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Патент USA US2401706

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'June'4,‘ 1946.
J. MIHALYT
2,401,706
RANGE FINDER
Filed March 15, 1943
TFIGJL
2 Sheéts-Sheet 1
"
'
I
SEMI-TRANSPARENT ,
Z4
IRROR
-
'
‘ TRANSMITTING‘
AND ‘
REFL ECTING SURFACE
‘ JOSEPH MIHALYI
'
BY
'
INVENTOR
/
W
M“,
ATTY & AG'T
June 4, 1946.
J. MIHALYI
2,401,706
RANGE FINDER
Filed March 13, 1943
2 Sheets—Sheet 2
FIG; 3.
COLOR-DIFFERENTIATING TRANSMITTI
AND REFLEC TING SURFACE '
52
$51.
'76
47/
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WW7‘ 60
REFLEC
JOSEPH MIHALYI
INVENTOR
Mn. [6%
Patented June .4, 1946
2,401,706
g UNITED , STATES PATE NT OFFICE ’
2,401,706
'
.
RANGE moan
' Joseph Mihalyi, Rochester, N. Y.,
‘
'
‘
assignor to East- 1 '
, man Kodak Company,TRochester, N. Y., a. cor
poration of New Jersey
'
.
Applicationlidarch 13, 1943, ‘Serial‘No. ‘479,102 ‘
. 11 Claims.
(01. sis-2.7)
1
This invention relates to range ?nders. ‘Ituis
2
‘Plane; of course, two similar images may also a
‘be ‘formed on the other side of the objective in a
one of a series relating to this same subject,
which seriesincludes the following:
Title
Sign ‘ Filed
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Range ?nders-Case D.
Range ?nders-Case E .
Range ?nders—Case F .
.
but in a simple coincidence range ?nder, I prefer
to‘ use only‘one of the pairs of images. Thedou
ble plane system is‘useful, however, in ortho
‘Inventors
Mount for optical ele 461,584 Oct. 10,1942
ment
Range ?nder construc 461,585 Oct. 10,1942
tion.
Range finders-Case A.
. Jan.
Range ?nders—0ase B _
Range ?nders-Case O .
‘ second symmetrically located comparison plane,
Mihalm'. “
D0.
.10
DO. '1
Do.
Do.
.
Mar.
‘
"
'
Mihalyi, MacNeille.
Mihalyi, Tuttle.
Mihelyi.
pseudo stereo range ?nders, which are discussed
in Cases A and K of this series. ‘In any‘ form
of the invention some form of eyepiece is pro
vided for viewing the pair of images and light
deviating means are provided for-deviating one
object beam relative to the other for adjusting
coincidence of the images.
i
i
The preferred form of re?ecting~transmitting
Mar. 13,19 Holmes, Mihalyi.
15 objective is a symmetrical ‘one having centrally
Mar.
Mihalyi, MacNeille.
Range ?nders—Oase J __
Mar.
located therein a piano re?ecting-transmitting
MacNeille, Holmes.
Range ?nders—0ase K.
Mar. 13,1948 Mihalyi, MacNeille.
surface. The ‘transmitted beam from either side
Range ?nders-Case M.
June 23,1943 MacNeille.
‘
Range ?nders-Case N.
passes
through both halves of the symmetrical
June 23,1943 MacNcille, Mihalyi.
Range ?nders-Case 0.
June 23, 1943 MacNcille.‘
;
objective, whereas the‘ reflected ‘one ‘passes
Range ?nders-Case P . 505, 016 Oct. 5,1943 MacNeille, Mihalyi,
Range ?nders-Oase '1‘. 508,186 Oct. 29,1943 MacNeille. ‘,
through one-half of the‘objectiv'etwice. Since
the“ objective is symmetrical both beams are
focused equally. Furthermore, the‘objective as
' The present invention is fundamentally differ?
Range ?nders-Case G.
Range ?nders-:Case H
Range finders-Case 1..
Mar.
Do.
ent from all others of this series, but a. preferred
embodiment thereof combines it with the ‘auto
collimating features of ‘Cases A to F. The objects
of the present invention are simplicity of design,
accuracy, ease of use and particularly stability.
The latter advantage comes mainly from the use
of but a single objective to focus both of the
range ?nder beams. ‘
1
‘
,
According to, the invention, a range ?nder .is
made up with a re?ecting-transmitting objective
with the same focal power for transmitted and
re?ected beams, located between the viewing
points of the instrument with its optic axis ap
proximately parallel to a line joining the viewing
points. A re?ecting~transmitting objective is
one with a partly transmitting, partly re?ecting
a whole can be made quite sturdy and anything
which affects the objective as a whole will affect
both beams equally. ‘This results in great sta
bility in the range ?nder.
‘
Preferably, the re?ecting-transmitting surface
is dichroic to make‘the images of different col
ors to aid in distinguishing them; The disad
vantages of certain forms of dichroic re?ecting-Z
transmitting filters, which ‘have in the past‘rem .
dered them practically worthless in'range ?nders,
are overcome bythe use‘ of a re?ecting~transmit
ting surface which consists of optical interfer
ence layers‘ which transmit one‘color and reflect ‘ ‘
the complementary color. Various‘ forms 01.’ op
tical interfering layers suitable for‘ this ‘purpose
are known, ‘such for example as described ‘on ‘page
2,,column 1, line 58,'to column 2, line 2, of U. S.
surface so that light incident on the sbjective 40 ‘2,289,054, Dimmick, wherein the layer is used as .
from one side is split into two beams, one being
‘a beam splitter. In range ?ndersQaccordingto
transmitted, the other being re?ected and both
the present invention the layers ‘are used asa
- being focused. A lateral-inverting re?ector is
beam combiner and serve to add efficiency to the
positioned at one viewing point to send a light
instrument and distinctiveness‘ to the range finder
beam to the objective and is preferably ‘in the 45 images. This device is similarly useful in all'‘
form of a simple mirror or a single re?ecting sur
range ?nders which employ a‘ beam combiner.
face since this is the simplest device which will
One ‘preferred form of'the invention has the
introduce lateral inversion of an image.‘ A non
lateral-inverting re?ector as a simple ‘mirror, the
lateral-‘inverting reflector, such as one having
non-lateral-invertingreflector in the form of an
two re?ecting surfaces to reverse the lateral in
optical square such as a pentaprism or pair of
version, is positioned at the other viewing point
mirrors
and tilts the lateral-inverting mirror to
to re?ect the other object light beam to the‘ ob
introduce the light ‘deviation required for ad
jective. By the reflection‘ of one beam and the
justment of coincidence. ‘ By making one of the
transmission of the other, ‘the objective ‘then
re?ectors-semi-transparent or by offsetting the
forms two object images in a single comparison 55 objective Slightly so that the object beams pass
2,401,706
3
.
4
.Fig. 1 is a plan view of a simple form of the
obliquely therethrough, it is possible to have the
comparison plane near one of the viewing points.
invention;
This requires that the focal length of the objective
invention including the auto-collimating feature;
be slightly less than the distance from that view
ing point to the objective,
'
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a form of the
Fig. 3 is a plan view of a range ?nder incor- .
.
porating the optical system shown in Fig. 2;
In a preferred embodiment of the invention,
Fig. 4 is an enlarged drawing of an alternative v V
I the autocollimating feature of Cases A to F is
mechanism which may be substituted :for part
introduced by locating, at least optically in the
of the arrangement shown in Fig. 2;
comparison plane, a pair of adjustment coindi
vFig. 5 illustrates a different embodiment of
10
cant elements such as-a scale and index, a coincithe invention.
.
dence linefand ?ducial mark operating a scale
‘ _In Fig. 1 a range finder having a housing l0
and index or a coincidence/line and ?ducial mark
receives two beams of light from the object being
indicating any maladjustment of the instrument.
ranged and re?ects one of them by a non-later
Light from one of these adjustment coindicant
val-inverting reflector in the form of a penta prism
marks .is projected through the exact optical 15 II and re?ects the other by a semi-transparent
equivalent of the range ?nder system and is
mirror l2, both beams being directed in exact
brought to focus adjacent to the other element.
Of course, it is possible to set up the adjustment '
coindicant elements in the unused comparison
alignment toward an objective located between ’
the viewing points of the instrument with its
optic axis approximately parallel to the base of
. ?eld on the opposite side of the objective, but, 20 the instrument. The objective is symmetrical
such an arrangementmight-allow the introduc-_
consisting of two halves l3 and ‘I4 and a'semi
tlon of an error, if the objective happened toget
transparent mirror l5 cemented between the two
out ‘of symmetry. If the element light beam
halves. Light from the penta prism I l forms one
passes throughthe exact optical equivalent of
image in a comparison plane ‘20 and light from
that traversed by the object beams, the light
the semi-transparent mirror I2 is re?ected by the
deviating means operates to adjust both the ob
semi-transparent mirror I5 also into focus in the
comparison plane 20. The two object images
thus formed are viewed through an eyepiece 2|
?ector, it is preferable to add an auxiliary re
.by the eye 22 of an observer. The mirror I2 may
?ecting surface for re?ecting the element beam. 80 be tilted, i. e. rotated about a pivot 24 by a cam
Similarly, when the non-lateral-invertingv re
follower 25 engaging a rotatable cam 26. This
ject images and the element image.
When a
plano mirror‘is used as the lateral-inverting re
?ector includes two plano mirrors, one of them .
can re?ect both the object beam and the element
beam, but the other preferably has an auxiliary
tilting of the ‘mirror I2 adjusts the coincidence
of the two object images. and when they‘are. in
exact coincidence the range may be read by a
re?ecting surface for re?ecting the element beam. 35 scale 21 rotating with‘ the cam 26, against an
_In any‘ autocollimating form ‘of- the invention,
index 28.
'
i
‘'
the element beam must be once transmitted by
In-Figs. 2 and~3 a similar system is shown in ‘
the re?ecting-transmitting surface and once re
which the object light beams are received respec
?ected thereby. It is preferable to have a clear
tively by a semi-transparent mirror 30 and a non-‘
area or. highly ‘transmitting spot at the point at 40 lateral-inverting re?ector consisting of mirrors
which the element beam passes through this
3| and 32. The two beams are directed toward a
surface. Similarly, it is preferable to have a
symmetrical objective made up of two halves 33
highly gre?ectin'g spot such as a completely sil
with ;. dichroic ?lter 34 therebetween. The two _
‘vered spot at the point at which the element beam 46 object beams as respectively transmitted and re
is reflected by this surface. One or other of these
?ected pass through‘ an erecting'prism 35. and
spots or perhaps both of them is particularly re
are brought to focus in a reticle plane 36 to- form I.
quired in the embodiment of the invention where
images which may be viewed through an eye
in the re?ecting-transmittingsurface is di'chroic.
piece 31 by the eye 38 of an observer. To intro
Otherwise, one color component of the beamis
duce autocollimation, light from a lamp 38 is re
' absorbed (at least re?ected) during transmission
?ected by a prism 39 passed an'index mark 40
and the other color component is absorbed (at
located in the comparison :plane 36‘. This ele
least transmitted) [during re?ection, the net re
ment light beam traverses the erecting prism 35
sult being very low intensity in the element beam.
and passes through an aperture 4| in the mirror.
To overcome this, thetransmitting spot or the
30
to be collimatedby the objective. Preferably
re?ecting spotrshould be neutral and preferably 55 this element light beam is transmitted through
should ‘be highly transmitting orv highly re?ect
a hole ‘42 in the dichroic ?lter 34. The collimated
ing respectively.
element light beam is re?ected by the mirror 32
_- In the simplest form of the invention'the ob;
and an auxiliary reflecting surface 43 consisting
ject beams as re?ected from. the viewing points
of a bevel on the mirror 3| passed one side of the
- to the objective are in substantially exact align
objective to strike an auxiliary re?ecting surface
ment, 1. e. heading straight toward each other
‘ 44 consisting of a bevel on the mirror 30. The
and one 'of the re?ectors is semi-transparent and
beam re?ected from this surface “enters the
is between the objective and the comparison
objective, is re?ected by the dichroic ?lter 34 back
through the hole 4| ‘and erecting prism 35 to'form
plane. When this form of the invention is mod
an image 40’ in the comparison plane 36 adjacent
i?ed to include the auto-collimating feature, the _
to a scale 45 engraved‘thereon. As'shown in Fig.
reflector which is semi-transparent preferably
_lg._s a non-reflecting non-deviating spot for trans
3 the whole instrument is carried in a housing.
46 and the mirror 30 may be rotated'about'a piv- ,
nLtting the velement light beam both on the out
going and return journeys.
70 ot 48 by a, ranging screw 41. This adjustment
deviates the object beam re?ected by this mirror
The advantages of the invention and certain
30 toward the objective and similarly deviates the
' preferred embodiments thereof will be fully un
element
light beam as re?ected at the surface 44.
derstood from the following description when
The purpose of the hole 4| is two-fold, mainly
read ‘in connection with the accompanying draw
to allow the element light beam to traverse the
ings, in which:
i
.
'
‘
5
2,401,706
system without any undue absorption and sec
ond to prevent any deviation or doubling of the
element light beam which might introduce error.
The transparent support 42 on the dichroic ?lter
34 has a similar purpose and in this case is es
pecially necessary since if the element beam as
transmitted through the objective were ?ltered to
be one color and then as later re?ected to be the
6
jective 61 and the object image formed by the
mirror 60 ‘as re?ected by the objective 61 are not
used, but would be useful for any range finder
which‘ ‘requires two comparison planes. ‘
Having thus described the preferred embodi
mentsof my invention, I wish to point out that it
is not limited to these structures but is of the
scope of the appended claims.
complementary color, the amount of light re
WhatIclaim is:
,
'
s
maining, if any, would be extremely small. The 10
1.
A
range
?nder
of
the
type
having
two
spaced
spot at which the element light beam is re?ected
viewing points at which light beams are ‘re
at the dichroic ?lter may be silvered so as to be
ceived from an object being ranged and compris
neutral and highly re?ecting. The transparent
ing
a re?ecting-transmitting objective of the
spot 42 is, of course, neutral and highly trans
same focal power for transmitted and re?ected
15 beams, located between the viewing points with
In Fig. 4, the scale ‘and index shown in Fig. .2
its optic axis approximately parallel to, a line
I are replaced by a coincidence line and fiducial'
joining the viewing points, a lateral-inverting re
mark ‘system of the type described in detail in
?ector at one viewing point for re?ecting one ob
Case F of this series. In Fig. 4 the main ‘differences are that a disk‘ 50, illuminated by a lamp 5| 20 ject beam to the objective, a non-lateral-invert
ing re?ector at the other viewing point for ‘re
carries a spiral coincidence line 52 and a scale 53.
7
?eeting
the other object beam to_the objective
The light from these elements, the line 52 being
whereby. by re?ection of one beam and trans
the adjustment coindicant element in this case,
mission of the other the objective forms two ob
‘ enters the erecting prism 35 through a small
ject images in a comparison plane, means; for
prism 54 cemented to one surface thereof. After
viewing
the two images and means for deviating
the element light beam traverses the range finder
one object beam relative to the other for adjust
system it comes to focus forming images 52' and a
ing the coincidence of the images.
,
‘
53’ in the image plane 36. As long as the instru
2. A range ?nder of the type having two spaced
ment stays‘ in adjustment, the image 52' falls be
tween two ?ducial marks 55 and the range may 30 viewing points at which light beams are received
from an object being ranged and ‘comprising a
be read by‘the scale‘ 53' against any suitable in
symmetrical objective between the viewing points
dex, the ?ducial mark 55 serving this purpose as
with its optic axis approximately parallel to a
well as any other.‘ Various forms of this feature
line joining the viewing points and having a
are described in Case F mentioned above, the
present invention not being concerned with the 35 plano re?ecting-transmitting surface centrally
located in the objective to focus equally re?ected
differences therein.
and transmitted beams, a lateral-inverting re
In Fig. 5 one object light'beam is received by
?ector at one viewing point for re?ecting one ob
a simple mirror 60 carried on a support 6! which
mitting.
‘
,
.
is rotatable about a pivot 62 by a driving screw 63
mounted in the housing 64 of the instrument,
only a section of which is shown. The other ob
ject beam is re?ected by two mirrors 65 and 66.
The two object ‘beams instead of going directly
toward one another converge at ‘a slight angle to
pass through an objective 61 having a dichroic
re?ector 68 in the center thereof. As before, the
optic axis 69 of the objective 6B is approximately
parallel to a line joining the viewing points of the
40
ject beam to the objective, a non-lateral-inverb
ing re?ector at the other viewing point for re
?ecting the‘other object beam to the objective
whereby, by re?ection of one beam and trans
mission of the other the objective forms two ob
ject images in a comparison plane, means for
viewing the two images and means for deviating
one object beam relative to the other for adjust
ing the coincidenceof the images.
3. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which
the re?ecting-transmitting surface is dichroic.
instrument. The beam from the mirror 60 as
4. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which
transmitted by the objective and the beam from 50
the re?ecting-transmitting surface consists of‘
the mirror 66 as re?ected by the objective are in
optical interference layers which transmit one
alignment and form images in a comparison
plane 10. Preferably an unsymmetrical ?eld lens
color and re?ect the complementary color.
5. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which
‘H is adjacent to this plane to increase the ease
of viewing the images through an ‘eyepiece 12 by 55 the lateral-inverting re?e'ctor is a single plano
mirror, the light deviating means tilts said mir
the eye 13 of an observer. To introduce auto
ror and the non-lateral-inverting re?ector is an
collimation, light from a lamp 15 illuminates an
optical square.
adjustment coindicant element 14 and the ele
6. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which
ment light beam therefrom passes through the
the distance from one viewing point to the ob
objective 6'! to strike an auxiliary re?ecting sur
80 jective is slightly less than the focal‘ length of the face 76 cemented on the mirror 60, which inturn
objective and the comparison plane is near said
re?ects it to the mirror 66. The element light
viewing point.
‘
beam is then re?ected by an auxiliary re?ecting
7. A range ?nder according to. claim 2 in which
surface 11 on the mirror 65 toward the objective
striking a silvered spot 18 on the dichroic ?lter 65 a pair of adjustment coindicant elements are lo
cated at least optically in the comparison plane
68, whereat it is again re?ected and brought to
and there is included means for projecting
focus forming an image 80 in the comparison
through the exact optical equivalent of the ob
plane 70. It will be noted that this embodiment
ject-image forming system, light from one of the
eliminates the need for a semi-transparent view
elements to form an image adjacent to the other
ing point re?ector. Of course, the element light
element.
beam may strike a transparent spot in the di
8. A range ?nder of the type having two spaced
chroic re?ector 68 in which case the silvered. spot
viewing points at which light beams are received
18 is not necessary, but still useful. In this.par
from an object being ranged‘and comprising a ‘
ticular arrangement, the object image formed by
symmetrical
objective between the viewing points '
light from the mirror 66 as transmitted by the ob 75
with its optic axis approximately parallel to a
2,401,706
7
' 13. A range ?nder according to claim 38in
.
line joining 'the‘viewing' points and having a
piano re?ecting transmitting surface centrally
which the re?ecting-transmitting surface is di
chroic and includes an approximately neutral
located in the objective to focus equally, re?ected
and ‘transmitted beams; a lateral-inverting re
?ector at one viewing point‘ for re?ecting one ob
ject beam to the objective, a non-lateral-invert
highly re?ecting spot forre?ecting the element
beam without‘appreciable loss of intensity.
14. A range ?nder according to claim 8 in ‘
which the re?ecting-transmitting surface is di-'
“ ing' re?ector at'the other viewing point'for re
chroic and includes a neutral transmitting spot
?ecting the‘ other object beam to the objective
for transmitting theelement beam without ap
whereby, by re?ection of one beam and trans»
preciable re?ection.
.
mission of the other the objective forms two ob 10
15. A range ?nder according to claim 8 in
ject images in a comparison‘ plane, a pair of ad
which the means for receiving and focusing the
justment coindicant elements at least optically
in the ‘comparison plane, means including the ex
element light beam includes the re?ecting-trans- .
_ mitting surface with a spot highly transmitting
act optical equivalent of said objective and said
for transmitting ‘the element beam without ap
re?ectors for receiving an element light beam 15 preciable re?ection, an auxiliary re?ecting surfrom one of the elements and for‘focusing an
face on the lateral-inverting re?ector and at least
image of said element adjacent to at least an
one auxiliary re?ecting surfaceon the non-lat
image of the other element, means for viewing
eral-inverting re?ector also for re?ecting the
the‘two object images and means simultaneously
element beam.
‘
;
.
_
20
for'deviating the element beam and one object
16. ‘A range finder according to claim 2. in
re?ected
toward
‘the
beam relative to the other for adjusting the co-.
which the object beams as
objective are‘ in substantially exact alignment
incidence of the images.
9. A range finder according to claim 8 in which »
with each other and with the optic axis of the ob
the lateral-inverting re?ector is a piano mirror
jective
and‘ one of» the re?ectorsis semi-trans
with an auxiliary re?ecting surface for re?ect 25- ‘parent and is between the objective and the
ing the element beams.
’
comparison plane;
‘101A range ?nder according to claim 8 in
,
I
17. A range finder according to claim, 8 in
which the object beams as, re?ected toward the
which the non-lateral-inverting re?ector includes
> I
two plano mirrors one or which also re?ects the
objective, are in substantially‘ exact alignment
element beam and thevother of which has an 30 with each other and with the optic axis of’ the.
auxiliary reflecting surface for re?ecting 'the
objective and one of the re?ectors is semi-trans
parent and is between the objective and the com
element beam.
‘
11. A range finder‘ according to claim 8 in
parison plane, said semi-transparent > re?ector
which the re?ecting-transmitting surface is di
having aclear substantially non-re?ecting non
35
chroic.
"
12.'A ' range finder according
to claim 8 in
A‘ which the re?ecting-transmitting surface m
‘cludes a spot highlyv transmitting for transmit
ting the element beam without appreciable re
?ection.
‘
‘
’
deviating spot for transmitting the element beam
twice, 'o‘ncerin each direction.
40
JOSEPH
'
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