Патент USA US2401706код для вставки
'June'4,‘ 1946. J. MIHALYT 2,401,706 RANGE FINDER Filed March 15, 1943 TFIGJL 2 Sheéts-Sheet 1 " ' I SEMI-TRANSPARENT , Z4 IRROR - ' ‘ TRANSMITTING‘ AND ‘ REFL ECTING SURFACE ‘ JOSEPH MIHALYI ' BY ' INVENTOR / W M“, ATTY & AG'T June 4, 1946. J. MIHALYI 2,401,706 RANGE FINDER Filed March 13, 1943 2 Sheets—Sheet 2 FIG; 3. COLOR-DIFFERENTIATING TRANSMITTI AND REFLEC TING SURFACE ' 52 $51. '76 47/ r _ - ' ' WW7‘ 60 REFLEC JOSEPH MIHALYI INVENTOR Mn. [6% Patented June .4, 1946 2,401,706 g UNITED , STATES PATE NT OFFICE ’ 2,401,706 ' . RANGE moan ' Joseph Mihalyi, Rochester, N. Y., ‘ ' ‘ assignor to East- 1 ' , man Kodak Company,TRochester, N. Y., a. cor poration of New Jersey ' . Applicationlidarch 13, 1943, ‘Serial‘No. ‘479,102 ‘ . 11 Claims. (01. sis-2.7) 1 This invention relates to range ?nders. ‘Ituis 2 ‘Plane; of course, two similar images may also a ‘be ‘formed on the other side of the objective in a one of a series relating to this same subject, which seriesincludes the following: Title Sign ‘ Filed Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Range ?nders-Case D. Range ?nders-Case E . Range ?nders—Case F . . but in a simple coincidence range ?nder, I prefer to‘ use only‘one of the pairs of images. Thedou ble plane system is‘useful, however, in ortho ‘Inventors Mount for optical ele 461,584 Oct. 10,1942 ment Range ?nder construc 461,585 Oct. 10,1942 tion. Range finders-Case A. . Jan. Range ?nders—0ase B _ Range ?nders-Case O . ‘ second symmetrically located comparison plane, Mihalm'. “ D0. .10 DO. '1 Do. Do. . Mar. ‘ " ' Mihalyi, MacNeille. Mihalyi, Tuttle. Mihelyi. pseudo stereo range ?nders, which are discussed in Cases A and K of this series. ‘In any‘ form of the invention some form of eyepiece is pro vided for viewing the pair of images and light deviating means are provided for-deviating one object beam relative to the other for adjusting coincidence of the images. i i The preferred form of re?ecting~transmitting Mar. 13,19 Holmes, Mihalyi. 15 objective is a symmetrical ‘one having centrally Mar. Mihalyi, MacNeille. Range ?nders—Oase J __ Mar. located therein a piano re?ecting-transmitting MacNeille, Holmes. Range ?nders—0ase K. Mar. 13,1948 Mihalyi, MacNeille. surface. The ‘transmitted beam from either side Range ?nders-Case M. June 23,1943 MacNeille. ‘ Range ?nders-Case N. passes through both halves of the symmetrical June 23,1943 MacNcille, Mihalyi. Range ?nders-Case 0. June 23, 1943 MacNcille.‘ ; objective, whereas the‘ reflected ‘one ‘passes Range ?nders-Case P . 505, 016 Oct. 5,1943 MacNeille, Mihalyi, Range ?nders-Oase '1‘. 508,186 Oct. 29,1943 MacNeille. ‘, through one-half of the‘objectiv'etwice. Since the“ objective is symmetrical both beams are focused equally. Furthermore, the‘objective as ' The present invention is fundamentally differ? Range ?nders-Case G. Range ?nders-:Case H Range finders-Case 1.. Mar. Do. ent from all others of this series, but a. preferred embodiment thereof combines it with the ‘auto collimating features of ‘Cases A to F. The objects of the present invention are simplicity of design, accuracy, ease of use and particularly stability. The latter advantage comes mainly from the use of but a single objective to focus both of the range ?nder beams. ‘ 1 ‘ , According to, the invention, a range ?nder .is made up with a re?ecting-transmitting objective with the same focal power for transmitted and re?ected beams, located between the viewing points of the instrument with its optic axis ap proximately parallel to a line joining the viewing points. A re?ecting~transmitting objective is one with a partly transmitting, partly re?ecting a whole can be made quite sturdy and anything which affects the objective as a whole will affect both beams equally. ‘This results in great sta bility in the range ?nder. ‘ Preferably, the re?ecting-transmitting surface is dichroic to make‘the images of different col ors to aid in distinguishing them; The disad vantages of certain forms of dichroic re?ecting-Z transmitting filters, which ‘have in the past‘rem . dered them practically worthless in'range ?nders, are overcome bythe use‘ of a re?ecting~transmit ting surface which consists of optical interfer ence layers‘ which transmit one‘color and reflect ‘ ‘ the complementary color. Various‘ forms 01.’ op tical interfering layers suitable for‘ this ‘purpose are known, ‘such for example as described ‘on ‘page 2,,column 1, line 58,'to column 2, line 2, of U. S. surface so that light incident on the sbjective 40 ‘2,289,054, Dimmick, wherein the layer is used as . from one side is split into two beams, one being ‘a beam splitter. In range ?ndersQaccordingto transmitted, the other being re?ected and both the present invention the layers ‘are used asa - being focused. A lateral-inverting re?ector is beam combiner and serve to add efficiency to the positioned at one viewing point to send a light instrument and distinctiveness‘ to the range finder beam to the objective and is preferably ‘in the 45 images. This device is similarly useful in all'‘ form of a simple mirror or a single re?ecting sur range ?nders which employ a‘ beam combiner. face since this is the simplest device which will One ‘preferred form of'the invention has the introduce lateral inversion of an image.‘ A non lateral-inverting re?ector as a simple ‘mirror, the lateral-‘inverting reflector, such as one having non-lateral-invertingreflector in the form of an two re?ecting surfaces to reverse the lateral in optical square such as a pentaprism or pair of version, is positioned at the other viewing point mirrors and tilts the lateral-inverting mirror to to re?ect the other object light beam to the‘ ob introduce the light ‘deviation required for ad jective. By the reflection‘ of one beam and the justment of coincidence. ‘ By making one of the transmission of the other, ‘the objective ‘then re?ectors-semi-transparent or by offsetting the forms two object images in a single comparison 55 objective Slightly so that the object beams pass 2,401,706 3 . 4 .Fig. 1 is a plan view of a simple form of the obliquely therethrough, it is possible to have the comparison plane near one of the viewing points. invention; This requires that the focal length of the objective invention including the auto-collimating feature; be slightly less than the distance from that view ing point to the objective, ' Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a form of the Fig. 3 is a plan view of a range ?nder incor- . . porating the optical system shown in Fig. 2; In a preferred embodiment of the invention, Fig. 4 is an enlarged drawing of an alternative v V I the autocollimating feature of Cases A to F is mechanism which may be substituted :for part introduced by locating, at least optically in the of the arrangement shown in Fig. 2; comparison plane, a pair of adjustment coindi vFig. 5 illustrates a different embodiment of 10 cant elements such as-a scale and index, a coincithe invention. . dence linefand ?ducial mark operating a scale ‘ _In Fig. 1 a range finder having a housing l0 and index or a coincidence/line and ?ducial mark receives two beams of light from the object being indicating any maladjustment of the instrument. ranged and re?ects one of them by a non-later Light from one of these adjustment coindicant val-inverting reflector in the form of a penta prism marks .is projected through the exact optical 15 II and re?ects the other by a semi-transparent equivalent of the range ?nder system and is mirror l2, both beams being directed in exact brought to focus adjacent to the other element. Of course, it is possible to set up the adjustment ' coindicant elements in the unused comparison alignment toward an objective located between ’ the viewing points of the instrument with its optic axis approximately parallel to the base of . ?eld on the opposite side of the objective, but, 20 the instrument. The objective is symmetrical such an arrangementmight-allow the introduc-_ consisting of two halves l3 and ‘I4 and a'semi tlon of an error, if the objective happened toget transparent mirror l5 cemented between the two out ‘of symmetry. If the element light beam halves. Light from the penta prism I l forms one passes throughthe exact optical equivalent of image in a comparison plane ‘20 and light from that traversed by the object beams, the light the semi-transparent mirror I2 is re?ected by the deviating means operates to adjust both the ob semi-transparent mirror I5 also into focus in the comparison plane 20. The two object images thus formed are viewed through an eyepiece 2| ?ector, it is preferable to add an auxiliary re .by the eye 22 of an observer. The mirror I2 may ?ecting surface for re?ecting the element beam. 80 be tilted, i. e. rotated about a pivot 24 by a cam Similarly, when the non-lateral-invertingv re follower 25 engaging a rotatable cam 26. This ject images and the element image. When a plano mirror‘is used as the lateral-inverting re ?ector includes two plano mirrors, one of them . can re?ect both the object beam and the element beam, but the other preferably has an auxiliary tilting of the ‘mirror I2 adjusts the coincidence of the two object images. and when they‘are. in exact coincidence the range may be read by a re?ecting surface for re?ecting the element beam. 35 scale 21 rotating with‘ the cam 26, against an _In any‘ autocollimating form ‘of- the invention, index 28. ' i ‘' the element beam must be once transmitted by In-Figs. 2 and~3 a similar system is shown in ‘ the re?ecting-transmitting surface and once re which the object light beams are received respec ?ected thereby. It is preferable to have a clear tively by a semi-transparent mirror 30 and a non-‘ area or. highly ‘transmitting spot at the point at 40 lateral-inverting re?ector consisting of mirrors which the element beam passes through this 3| and 32. The two beams are directed toward a surface. Similarly, it is preferable to have a symmetrical objective made up of two halves 33 highly gre?ectin'g spot such as a completely sil with ;. dichroic ?lter 34 therebetween. The two _ ‘vered spot at the point at which the element beam 46 object beams as respectively transmitted and re is reflected by this surface. One or other of these ?ected pass through‘ an erecting'prism 35. and spots or perhaps both of them is particularly re are brought to focus in a reticle plane 36 to- form I. quired in the embodiment of the invention where images which may be viewed through an eye in the re?ecting-transmittingsurface is di'chroic. piece 31 by the eye 38 of an observer. To intro Otherwise, one color component of the beamis duce autocollimation, light from a lamp 38 is re ' absorbed (at least re?ected) during transmission ?ected by a prism 39 passed an'index mark 40 and the other color component is absorbed (at located in the comparison :plane 36‘. This ele least transmitted) [during re?ection, the net re ment light beam traverses the erecting prism 35 sult being very low intensity in the element beam. and passes through an aperture 4| in the mirror. To overcome this, thetransmitting spot or the 30 to be collimatedby the objective. Preferably re?ecting spotrshould be neutral and preferably 55 this element light beam is transmitted through should ‘be highly transmitting orv highly re?ect a hole ‘42 in the dichroic ?lter 34. The collimated ing respectively. element light beam is re?ected by the mirror 32 _- In the simplest form of the invention'the ob; and an auxiliary reflecting surface 43 consisting ject beams as re?ected from. the viewing points of a bevel on the mirror 3| passed one side of the - to the objective are in substantially exact align objective to strike an auxiliary re?ecting surface ment, 1. e. heading straight toward each other ‘ 44 consisting of a bevel on the mirror 30. The and one 'of the re?ectors is semi-transparent and beam re?ected from this surface “enters the is between the objective and the comparison objective, is re?ected by the dichroic ?lter 34 back through the hole 4| ‘and erecting prism 35 to'form plane. When this form of the invention is mod an image 40’ in the comparison plane 36 adjacent i?ed to include the auto-collimating feature, the _ to a scale 45 engraved‘thereon. As'shown in Fig. reflector which is semi-transparent preferably _lg._s a non-reflecting non-deviating spot for trans 3 the whole instrument is carried in a housing. 46 and the mirror 30 may be rotated'about'a piv- , nLtting the velement light beam both on the out going and return journeys. 70 ot 48 by a, ranging screw 41. This adjustment deviates the object beam re?ected by this mirror The advantages of the invention and certain 30 toward the objective and similarly deviates the ' preferred embodiments thereof will be fully un element light beam as re?ected at the surface 44. derstood from the following description when The purpose of the hole 4| is two-fold, mainly read ‘in connection with the accompanying draw to allow the element light beam to traverse the ings, in which: i . ' ‘ 5 2,401,706 system without any undue absorption and sec ond to prevent any deviation or doubling of the element light beam which might introduce error. The transparent support 42 on the dichroic ?lter 34 has a similar purpose and in this case is es pecially necessary since if the element beam as transmitted through the objective were ?ltered to be one color and then as later re?ected to be the 6 jective 61 and the object image formed by the mirror 60 ‘as re?ected by the objective 61 are not used, but would be useful for any range finder which‘ ‘requires two comparison planes. ‘ Having thus described the preferred embodi mentsof my invention, I wish to point out that it is not limited to these structures but is of the scope of the appended claims. complementary color, the amount of light re WhatIclaim is: , ' s maining, if any, would be extremely small. The 10 1. A range ?nder of the type having two spaced spot at which the element light beam is re?ected viewing points at which light beams are ‘re at the dichroic ?lter may be silvered so as to be ceived from an object being ranged and compris neutral and highly re?ecting. The transparent ing a re?ecting-transmitting objective of the spot 42 is, of course, neutral and highly trans same focal power for transmitted and re?ected 15 beams, located between the viewing points with In Fig. 4, the scale ‘and index shown in Fig. .2 its optic axis approximately parallel to, a line I are replaced by a coincidence line and fiducial' joining the viewing points, a lateral-inverting re mark ‘system of the type described in detail in ?ector at one viewing point for re?ecting one ob Case F of this series. In Fig. 4 the main ‘differences are that a disk‘ 50, illuminated by a lamp 5| 20 ject beam to the objective, a non-lateral-invert ing re?ector at the other viewing point for ‘re carries a spiral coincidence line 52 and a scale 53. 7 ?eeting the other object beam to_the objective The light from these elements, the line 52 being whereby. by re?ection of one beam and trans the adjustment coindicant element in this case, mission of the other the objective forms two ob ‘ enters the erecting prism 35 through a small ject images in a comparison plane, means; for prism 54 cemented to one surface thereof. After viewing the two images and means for deviating the element light beam traverses the range finder one object beam relative to the other for adjust system it comes to focus forming images 52' and a ing the coincidence of the images. , ‘ 53’ in the image plane 36. As long as the instru 2. A range ?nder of the type having two spaced ment stays‘ in adjustment, the image 52' falls be tween two ?ducial marks 55 and the range may 30 viewing points at which light beams are received from an object being ranged and ‘comprising a be read by‘the scale‘ 53' against any suitable in symmetrical objective between the viewing points dex, the ?ducial mark 55 serving this purpose as with its optic axis approximately parallel to a well as any other.‘ Various forms of this feature line joining the viewing points and having a are described in Case F mentioned above, the present invention not being concerned with the 35 plano re?ecting-transmitting surface centrally located in the objective to focus equally re?ected differences therein. and transmitted beams, a lateral-inverting re In Fig. 5 one object light'beam is received by ?ector at one viewing point for re?ecting one ob a simple mirror 60 carried on a support 6! which mitting. ‘ , . is rotatable about a pivot 62 by a driving screw 63 mounted in the housing 64 of the instrument, only a section of which is shown. The other ob ject beam is re?ected by two mirrors 65 and 66. The two object ‘beams instead of going directly toward one another converge at ‘a slight angle to pass through an objective 61 having a dichroic re?ector 68 in the center thereof. As before, the optic axis 69 of the objective 6B is approximately parallel to a line joining the viewing points of the 40 ject beam to the objective, a non-lateral-inverb ing re?ector at the other viewing point for re ?ecting the‘other object beam to the objective whereby, by re?ection of one beam and trans mission of the other the objective forms two ob ject images in a comparison plane, means for viewing the two images and means for deviating one object beam relative to the other for adjust ing the coincidenceof the images. 3. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which the re?ecting-transmitting surface is dichroic. instrument. The beam from the mirror 60 as 4. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which transmitted by the objective and the beam from 50 the re?ecting-transmitting surface consists of‘ the mirror 66 as re?ected by the objective are in optical interference layers which transmit one alignment and form images in a comparison plane 10. Preferably an unsymmetrical ?eld lens color and re?ect the complementary color. 5. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which ‘H is adjacent to this plane to increase the ease of viewing the images through an ‘eyepiece 12 by 55 the lateral-inverting re?e'ctor is a single plano mirror, the light deviating means tilts said mir the eye 13 of an observer. To introduce auto ror and the non-lateral-inverting re?ector is an collimation, light from a lamp 15 illuminates an optical square. adjustment coindicant element 14 and the ele 6. A range ?nder according to claim 2 in which ment light beam therefrom passes through the the distance from one viewing point to the ob objective 6'! to strike an auxiliary re?ecting sur 80 jective is slightly less than the focal‘ length of the face 76 cemented on the mirror 60, which inturn objective and the comparison plane is near said re?ects it to the mirror 66. The element light viewing point. ‘ beam is then re?ected by an auxiliary re?ecting 7. A range ?nder according to. claim 2 in which surface 11 on the mirror 65 toward the objective striking a silvered spot 18 on the dichroic ?lter 65 a pair of adjustment coindicant elements are lo cated at least optically in the comparison plane 68, whereat it is again re?ected and brought to and there is included means for projecting focus forming an image 80 in the comparison through the exact optical equivalent of the ob plane 70. It will be noted that this embodiment ject-image forming system, light from one of the eliminates the need for a semi-transparent view elements to form an image adjacent to the other ing point re?ector. Of course, the element light element. beam may strike a transparent spot in the di 8. A range ?nder of the type having two spaced chroic re?ector 68 in which case the silvered. spot viewing points at which light beams are received 18 is not necessary, but still useful. In this.par from an object being ranged‘and comprising a ‘ ticular arrangement, the object image formed by symmetrical objective between the viewing points ' light from the mirror 66 as transmitted by the ob 75 with its optic axis approximately parallel to a 2,401,706 7 ' 13. A range ?nder according to claim 38in . line joining 'the‘viewing' points and having a piano re?ecting transmitting surface centrally which the re?ecting-transmitting surface is di chroic and includes an approximately neutral located in the objective to focus equally, re?ected and ‘transmitted beams; a lateral-inverting re ?ector at one viewing point‘ for re?ecting one ob ject beam to the objective, a non-lateral-invert highly re?ecting spot forre?ecting the element beam without‘appreciable loss of intensity. 14. A range ?nder according to claim 8 in ‘ which the re?ecting-transmitting surface is di-' “ ing' re?ector at'the other viewing point'for re chroic and includes a neutral transmitting spot ?ecting the‘ other object beam to the objective for transmitting theelement beam without ap whereby, by re?ection of one beam and trans» preciable re?ection. . mission of the other the objective forms two ob 10 15. A range ?nder according to claim 8 in ject images in a comparison‘ plane, a pair of ad which the means for receiving and focusing the justment coindicant elements at least optically in the ‘comparison plane, means including the ex element light beam includes the re?ecting-trans- . _ mitting surface with a spot highly transmitting act optical equivalent of said objective and said for transmitting ‘the element beam without ap re?ectors for receiving an element light beam 15 preciable re?ection, an auxiliary re?ecting surfrom one of the elements and for‘focusing an face on the lateral-inverting re?ector and at least image of said element adjacent to at least an one auxiliary re?ecting surfaceon the non-lat image of the other element, means for viewing eral-inverting re?ector also for re?ecting the the‘two object images and means simultaneously element beam. ‘ ; . _ 20 for'deviating the element beam and one object 16. ‘A range finder according to claim 2. in re?ected toward ‘the beam relative to the other for adjusting the co-. which the object beams as objective are‘ in substantially exact alignment incidence of the images. 9. A range finder according to claim 8 in which » with each other and with the optic axis of the ob the lateral-inverting re?ector is a piano mirror jective and‘ one of» the re?ectorsis semi-trans with an auxiliary re?ecting surface for re?ect 25- ‘parent and is between the objective and the ing the element beams. ’ comparison plane; ‘101A range ?nder according to claim 8 in , I 17. A range finder according to claim, 8 in which the object beams as, re?ected toward the which the non-lateral-inverting re?ector includes > I two plano mirrors one or which also re?ects the objective, are in substantially‘ exact alignment element beam and thevother of which has an 30 with each other and with the optic axis of’ the. auxiliary reflecting surface for re?ecting 'the objective and one of the re?ectors is semi-trans parent and is between the objective and the com element beam. ‘ 11. A range finder‘ according to claim 8 in parison plane, said semi-transparent > re?ector which the re?ecting-transmitting surface is di having aclear substantially non-re?ecting non 35 chroic. " 12.'A ' range finder according to claim 8 in A‘ which the re?ecting-transmitting surface m ‘cludes a spot highlyv transmitting for transmit ting the element beam without appreciable re ?ection. ‘ ‘ ’ deviating spot for transmitting the element beam twice, 'o‘ncerin each direction. 40 JOSEPH '