scope of the invention may be madeilf ‘(I ‘
'
_
radiator .of Figure 1 to the front of an airplane
Iclaim:
1. An antenna including a section
»
. of > conductive
_ i
wing 30. A pair of radiators I 0 and i0’ are verti
cally mounted at the front edge of the wing a dis 10 tube having a narrow longitudinal slot therein,
tance B one from the other.
The radiators are .
energized by a pair of transmission lines. such as
TL of Figure 1. In order'to provide a maximum
response along line M, normal to'the ~edge of
the circumference of said tube from one edge, of '
.said slot to the other being of the approximate
"order of half of the operating wavelength and
' means for soenergizing said antenna as to‘ .‘
wing 30, the currents in radiators l0 and lllf 15 radiate energy polarized in a plane normal to the
length: of said'tube.
should be in phase, where the distance D between '
the radiators is a half wavelength as shown in
2. An antenna including a section of conduc
Figure 3, and the feed lines run parallel to the
tive tube having a narrow longitudinal slot ex
edge of wing 30. There iseffectively a half wave
tending from end to end thereof, ‘the circumfer
difference in length of the'lines. -,Thus, to insure 20 ence of said tube from one edge of said slot to the
. the correct energization of the radiators,-the feed
other being of the approximate order of half of
linesmay be energized in a push-pull or phase
the operating wavelength and means for energiz- opposing relationship. Due to the half wave dif
ing said antenna, including a concentric trans
ference in distance that the energy is required to
mission line having an outer sheath andan inner travel over the feed lines, when the energy arrives 25 conductor, said outer sheath being connected ‘to '
at the radiators I0 and i0’, they will be energized
said tube at a- point diametrically'opposite to said
invan in phase or eo-phasal relationship. If a
slot and said inner conductor being connected to
maximum of the radiation pattern .is desired
the inner surface of said tube at such‘point that
. along some" other line with the distance D re
the impedance of said antenna, is substantially
maining constant the phase relationship of 30 equal'to the impedance of said transmission'line.
‘energy applied to radiators ‘l0, l0’. may be varied
3. An ‘antenna including a plurality of, tubes as,v
by using different lengths of matched lines feed
set forth in claim 2, said tubes being arranged
ing the different units.
The. phase difference
with their slots parallel and facing in the same
must then be such that combined with space dif
direction and means for energizing said'tubes in/
ference in the desired direction the radiation
_ avpredetermined relationship.‘ ‘ '
from the'various units adds-in an in phase rela
4. An antenna including a plurality of tubes as‘
set forth in claim 2, said tubes being arranged
A further modi?cation of the presentinvention
side by side with their slots parallel and facing in
is shown in Figure 4 in which half sections 40, 40'
the same direction and means for. energizing'said
‘ .
tionship-
I
,
i
i
>
,
‘
vof a- radiator structure such as that shown in 40 tubes in an in phase relationship,‘ the spacing
between said ‘tubes being such that a maxlmumY
which may, ‘for example, be the side wall‘ of the - ~ ' of the radiated ?eld occurs normal to‘ a line join
, Figure l, are mounted on a conductive sheet 45 -
. I fuselageforsbody of. an: airplane.v ‘The half sec
tions v4I‘l and .40? may be spaced a distance equal
- to ahalfwave length along a horizontal line on
the sheet 45.. The half sections are energized by
means of transmission lines T111 and T10, which
are energizedv in a push-pull or phase opposing
relationship?from a vsource of radiant energy
.»ing'saidtubes.
' 5.v An antenna - including
' a plurality‘v
"
‘*1
of'tubes
‘ .
" asv
set forth in claim 2, said tubes being arranged one
behind the other with their slots parallel and face
,‘ing in the same direction, said tubeslbein’g spaced *
apart a distance equal to one-half of the operat
ing wavelength, a ?at conductive sheet forming
waves (not shown),thr_ough the phase invert 50 ' one side of both of said tubes and extending be
ing network 48. y The phase ‘inverting, network 48
. is v, constructed according»; to thepprinciples set
forth inv my prior Patent -,#,2,2.38,904, granted .
7 April 22, 1941., Since this constructionv is not an =
-
~ essential partqof the. present‘ invention, other
means vof applying push-pull energy to, trans
mission lines 'L'Liv and TL: beingequally adaptable ,
thereto, the phase inverting network.“ will not
be “further, .describedhere, -,A more complete
yond said tubes a‘ substantial ''dits'arrce‘?n‘v all
" directions.
' 6. An-antenna including a plurality of curved
plates arranged one beside the other on a con-'
‘ducting sheet, one edge of each of said plates be! '
ing in electrical contact with ‘said ‘sheet'and the ,
other spaced a short distance therefrom to-‘form'
'an elongated slot, corresponding parts of said
‘ plates being so spaced apart and so energized that
understandinguof theconstruction may be had by v60 .a 'directivity pattern is formed‘ havingaqpror
~ ,
,e
reference to the aforesaidmatent. - , I 1
The radiation pattern obtained ‘by an , antenna
structure as shown inFigure vdis shown bycurve “
1’
, pounced maximum inclined fronia'lineperpene .
" dicular to said sheet.
-
"
'
v
'
7; vAn antenna‘ including'a ' "lurallty' of 'elon-:
curved plates arranged'on'eibeside the other .
closeness;of,;all~,parts--;ofthe antennaltohconduci 652389185
on a conducting sheet, one longitudinal’edg'eof
each of said plates being in electrical contact _‘
is of considerable magnitude. Within the- practi
p‘; ;tive-sheet 45 ga deyiationre?eot isobtained which
" ' .»
cal 'limits-ofdimensions ,oisheet 45 the deviation
is. of» such magnitude vthatthe antenna system
'-'"I'shown-.- in Figure tmaybe ‘used onlyVwhere a
with said sheet and the other spaced ashort dls- I
tance therefrom to form an elongated slot, said
slots facing in the same direction, correspond
! 'directi'vity-pattem having amaximum'consider
ably off, the longitudinal:. axis of the plane is de
sired. .~For this..reason'the;,antenna ofFigure 4
ing parts of said plates being spaced apart a
distance equal to a half of the, operatingiwave
length, said plates being energized in apush- '
would not ordinarily be used for the "homing”
type of direction ?nding,v except as a pair
pull relationship from a source of high frequency '
energy so that a directivlty- pattern is formed
_
'
-
1
.
having a pronounced maximum inclined from a
line perpendicular to said sheet.
8. An antenna including a section of conduc
tive tube having an arrow longitudinal slot there
in, the circumference of said tube from one edge
01' said slot to the other being substantially equal
to one half of the operating wavelength, said tube
having an overall length substantially equal to
one wavelength, and means for so coupling trans
ducer equipment to said antenna that said an
tenna is operative with electromagnetic wave
energy polarized in a plane normal to the length
of said tube.
9. An antenna including a section of conduc
tive tube having a narrow longitudinal slot there
in, the circumference of said tube from one edge
of said slot to the other being of the approximate
order of one half of the operating wavelength,
3
10. An antenna including a section of conduc
' the tube having a narrow, longitudinal linear slot
therein, the circumference of said tube from one
edge of said slot to the other being substantially
equal to one half of the operating wavelength
and a high frequency transmission line connected
to coupled points on said tube lying in a plane
normal to the longitudinal axis of said tube
whereby said antenna has a maximum response
to electro-magnetic wave energy polarized in a
plane normal to the length of said tube.
11. An antenna including an elongated curved
plate on a ?at conductive sheet, one edge of said
plate being in electrical contact with said sheet
and the other spaced at a distance therefrom to
form an elongated slot, the width of said curved
plate being substantially equal to one quarter of
the operating wavelengthand means for con
means for so energizing said antenna as to
radiate energy polarized in a plane normal to the 20 necting a conductor of a transmission line to said
curved plate at a point substantially midway be
length of said tube, said tube having a stream
tween the ends of said plate.
lined cross section.
NILS E. LINDENBLAD.
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