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Патент USA US2401729

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June 11, 1946.
Original Filed Dec. 6, 1941
`patienter! June 11, 1946
Alfred N. Goldsmith, New York, N. Y.
Original application December 6, 1941, Serial No.
421,898. Divided and this application Decem
ber 3,1, 1943, Serial No. 516,495
7 Claims.
(Cl. 177-353)
This invention relates to impulse counting and
selecting systems and more particularly to a de
vice in which cathode ray tubes are'utilized for
selecting a particular impulse in'a given train
whereby the operation of a utilization device may
be suitably timed. This application is a division
of my copending application Serial No, 421,898,
which was :flied December 6, 1941.
In the parent application, I have described a
Mradio centercasting system” suitable for gather
ing information, such as public opinions, from
groups of respondents who may be selected mem
My invention will now be described in more
l detail, reference being made to the accompanying
drawing, the sole ñgure of which shows a pre
ferred circuit arrangement for selecting a single
impulse in a given train as the initiating impulse
for control of a utilization device.
Referring to the drawing,` I show a preferred
form or apparatus suitable for counting the im
pulses in a given train and for producing a re
sponse when the nth impulse in the train is
reached. .The apparatus comprises a plurality of
cathode ray tubes arranged to count incoming
cyclic impulses and to deliver'a single output im
pulse when a specified number of incoming im
equipment so arranged as to communicate with
pulses has arrived'at a given respondent station.
a central station where opinions may be auto
A 50G-cycle Wave derived from a, suitable control
matically collected, classified, and analyzed,
source is fed to an amplilier 392 having two out
In a voting system such as I disclosed in the
put circuits, one of which is utilized in partially
parent application, I showed a preference for col
the release of electrons by the elec
lecting votes from various outlying respondent 20 controlling
tron guns in the several cathode ray tubes 3W,
stations in a predetermined sequence., 'Ille
343, and 341i.
method of gathering votes sequentially has two
Output energy from amplifier 392 is also fed to
main advantages,I namely, precision of counting
a frequency divider 398 and thence to an ampli
the votes and compilation of the voting statistics
so that the source of each individual vote is iden 25 iler 311i. This amplifier has two output circuits,
one for producing two-'phase deilecting circuit
potentials to be applied to the deñecting coils
Accordingly, it is an object of the invention
303 and 305 of the cathode ray tube SIW. The ire
herein claimed as divisional subject matter to
divider 398 preferably has a 10 to i ratio
provide impulse counting and selecting apparatus
between its input and output frequencies. Thus
suitable for initiating the operation oi any de
a 50-cycle wave is fed across transformer 399
sii-ed utilization device at a precise moment de
has a secondary in circuit with the verti
termined by the arrival of a control impulse which
coils 395.. At two points in this cir
is a particular one in a, train of impulses.
cuit ground connections are indicated. in order
It is another object of my invention to provide
impulse counting and selecting apparatus oper Sii to produce a phase displacement of 90° in the
currents which traverse the horizontal coils 363,
able i'rom a periodic train of impulses, such appa
a phase displacing network consisting of capaci
ratus including cathode ray tube means whereby
tor 3H and impedance 3l3 is employed. As is
a single impulse in the train is selected for con
well-known, such a phase displacing network may
trolling a utilization device and for timing the - be
suitably designed to produce quadrature phase
operation of the latter.
between the currents traversing the
It is still another object of my invention to pro
coils 303 and 305 respectively, and` thus to pro
vide a system of the class described in which a
bers of the public. Each of these respondents is Y
provided `with radio receiving and transmitting
vide rotary scanning of. the electron beam.
control signal may be sent out from a central
station for the purpose of starting and stopping
the operation of various respondent transmitters,
such starting and stopping being obtained by a
time sequence method, whereby the responses
produced in the central' station may be capable
of accumulation in a predetermined order.
The foregoing and other objects and advan
tages oî my invention may be achieved with the
aid of apparatus presently to be’described, and
by the adoption oi novel methods which are either
explicitly set forth, or otherwise implied, in the
text ci this specification.
The cathode ray 4tube 307 comprises a cathode
3515, a control electrode'Bil, a focusing anode 359,
il target anode 321, and a second target anode
323. Anode 32! is here shown as a broken ring
subtending an arc of ñ; of a circle, or 324°. An
ode 323 subtends substantially an arc of 36° or
il; oi a circle. The two anodes 32i and 323 are
[email protected] connected by'means of impedances 325 and
vrespectively to the positive terminal of a. suitable
direct current source. The negative terminal of
Vthis source is preferably grounded, and so is the
cathode SI5 oi‘ the tube.
Rotary scanning of the electron beam in the
cathode ray tube 301 is thus provided by the
two-phase currents derived from the transformer
333 and the phase displacing network 3H, 3|3.
As the beam rotates, it will. for 1% of one revolu
tion. traverse the anode 32 I , and fcr 15; of a revo
lution, it will traverse the anode 323. The arrival
time of the beam at the center of the anode 333
The phasr displacing network consisting of ca
pacitor 353 and impedance 355 causes current
of quadrature phase to be fed to the horizontal
defiecting coils 351 and thence to ground.
Each of the cathode ray tubes 343 and 3“ is
similar in construction to that of cathode ray
tube 331. The electron gun elements need not.
therefore, be described in detail. Furthermore,
is determined by the orientation of this anode
the same construction of anode electrodes exists
with respect to the axes of the deiiecting coils
333 and 333. and is adjusted in accordance with 10 in the different cathode ray tubes. and these need
no further description. In cathode ray tube 343,
the units digit of the call number for a given sta»
however, the 324°~anode is labelled 333, while
tion. When anode 333 is impacted by electrons,
the 36°-anode segment is labelled 33|. Corre
a negative impulse is impressed across capacitor
spondingly, in cathode ray tube 333, I have la
333, which blocks the current otherwise normally
belled the larger anode 333 and the smaller one
flowing in discharge tube 33|. This discharge
335. Vertical deilecting coils for tube 3M are
the usual electrodes, of which the
labelled 331 and the horizontal defiecting coils
control grid and cathode are interconnected by
a grid leak resistor 333. while the anode is fed '
One of the two output circuits from amplifier
` with positive potential from any suitable source
feeds a 5-cycle current to a frequency divider
across an impedance 335. When the discharge
31| which also has a ratio of 10 to 1 between its
tube 33| is blocked, the rise of potential on its
input and output frequencies, thus delivering a
anode produces an impulse across capacitor 331
frequency of .5 cycle per second to amplifier 313.
for actuating an amplifier 333, thereby to emit
This amplifier has an output transformer 315
a control signal which is fed to an electronic
keyer of the type disclosed in the parent applica 25 across which the .5-cycle current is fed to a
phase-splitting network 353,4 353, and thence to
tion Serial No. 421,898, or to any other utilization
the vertical and horizontal deiiecting coils 331
device the operation of which is to be initiated
and 333.
at the instant of receiving a particular pulse in
From the foregoing description of the ampli»
the counting train. The keyer of the parent
application conditions a power amplifier momen 30 fiers 332, 33|l 341 and 313 and their interconnec
tions through frequency dividers 333, 335 and
tarily so as to cause a voting station to transmit
a voting signal.
During the persistence of the 50G-cycle wave
train applied to amplifier 332, the frequency di
31| it will be seen that the beams in the three
cathode ray tubes are rotated at different veloci
ties corresponding to gears having 10 to 1 ratios
The 50-cycle 35 therebetween. The maximum scanning velocity
of 50 revolutions per second is obtained in tube
output from amplifier 33| also persists and de
301; in tube 343 the velocity is 5 revolutions per
livers suitable potentials to the deiiecting coils
second; and in tube 344 the velocity is 1/2 revolu
303 and 335. In order to render the hundreds
vider 333 continues to function.
tion per second.
and tens digits of a station's calling number
Tube 333 has an output circuit from its anode
effective, the emission in tube 301 is restricted 40
36| and through impedance 313 to the positive
to a brief period which comprehends only i0
side of an anode potential sorurce.> The anode 353
cycles of the 50o-cycle wave. Furthermore, the
is connected to the same source through im
electron stream fiows only during ten positive
pedance 330. The scanning velocity in tube 333
half-cycles of `this wave. During this time the
electron beam will be directed toward nine dif 45 is such that ten marking impulses of the 500
cycle wave are caused to traverse capacitor 3|3
ferent portions of the anode 32| and some por
and to discharge electrons from the gun while
tion of the anode 323. During 990 of the cycles
the beam is aimed once at the anode 33|. Dur
of the 50G-cycle wave the electron beam will be
ing each scanning revolution 90 marking impulses
blocked by a blocking bias derived from source
333. This is true because the blocking bias is 50 are suppressed or rendered ineffectual by aiming
the beam at the anode 333. When the beam is
so set that it will be overcome only when control
effective a negative surge across capacitor 33|
impulses are applied to the control electrode 3|1
blocks tube 333, thus delivering ten impulses
across capacitors 3|3 and 331 simultaneously.
through resistor 335 and across capacitor 331 for
I will now explain the manner of overcoming
aiding in the release of electrons by control elec
this blocking bias in order to produce the one
trode 3|1 in tube 331.
effective impulse for selection of the respondent
Only one out of ten scanning revolutions of the
station, which impulse is initiated by a negative
beam in tube 333 is rendered effective in accord
charge on the anode 323, for producing a surge
ance with the preceding paragraph. - The other
. impulse across capacitor 323, thereby to block
scannings are suppressed by the biasing source
the discharge in tube 33|. The blocking of tube
3|3 during the absence of control impulses to
33| causes a positive impulse to be fed across
be derived from the action of tubes 3“ and 333.
capacitor 331 to amplifier 333.
Tube 343 has an output circuit from its anode
A frequency divider 335 is controlled by output
335 through impedance 311 to the positive side
current from the amplifier 30|. This divider
of an anode potential source. The anode 333 is
preferably has a 10 to 1 ratio between input and
connected to the same source through impedance
output frequencies. The output frequency of 5
cycles is amplified by the unit 331 which also has
two output circuits. One such output circuit
313. _impulses derived from the impact of 100
electronic puffs or clouds against anode 355 trav
includes the primary of a transformer 333 occu
erse the capacitor 33| for controlling a discharge
pying the same position with relation to cathode 70 tube 333 thereby to repeatedly block the same.
The anode potential rises in this tube when it is
ray tube 333 and its detlecting circuits as is ob
blocked, due to the presence of a load resistor
tained by the transformer 333 and the deflecting
385 in its connection to an anode potential source.
circuits‘of cathode ray tube 331. In other words,
Positive impulses, 100 in succession at the 500
transformer 333 feeds current of one phase to the
vertical defiecting coils 35| and thence to ground. 'Il cycle rate, are impressed across capacitor 3l1 for
controlling the electrode 339 in cathode ray tube
343. At these instants simultaneous impulses
across capacitor 3|.4 cause the electron stream in
tube 343 to be released while it is deflected ro
tatively just once. During the remainder of
the time of transmission of the 50G-cycle wave
train preceding and/or following the reception
marking impulse and the blocking of the two
- tubes -333 and 393. This moment is, therefore,
determined by the respective orientations of the
anodes 365, 36| and 323.
To those skilled in the art, various modifica
tions of my invention will suggest themselves. in
view of the foregoing description of the embodi
of these 100 marking impulses the beam in cath
ment which I prefer.
ode ray tube 344 is directed ineffectually against
I claim:
the anode 333, so that the emission in tube 343 10
1. Apparatus settable to produce a response
becomes blocked.
only upon reception of a predetermined one o1' a
The fundamentals of my counting system as
plurality of periodically transmitted marking
set forth in the paragraphs immediately pre
signals, said apparatus comprising a, series of
ceding may be extended, if desired, to a system
wherein additional cathode ray tubes would be 15 cathode ray tubes each having an electron gun
the 'emission from which is controlled at least
employed to permit counting up to a .number
in part by said marking signals, and each having
having four or more digits. Alternatively, the
rotary beam defiecting means, and a plurality of
arc subtended by the selecting anode segments
323, 36| and 365 might be reduced in degrees, and '~ target anodes, active and passive, means for ap
at the same time the ratio between input and 20 plying quadrature-phased potentials to the de
output frequencies of the frequency dividers 398,v »
34E, and 31| would be of a higher order so that
the scanning velocities in the several cathode
ray tubes would bear higher ratios one to an
tlecting means of each tube means for main
taining fixed multiple ratios between the scan
ning velocities in the several tubes, circuit means
intercoupling an active target anode in one said
tube and a control electrode in another said tube
other. Thus a higher order of selectivity would
be obtainable without the use of additional appa 25 for at .times aiding said marking signals in their
control of the emission, means for setting each of
ratus components.
said active target anodes in a predetermined
I previously mentioned that in order to select
angular relation to axes on which said quad- Y
each respondent station for operation in a pre-'
rature phased potentials are applied, and a
determined sequence, it is arranged for the cath
ode ray tubes 344, 343, and 301 to be rotatively 30 utilization device coupled to an active target
anode in the tube -whose beam rotates at the
adjusted on their respective axes thereby to place ’
highest velocity, said utilization device being ar
their effective anode segments 365, 38| and 323
ranged to manifest said response only when the
in suitable angular relation to the vertical and
horizontal axes ofl the deñecting coils which are 35 active target anodes in all said tubes are simul
taneously impacted by the several electron beams.
associated with these tubes. The mere act of
2. An ¿electronic counter comprising a. plurality
rotating the cathode ray tubes in this manner
of cathode ray tubes, an electron gun, target
enables me to adjust each electronic counter at
anodes and rotative beam deflecting means in
a given respondent station so that it will be
caused to deliver a single control signal across 40 each tube, means including sources olE polyphase
potentials for actuating the beam deilecting
the capacitor 331 and thence through amplifier
means, at scanning velocities individual to each
339 to the electronic keyer at an instant corre
tube, an input circuit for each tube, said input
sponding to its orderly position in the entire
circuit carrying a wave train the nth cycle of
series of respondent stations. When the 500
cycle frequency is initiated by the central sta 45 which is to be detected, the -frequency of said
wave train being harmonically related te each of
tion a suliicient number of marking impulses in
said polyphase potentials, separate means re
the train is caused to be transmitted so that
sponsive to the impact of electrons upon a
each of the respondent stations will pick up its
particular target anode in each tube for desig
particular individual controlling impulse in the
entire train, and the different respondent sta 50 nating a predetermined phase of each beam
scanning cycle, and means responsive to the
tions will send out their voting signals succes
simultaneous occurrence of phase designations in '
sively and in a predetermined order,
all of the tubes i'or manifesting said nth cycle of
The equivalent of counting gears may be read
the Wave train.
ily understood as provided by the association
3. An electronic counter according tov claim 2
of the three cathode ray tubes 344, 343 and 301', 65
in which said polyphase potentials are decimally
in accordance with the foregoing description.
related to each other and to the frequency of said
in order to illustrate more specifically how an
wave train.
individual respondentv station is to be selected
4. An'electronic counter according to claim 2
at a particular instant when its count of half
cycles is reached in the train of 50G-cycle waves, 80 and including frequency dividers for deriving
said polyphase potentials from said wave train,
the operation of the circuit arrangement shown
and phase Shifters for maintaining a quadrature
will now be recapitulated.
phase relation between two components of said
The 50G-cycle input- wave is limited to 999
potentials as applied in the deñecting means in-marking impulses which are applied to ampli
dividual to each tube.
fier 392 and ,utilized across transformer 394 for 65
5. Apparatus iïor selecting a single cycle in a
opposing the cut-olf biases of sources 396, 3|8
given wave train lor control of a responsive de
and 324 so that control electrodes 3H, 389> and
vice, said apparatus comprising a plurality of
390 will stand only slightly below the cut-ofi
cathode ray tubes each having electrodes for pi' threshold in the `presence of these marking im
pulses. Scanning of the electron beams in tubes 70 ducing an electron beam and target anodes to
ward which the beam is aimed, deflecting means
363i, 343 and 344 take place to the number of
associated with each tube for causing the beam
lilo revolutions, l0 revolutions and one revolution
therein to scan rotatively the target anodes of
respectively. Selection of the -time when, or
that tube, means including a wave energy source
the single impulse by which, the electronic keyer
is actuated depends upon the coincidence of a 75 and frequency dividers acting upon the deiiecting
means of each tube to produce cyclic deflection
ot the beam at different rates, each rate being
one to which the frequency of the given wave
train is harmonically related, means for orienting
one ot the target anodes in each tube with re~
spect to the coordinate axes o! the deilecting
means, thereby to detect the instant when the
components derived therefrom for so controlling
the rotative yscanning velocities in the several
tubes that a ten-to-one revolution ratio is main
tained from tube to tube. circuits each interf
coupling the selecting target of one tube and a
control electrode in the gun of another tube in
which the scanning velocity is greater, each said
beam passes through a predetermined phase of its
circuit constituting means for releasing electrons
scanning cycle, and means tor combining the
in the controlled gun only when the selecting
effects oi the detections when they occur simul
taneously in all of the tubes, thereby to pass a l0. target of the controlling tube is impacted by the
_electron beam therein, and a utilization device
control pulse to said responsive device at the in
coupled to the selecting target in the tube where~
stant of reception of said single cycle of the wave
in the scanning velocity is greatest.
7. The combination according to claim 6 and
6. In combination, a source of periodic lm
including means for adjustably orienting the
pulses, a set of cathode ray tubes each having a
selecting target in each tube with respect to a
controlled electron gun together with means for
phase axis ot reference pertaining to the beam
rotatively defiecting its electron beam, a'selecting
deiiecting means.
and a non-selecting segmental target \»anode in
each tube, circuit means including frequency
dividers controlled by said impulses and energy
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