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Патент USA US2402414

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June 18, 1946. w
4
w. G. KOGEL
‘
REFRI‘GERATION
Filed Aug. 25, 1942 '
‘
' 2,402,414
I
7
Y2‘ Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR
,4”; ATTORNEY
June 18, 1946.
>
w. G. KOGEL
2,402,414
REFRIGERATION
Filed Aqg. 25, 1942
' '
2 Sheets-Sheet2
414 A'r'roRNEv'
2,402,414
' Patented June 18, 1946
UNITED STATES‘ ‘PATENT OFFICE’
Wilhelm Georg Kiigel, Stockholm, Sweden
Application August 25,v 1942, Serial No. 455,983
' '
In Sweden August 27, 19,41
13 Claims.
.
(CL 62—119.5)
l
2
The present invention relatesto absorption re
frigerating apparatus of the type in which a heat
radiation‘ owing to the overheating. The boiler
' , being " extended downward to a level below the
operated- pump maintains liquid circulation
through the boiler of the apparatus and in which
‘the heat supply to the pump and the boiler takes
place through the medium of a ?ue or like heat
transferring member. The object of the inven
tion is to make possible a more suitable arrange
pump, a corresponding shortening of'the part of
the boiler located above the pump may be eifected
in many cases, since, in spite of such a shorten-' ‘
ing, the heat-absorbing capacity of the boiler will
be su?icient. If desired, the upper part of the
boiler may be thermally separated from the ?ue
ment of certain parts of the refrigerating appa
‘and formed into a recti?cation column without '
ratus, particularly its liquid heat‘ exchanger and, 10 outer heat supply.
.
in certain cases, at the same time improve the
The invention will in the following be more
emciency of the boiler by an improved, recti?ca
' fully, described with reference to the embodi
tion of the boiler vapours.
‘
ments shown diagrammatically in the accom
It has previously been proposed to give the
panying drawings from ‘which the characteristic ‘
boiler the shape of a jacket placed round a ?ue 15 features of the invention will be seen and in
and the liquid pump theshape of a tube coil
' 'woundround the lower part of the ?ue located
Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically an absorption
between the lower edge of the jacket and that
refrigerating apparatus operating. with an inert
of the ?ue. The poor solution is taken out from
gas; Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show a number of modified
the boiler through a tube connected to its lowest 26 embodiments of the boiler according to Fig. 1-;
part, whereas the supply of rich solution to the
and Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the boiler
pump takes place through a conduit connected
on line 5—-5 in Fig. 2;
_
to the pump coil arranged below'the boiler. The
In Fig. 1, l0 designates a tube operating as a
lower part of the ?ue is thus always cooled by ' ?ue, .to which another tube It is welded'along. a
the solution passing through the pump and the 25 common generatrix. Below, the tube H is
liquid content of the higher located boiler jacket.
closed, whereas, above, it passes into a conduit 28
It has previously been proposed to build into
leading to'the condenser it of the apparatus.
the boiler insulation besides the boiler and its
The tube It serves as a boiler, and the vapours
. pump also the liquid heat exchanger of the ap
expelled are led through. the conduit 28 ‘to the
paratus in order to reduce, in this manner the 30 condenser. The poor solution ?ows through a
which
losses through radiation. It has, however, proved
extremely diiilcult to realize this proposal in actual
-
'
'
v
'
conduit 30, the outer jacket of the liquid heat
exchanger l3 and the conduit It to theab'sorbe'r
practice, because the liquid heat exchanger must
I5 01’ the apparatus. The liquid circulation pump
of the apparatus is designated by reference nu
bles possibly produced therein can be ‘evacuated 35 meral l2 and is formed of a narrow tube which.
..freely and with certainty. The simplest solu
below, is a continuation of the inner tube of ‘the
tion of this problem has proved to consist in wind- ' heat exchanger l3 and, above, runs ‘into the‘
ing the exchanger in a coil e. g. concentric with
boiler tube ll into which the rich solution is
the ?ue and located immediately below the pump. - thus pumped. This solution is supplied through ,
Especially in the case of gas and oil operation 40 the inner tube of the heat exchanger l3 from
this arrangement of the exchanger is, however,
the absorber vessel l6 of the apparatus. As al
inconvenient owingv to, the di?lculty of disposing
ready stated, the refrigerating apparatus shown
the heat source. According to the present inven
in
1 works with the help of an inert gas,
tion all these di?iculties are, however, eliminated,
which, in a manner known per se, circulates
this being e?ected substantially by extending the 45 through the evaporator of the apparatus, not
boiler downwardly from the liquid pump and ar
shown, as well as its gas heat exchanger designated
ranging the extended part in heat-conducting
by reference numeral 20, a conduit 2|,‘ the ab
contact with the likewise downwardly extended
sorber vessel [6, the absorber IS, the exchanger
?ue. This makes it possible to extend the liquid
20 and ?nally the evaporator. The liquid re
heat exchanger in thev manner indicated above 50 ‘frigerant is supplied to the evaporator from the
and to place the heat-source on a level with the
condenser [8 through a conduit 19 provided witha
be arranged in such a manner that the gas bub
lower edge of the exchanger or on a lower level - I
U-seal.
without any overheating of the downwardly ex
tended ?ue with its attendant ruining- of the ?ue
known per se is, in the embodiment shown, con
Finally, a, pressure vessel 25 of a kind
nected by means of conduits ‘21 and 26 to the cir
‘ material and high increase of the losses through 56 culation system of the gas. Both thecondenser
2,402,414
3
4
side the boiler tube Ii a suitably concentrically
located tube 32 which, below, terminates some
what above the bottom or the boiler and into the
l8 and absorber it may be air-cooled and, if de
sired, provided with cooling ?ns.
Asappears from Fig. 1, the poor solution is car
ried of! from the boiler tube II from a part of
same located substantially higher than the bot
tom of the boiler, a pocket without a bottom out
upper part of which runs the pump tube i2. In a
manner wholly analogous to what has been de
scribed in connection with Fig. 2 a regulated flow
let being thus formed. This liquid pocket is, how
ever, like the remainder of the boiler, in heat
the inner tube downwards and along the boiler
of boilersolution is obtained in this case from
tube H up to the pipe 30 for the poor'solution.
Fig. 4 shows a further embodiment of the
boiler according to the invention. In this boiler
the partition has been replaced by an insert 53
conducting connection with the ?ue l0 and re
ceives from the latter considerable quantities of 10
heat. In the embodiment shown, the heat source
is, in fact, assumed to be located at the lower
mouth of the ?ue ID, the walls of which are thus
comprising a band the width of which corre
dlrectlyheated. The pump i2 is, along a certain
sponds approximately to the inner diameter of
prevent said solution being too vigorously boiled
and considerably increase the temperature and
length, welded to the tube Ill, on a level with or 15 the tube and in which tongues 34 have been
punched and alternately bent at right angles to
somewhat above the level of the out?ow of the
poor solution from the boiler. The connecting > both sides of the band. Inserts of this kind pre
viously used in recti?ers possess, as is well known,
conduits from the exchanger to the boiler or the
the quality of facilitating rectification by, on the
pump, respectively, will thus be very simple and
short, particularly if the liquid heat exchanger 20 one hand, preventing the'intermixture of differ
ent liquid layers and, on the other hand, by ef
is arranged in the shape of a tube coil wound
fecting
an intimate contact betweenthe vapour
around the boiler, inclusive of the pump and ?ue,
and the liquid. The solution will thus flow in
said coil, together with the boiler, being pro
the vertical direction only to a very limited ex
vided with a hood or the like of heat-insulating
tent and for this reason it is not generally suit
material, not shown. 'a
able to let an insert of this type extend down
' It is generally desirable to e?ect a regulated
wards into the pocket of the boiler, as this would
circulation of the solution also in the part of
make the solution in the pocket extremely poor
_ the boiler‘ located below the pump in order to
out, as‘ otherwise its refrigerant concentration 30 the pressure. In the device according to Fig. 4
there does not, however even if the insert termi
' would be too low. In Order to bring about such
nates above the tube 30, ensue any regulated
a circulation it is possible as shown diagrammat
?ow in the pocket, but it has been proved that
the movement of boiler solution is enough for
somewhat above the bottom of the boiler and, 35 preventing an increase of temperature disturb
ing the operation.
above, somewhat above the entry of the pump
The invention may be varied in several ways,
tube into the boiler tube ll. Fig. 5 shows dia
without departing from the spirit of the inven
grammatically a-cross section along the line 5-—5
tion, and is not thus limited to- the examples
‘ of the boiler tube ii in Fig, 2. The partition 3!
shown diagrammatically. Therefore, without
is suitably welded along the inner surface of the
limiting myself in this respect, the invention is
tube by spot welding which may be e?ected elec
de?ned by the appended claims:
'
trically with two electrodes disposed diametri
I claim:
a
cally on the outside of the tube. The partition
1. In an absorption type refrigerating system,
, is so disposed that the relatively rich solution
an upright heating ?ue, and a circuit for ab
raised by the pump is supplied to the tube half
sorption liquid including a generator vessel hav
located nearest to the ?ue where the boiling of
ing a wall in heat transfer relation with said
the solutioncontinues, its concentration gradu
?ue, an absorber, and a heat operated vapor lift
ally decreasing. By. the raised liquid. the liquid
conduit separate from and outside of said gen
column in said boiler half is continually pressed
ically in Fig. 2, to insert a partition 3! into the
boiler tube Ii, said partition terminating below
downward, passing at the bottom to the boiler . half located on the left in the upward direc
tion and beingsupplied to the absorber through
the conduit an and the heat exchanger it. In
the part of the left half of the boiler'located
above the pipe 30. for the poor solution a boiling
out also takes place, partly owing to direct heat
transfer through the partition 3i and by way of
the jacket wall‘of the‘tube from the ‘hue, partly
generally also through the rising vapour.’ The
solution in the upper part of the left boiler half 00
is, in fact, generally richer ‘than any other so- "
lution in the-boiler, this being due tothe fact
.
erator and having a heat receiving and vapor
forming part which is in heat transfer relation
with said ?ue and arranged in said circuit to
receive liquid from said absorber and deliver liq
uid to said generator, the heat transfer relation -
between said generator and ?ue being at least
in part at an elevation below that of said pert oi’
said vapor lift conduit.
2. In an absorption type refrigerating system.
an upright heating ?ue, and a circuitnfor absorp
tion liquid including a generator vessel having a
wall in heat transfer relation with said ?ue, an
' ‘ absorber, a heat operated vapor lift conduit sep
‘that the condensate precipitated in the vapour
arate from and outside of‘ said generator and
tube 28 and arecti?er arranged; if desired, be
hind said tube ?ows down along the bottom of’
. which is in heat transfer relation with said- ?ue
‘ the vapour tube into the left‘ boiler hali‘.
It is '
having a heat receiving and vapor forming part
and arranaed‘in said circuit to receive liquid from
said absorber and deliver ‘ liquid to said genera
a regulated flow-through the pocket of the boiler ' ton-the heat transfer relation between said ‘gen
‘,butalso a certain‘ rectification of vthe boiler va-_ . erator and ?ue being at least in part at an ele
- , .pours,the vapours‘ expelled from the lower parts .70 vation below that of said Part of said vapor lift
conduit,_a_nd a conduit for conducting to said ab
‘of the boilerand relatively : rich in-;_absorption,
medium being forced to pass through liquid lay; ' sorber liquid from said generator, said last con
_' duit communicating with' said generator so that
ers having a higher concentration.
Instead of a simple partition it is possible, as ' the lowerpart'of said separator. forms a liquid
shown diagrammatically in Fig, 3, to arrange in 76 pocket below the conduit.
_ thus vevident that the partition not only effects
2,402,414. .
6
5
and.- said generator is provided internally with
a tubular partition wall dividing the generator
3. A system as set forth in claim 2 in which
said generator is provided internally with ba?ie
structure for directing movement of ?uid therein..
into chambers communicating at their upper and
' 4. A system as set forth in claim 2 in which
lower ends.
said generator is provided internally with wall
structure for directing ?ow of liquid therein in a
path running through said pocket.
.
11. A system'as set forth in claim 1 in which
said generator is provided internally with a par
tition dividing the generator into chambers com-'
municating at their upper and lower ends.
_12. An absorption type refrigeration system em
5. A system as set forth in claim 1 in which
said generator is provided internally with baiile
structure to direct movement of ?uid'therein. -10 ploying inert gas and having a generator with
an outlet a substantial distance above the bot
6. A system as set forth in claim 1 in which
tom thereof, said outlet forming a pocket in the
generator therebelow holding a body of liquid
out of circulation in the system, and a heating
in downward in one part of the generator and
15 ?ue arranged in heat conductive relation with
upward in another part of the generator.
one side of the generator vessel to cause local
7. A system as set forth in claim 2 in which
circulation of the pocketed body of liquid; I
said generator is a tube secured in thermal con
13. An absorption‘ type refrigeration system em
tact to said ?ue and closed at its lower end.
said generator is provided internally with'wall
structure arranged to cause ?ow of vliquid there- >
ploying inert gas and having a vessel with an
8. A system as set forth in claim 2 in which
said circuit for absorption liquid also includes a 20 outlet a substantial distance above the bottom
thereof, said outlet forming a pocket in the V65
heat exchanger in the form of a tube coil located
sel therebelow holding a body of liquid out of
around the liquid pocket part of said generator.
circulation in the system, and a heating conduit
9. A system as set forth in claim 2 inwhich
arranged in heat conductive relation with onev
said generator is provided internally with baf?e
structure in the upper part thereof to form a rec- 35
tifying column.
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'
.
10. A system as set forth in claim 2 in which
said generator is a tube closed at its lower end,
_
v vessel to cause local circulation of the
side of the
pocketed body of liquid.
GEORG KOGEL.
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